Pinn TaLae king, Emperor YoneHle, Pyay king and the Kokangs

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The first Kokang I met is Wendy, although I did not know at the time that she is a Kokang, and also do not know her personally. I saw her while I was attending the 1st M.B. and there were students of the Institute of Dental Medicine and the Institute of Veterinary Sciences attending the same courses with us at the LeikKhone Institute of Medicine 1 Rangoon. There were about 50 dental students to a batch, of which only 10 were female. Wendy was always seen together with Ada in the corridors. The 2 of them were inseparable and noticeable as they were famous. My friend and former neighbor Zaw Tun Maung who also attended the Dental became Ada’s fiancée and this helped us notice Ada and Wendy more. Her full name is Wendy Yang and it was only much later that I came to know that she is a Kokang and of the ruling family.

The second Kokang I met is the brother of my former boss when I went for an interview for my job with the Nansi Bum jade mines. One day in 1993, ko Aung Htay, my former workmate at the BHP-Petroleum (now working with TOTAL) and younger brother of my classmate friend ko Zaw Win contacted me. He had returned from the Nansi Bum jade mines and asked me whether I would like to work there. I was practicing in a clinic in Yangon and decided to give it a try and when I called him back, he said he would arrange for me to meet his brother’s classmate and friend Dr. Thida Thein Shwe, as it was through her that he got the job (although he worked with me and my elder brother ko Khine Soe at the BHP-Petroleum in 1992, and he knew that ko Khine Soe was classmates with his elder brother ko Zaw Win, he did not know that I was also in the same class with them). I told him that I know Thida Thein Shwe personally and that I would contact her myself.

Thida Thein Shwe is the family doctor of the family that run the jade mines and they had asked her to find a doctor for their Nansi Bum jade mines  and she got into contact with ko Aung Htay through our common friend ko Zaw Win. Ma Thida arranged for me to meet the brother of the boss of the Nansi Bum jade mines. The boss / LaoPann / ThaHtay ko Win Naing was not in Yangon at the time and I met his brother who was taking care of their family business.

It was only after I was in the Nansi Bum jade mines that I learned from the boss / LaoPann / ThaHtay ko Win Naing, his manager ko Maung Maung, several supervisors, medic Kyant Kyi Shinn and about half of the crew who are Kokangs that I learned about the Kokangs.

The Kokangs who are ethnic Chinese were originally not from their Kokang region. They were from Nanking and came to settle there after they accompanied their deposed emperor into Myanmar. The emperor had to escape to Ava when he lost against the Manchus and later, when the new Chinese / Manchu emperor demanded him from the Myanmar king, he was handed over to the Chinese / Manchu. The deposed emperor was killed when they got back to Yunnan and his entourage returned back, away from the reach of Chinese authorities and settled in the uninhabited no man’s land between the Chinese kingdom and the Myanmar. Their dialect is closer with Mandarin and different from the Yunan dialect. The area where they live came under the British and within Myanmar when we got independence. The Kokangs live there as an enclave with few living elsewhere until recently. That is why Kokangs are the only Chinese who are classified as Myanmar nationals. They are separate from the Yunans and do not live inside China. They had their representative in the Hluttaw in the Parlimentary period.

Later, I read from the Glass Palace Chronicle မွန္နန္းရာဇဝင္ and the Myanmar Yarzawin ျမန္မာရာဇဝင္ by U Ba Than about the episode in our history regarding the deposed Chinese emperor that sought refuge in Ava. It is like this:

In 1011 ME / 1649 AD, Chinese emperor YoneHle ရုံလွီ demanded tribute from the Myanmar territories of MaingSao မိုင္းေမာ, SiKhwin စည္ခြင္, Theinni , KaingDar ကိုင္းတာ, KyaingTone က်ိဳင္းတုံ, KyaingYone က်ိဳင္းရုံး.

The earlier Chinese emperor had 2 sons. The elder son was the son-in-law of the TaYet တရက္ / Manchu king and after their emperor father passed away, became emperor. After his death the younger brother YoneHle ရုံလွီ proclaimed himself emperor at NannKyein / Nanking with the support of the southern general AnThiWint အံသီဝင့္, eastern general KoneHsinWint ကုံဆင္ဝင့္, AhTainLaw ShweWint အံသိန္ေလာ ေရႊဝင့္.

The former empress and the 7 year old son of the former emperor went to TaYet တရက္ with the western and northern generals. With the support of the TaYet တရက္ king, the 7 year old became emperor at PoKyein ပိုၾကိန္. As their strength is overpowering, YoneHle ရုံလွီ could not stay in NannKyein / Nanking and moved to MaingHse မိုင္းဆည္ and collected tribute from there.

PinnTaLae Minnr ပင္းတလဲ မင္း 1010 – 1023 ME / 1648 – 1661 AD sent 2 armies commanded by MinYeThihaRitz မင္းရဲ သီဟရာဇ္ (son of Mahar UPaRazar မဟာဥပရာဇာ / crown prince) and RazaThinKha ရာဇ သခၤ to Theinni on the 19th waxing moon day of Pyartho ျပာသို 1022 ME / Dec 1660-Jan 1661 and 2 armies led by younger brother AhMyint Min အျမင့္မင္း /king MinYeKyawKhaung ့္မင္းရဲေက်ာ္ေခါင္ and BaNyarKyanTaw ဗညားက်န္းေတာ to MaingMao မိုင္းေမာ on the full moon day of TaBoTwe တပို႕တြဲ / Jan-Feb. Another ZaeYaThinYan ေဇရသင္ရံ  army was also sent to MaingMao မိုင္းေမာ 9 days later. The Chinese withdrew without a fight. The king called back the armies after consolidating the MaingMao SiKhwin မိုင္းေမာ စည္ခြင္ area.

In ??1013 ME / 1651 2nd waning moon day of ThatinKyut သီတင္းကြၽတ္ / October, 3 armies led by younger brother SiPoteTaYar Minn စည္ပုတၱရာမင္း / king ThaKhin NayMyoYeKyaw သခင္ ေနမ်ိဳးရဲေက်ာ္, younger brother ThaKhin NayMyoDutta သခင္ ေနမ်ိဳး ဒတၱ, prince MinYeNaYar မင္းရဲနရာ marched to KyaingYone က်ိဳင္းရုံး.to meet the Chinese army. 2 armies led by TaingTarrMin တိုင္းတာမင္း and MinNandaMeik မင္းနႏၵမိတ္ followed on 2nd waning moon day of ThaSaungMone တန္ေဆာင္မုန္း. They met the Chinese at MaingLyin မိုင္းလ်င္on their way and there were clashes but had to withdraw. The younger brother was called back from the march to KyaingYone က်ိဳင္းရုံး.because of bad situation.  On the return the younger brother SiPoteTaYar Minn စည္ပုတၱရာမင္း / king ThaKhin NayMyoYeKyaw သခင္ ေနမ်ိဳးရဲေက်ာ္  died. One third of the forces also died from illness.

The TaYet တရက္ / Manchus attacked YoneHle ရုံလွီ at MaingHse မိုင္းဆည္. YoneHle lost and withdrew to MaingMyee မိုင္းမ်ည္း while AnThiWin အံသီဝင္ and ThayThwayWin ေသေသြဝင္ stayed as rear guard. While at MaingMyee မိုင္းမ်ည္း YoneHle ရုံလွီ sent message that if permitted to stay in Bhamo ဗန္းေမာ္, he will give 200 viss of gold to the Burmese king. When the Bhamo ဗန္းေမာ္ SaoPha / Saw Bwar ေစာ္ဘြား replied that he dare not pass on the message, the envoys returned.

Another message was sent that YoneHle ရုံလွီ will surrender to the Burmese king and the Bhamo ဗန္းေမာ္ SaoPha / Saw Bwar ေစာ္ဘြား relayed it. The king ordered to bring YoneHle ရုံလွီ safely if hesurrendered arms. YoneHle ရုံလွီ sent his 2 generals to Theinni သိနီၷ MoHne မိုးႏွဲ NyaungShwe ေညာင္ေရႊ and went to Bhamo ဗန္းေမာ္ himself with over 60 အမတ္ ministers / courtiers, over 600 horses and about 700 followers and surrendered. YoneHle ရုံလွီ was taken down on a raft / phaung ေဖာင္ while the horses were taken along the west route. YoneHle ရုံလွီ was first allowed to stay at NgaSintKaing ငစဥ့္ကိုင္ and later at Sagaing HsinMyarrShin စကိုင္းဆင္မ်ားရွင္. When news came that KoneHsinWin ကုံဆင္ဝင္ was destroying the border areas, 2 armies led by RazaKeitTi and ZeyaBaYa ေဇယဘယwere sent on 1021 ME / 1661 AD 8th waxing moon day of Tagu တန္ခူး. They met the Chinese army at WetWun ဝက္ဝံand when the Chinese army attacked suddenly, the armies were in disarray after much loses.

On the 12th waxing moon day of Tagu, 3 armies led by MinYeNaRa မင္းရဲနရ, MyayHte MinGyi ေျမထဲမင္းၾကီး and Myawaddy MinGyi ျမဝတီမင္းၾကီး marched and while preparing to stockgate at YayLaung WetWun ေရေလာင္း ဝက္ဝံ the Chinese army arrived and attacked. There were many loses and the armies had to retreat across the MyitNge ျမစ္ငယ္ river. Many drowned from the weight of armour and MyayHte Min ေျမထဲမင္း also died. The Chinese crossed to the south of MyitNge ျမစ္ငယ္ and again crossed the PannLaung ပန္းေလာင္ river at PaLeik SheinKyaw TaPhetHswe ပလိပ္ရွိန္ေက်ာ္ တဖက္ဆဲြ and reached TaTarOo တံတားဦး. There were no strong defence fortifications at the Naypyitaw ေနျပည္ေတာ္ Ava အင္းဝ. Only a defence along the river from ShanZay ရွမ္းေစ်း, Palu ေတာင္ပလူ, north LayHtatKyaung ေျမာက္ေလးထပ္ေက်ာင္း, besides Maha Muni မဟာမုနိ, TawKyaung ေတာေက်ာင္း, HsinKyone ဆင္က်ဳံး.

The Chinese army attacked the south Palu ေတာင္ပလူ fort but as the defence was good, they attacked the MoeBye မိုးျဗဲ army south of PyatThat monastery. The MoeBye မိုးျဗဲ army fort was breached on the 8th waxing day of Kasone ကဆုန္ / May. The Chinese killed the people, captured the women and took gold and looted. Thiri Zeya KyawHtin သီရိေဇရေက်ာ္ထင္, SanKyaung abbot စံေက်ာင္းဆရာေတာ္ and the fortune telling ေဗဒင္ monk (this monk had foretold 12 years earlier that the Chinese would reach Ava) died. The monasteries were burned and the monks had to flee.

The MoMe မိုးမဲ army fell on the 9th waxing day of Kasone ကဆုန္ / May and the Chinese reached Ava အင္းဝ Inwa on the 11th waxing day of Kasone. The Chinese suffered heavy loses from the firings from the top of the Ava wall and had to withdraw to NgarHsu ငါးဆူ. After the fall of a Chinese general from the canon fire they withdrew from NgarHsu ငါးဆူ to TaTarOo တံတားဦး and after a few days went to MoeNae မိုးနဲ.

When general KoneHsinWin ကုံဆင္ဝင္ reached MoeNae မိုးနဲ AnThiWin အံသီဝင္ and ThayThwayWin ေသေသြဝင္ arrived. The news of another attack planned by AnThiWin အံသီဝင္ and ThayThwayWin ေသေသြဝင္ reached Ava and a defence was prepared from WoneBe Inn ဝမ္းဗယ္အင္း, Taung Palu ေတာင္ပလူ southwest TawKyaung ေတာေက်ာင္း, HsinKyone ဆင္က်ဳံး. in Thadingyut သီတင္းကြၽတ္ October.

Due to the disturbances from the Chinese, there was much hunger among the population and PinnTaLae Minn ပင္းတလဲ မင္း, instead of helping them sold rice to them. The courtiers agreed between themselves and called on the younger brother Pyay king ျပည္မင္း to take over the kingdom.  Pyay king ျပည္မင္း deposed the PinnTaLae Minn ပင္းတလဲ မင္း and took the throne in 1023 ME / 1661.

During the reign of Pyay king ျပည္မင္း, the Chinese were attacked and with heavy loses, the Chinese withdrew. YoneHle ရုံလွီ was called to the HtuParYone ထူပါရုံ pagoda to be given the oath taking ceremony, the MaingHse မိုင္းဆည္ governor thought he would be killed and tried to wrest sword from a soldier and the Chinese attacked the soldiers. This resulted in deaths of many Chinese.

The Manchus came in force and asked for YoneHle ရုံလွီ that year. As the army was exhausted YoneHle ရုံလွီ and his children and grandchildren were handed over. YoneHle ရုံလွီ was taken back and in  was taken back and when they got back to YunanFu, YoneHle ရုံလွီ was killed with a noose on his neck.

The following are the articles about the Kokang that are available on the web:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Yang Dynasty

ကိုးကန္႕တို႕၏ သမိုင္းေၾကာင္းအက်ဥ္း

Kokang of Shan State : A Timeline

Kokang and Kachin in the Shan State (1945-1960): A book dripping with gems Saturday, 24 October 2009 13:20 S.H.A.N.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the geographical location. For the ethnic group, see Kokang people.

Location of the Kokang region (green) within Shan State (yellow).

Kokang (Burmese: ကိုးကန့်; Chinese: 果敢; Pinyin: Guǒgǎn), formally the First Special Region, is a self-administrative region of Burma (also known as Myanmar). It is located in the northern part of Shan State, with the Salween River to its west, and it shares a border with China‘s Yunnan Province in the east. Its total land area is around 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi).[1] The capital is Laukkai (Chinese: 老街; Pinyin: Lǎojiē). Kokang is mostly populated by Kokang people, a Han Chinese group living in Burma.

Historically, Kokang was Burma’s feudal state (Chinese: 土司 pinyin: tǔsī) for Burmese Chinese. It was founded by the Yang Clan, a Chinese military house that fled with the Ming loyalists to Yunnan Province in the mid-17th century and later migrated to the Shan State in eastern Burma. From the 1960s to 1989 the area was ruled by the Communist Party of Burma, and after the dissolution of that party in 1989 it became a special region of Burma.

NW Comment:

I observed from the Chinese tv series that the Yang clan always served the Chinese emperors as part of the army and also as important generals. It was the Yang Ming general who accompanied the deposed emperor that settled in the area. Only then did I realize that Wendy, whose full name is Wendy Yang and related to the famous Tommy Yang is of the Yang military clan.


The state was officially founded by Yang Shien Tsai (杨献才); who began his reign in 1739 in and around Ta Shwe Htan, then called Shin Da Hu (兴达户), and took the title “Chief of Shin Da Hu”. He was succeeded on his death in 1758 by his son Yang Wei Shin (杨维兴), later referred to as Chief of Kho Kan Shan (科干山).

He expanded his territory tenfold compared to that inherited from his predecessor. After his death in 1795, his son Yang Yon Gen (杨有根) became the chief. He soon renamed the state as Kokang and titled himself Heng of Kokang.

In 1840, Yang Guohua (楊國華) was given the title “the Heriditable Magistrate of Guogan County (世襲果敢縣令)” by the Chinese Qing dynasty.

The Heng was succeeded after his death in 1874 by his younger brother Yang Guo Zhen (杨国正), who ruled peacefully and began relations with Britain upon the annexation of Upper Burma. In 1916 he went blind, and abdicated in favour of his nephew Yang Chun Yon (杨春荣). The new ruler then took the Burmese title Myosa (lit. town eat, given to a prince). He died in 1927 and was succeeded by his son Colonel Sao Yang Wen Pin (杨文炳), Saopha of Kokang.

For the services of Kokang during World War II, it was recognised as separate from Shan State in August 1947 by the British, and the ruler took the title Saopha. He died in 1949 and was succeeded by his son Sao Edward Yang Kyein Tsai who was deposed by the Burmese in 1959.

After the collapse of the Communist Party of Burma in 1989, Kokang was assigned as the autonomous First Special Region of the northern Shan State of Burma.



Kokang was the only Chinese state within Burma. The state owes its origins to the Yang family, who migrated with their followers into Yunan with other Ming loyalists during the second half of the seventeenth century. Being men of military background, they protected the local people and freed the area of bandits. Later they extended their control by fortuitous marriage connections and by waging war on their Shan neighbours. After the defeat of King Thibaw and the annexation of Upper Burma in 1885, attempts were made to settle the border with China. After exhaustive deliberations, this was accomplished in 1897 and Kokang transferred to British sovereignty. The area became a district within the state of Hsenwi North, but remained, in effect, an autonomous sub-state under the Yang Heng.
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The Japanese conquest of Burma in 1941 did not initially extend into Kokang. Being close to the Chinese border, the area continued under allied control during most of WW2. The Heng and his family supported the allied cause vigorously throughout the War, suffering many hardships not only at Japanese hands but also from the Chinese Kuomintang “allies”. Largely in recognition of these services, Kokang came to be recognised as a separate Shan state in August 1947, just six months before independence. Thereafter the ruler assumed the Shan title of Saopha (celestial prince).
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The state became part of the Union of Burma, and a constituent part of Shan State, at independence in 1948. Several members of the Yang family entered Parliament and served with distinction in several branches of government service. The state experienced considerable unrest after 1949 after the invasion of the border areas by elements of the defeated Kuomintang armies. It took four years before they were disarmed or expelled. When the other Shan rulers decided to surrender political power to an elected Shan administration in 1959, the Saopha of Kokang abdicated his rights to his people directly. However, within four years the coup d’etat by General Ne Win brought further unrest and instability. The increasing repression of the central military government forced local people into rebellion. The Kokang Revolutionary Force came into being and commenced guerilla operations against the Burmese army. These have continued in various forms, ever since. In common with the ruling families of several other Shan states, members of the Yang family have also been very actively involved in the anti-government organisations, the guerilla forces, and the pro-democracy movement.
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The ruling prince: Sao Yang (personal name), Saopha of Kokang.
The principal consort of the ruling prince, Mahadevi.
The Heir Apparent: Ying Kwan.
The principal consort of the Heir Apparent: Ying Tai.
The other sons and daughters of the ruling prince: none.
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Male primogeniture.

Copyright© Christopher Buyers Copyright© Christopher Buyers
Chiefs and Leading Families of the Shan States and Karenni, Second Edition. Government of Burma, Rangoon, 1919.
Jackie Yang Li, The House of Yang, guardians of an unknown frontier. Bookpress, Sydney, Australia, 1997.

Professor Sai Kham Mong, Kokang and Kachin, in the Shan State (1945-1960). Institute of Asian Studies, Bangkok, 2005.

Mie Mie Akerstrom.

Faith Yang-Wolf.

Copyright©  Christopher Buyers

The Yang Dynasty


Yang Gao Sho. b. at Nanking, China, 1622, from a military family in Liu Shui Wan, Da Shi Ban Chau. A succesful wu ju ren and military officer, he followed the last Ming Emperor into Yunnan in Southern China, after the advent of the Manchus. Settled in Shunling, 1657. m. at Dali, 1658, a daughter of a Tea merchant. He d. at Shunling, 1697, having had issue:

  • 1) Yang Zhen.
  • 2) Yang Ying b. 1662. Emigrated from Shunling due to the Manchu persecution of Ming loyalists. Settled at Hung Shito Ho, in Kho Kan Shan (Kokang). m. at Shunling, China, 1682, a daughter of Yang Shu. He d. 1726 (bur. Ho Shao Kyai), having had issue:
    • a) Yang Fu Tsai (Cai).
    • b) Yang Shien Tsai (Cai), Chief of Shin Da Hu – see below.
    • c) Yang Gao Tsai (Cai).

Copyright© Christopher Buyers

1739 – 1758 Yang Shien Tsai (Cai), Chief of Shin Da Hu. b. at Shunling, 1685, son of Yang Ying, by his wife, a daughter of Yang Shu, educ. privately. Settled at Shin Da Hu (now Ta Shwe Htan). Established his rule over the surrounding area in 1739, after ridding the local people from badits. Introduced the first principles of law and government in the area. Established his capital at Kya Tzi Shu (Satishu) He d. at the Yamen, at Kya Tzi Shu, 1758 (bur. Lao Han-Ai), having had issue five sons:

  • 1) Yang Wei Shin [Xing], 2nd Chief of Kho Kan Shan. – see below.
  • 2) Yang Wei Ren.
  • 3) Yang Wei Hsin.
  • 4) Yang Wei Xin.
  • 5) Yang Wei Lin.

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1758 – 1795 Yang Wei Shin [Xing], Chief of Kho Kan Shan, eldest son of Yang Shien Tsai (Cai), Chief of Shin Da Hu, educ. privatey. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1758. Expanded his domains tenfold, from those he inherited from his father. He d.1795 (bur. Lao Han-Ai), having had issue, two sons:

  • 1) Yang Yon Gen, Heng of Kokang – see below.
  • 2) Yang Yang Yon Phan. Conquered and annexed Kyin Ju Ling, together with his nephew, in 1804.

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1795 – 1840 Yang Yon Gen, Heng of Kokang. b. 1770, elder son of Yang Wei Shin [Xing], Chief of Kho Kan Shan, educ. privately. Cdr. of the militia during his father’s reign. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1795. Changed the name of his territory to Kokang and assumed the title of Heng. He d. 1840, having had issue:

  • 1) Yang Guo Hwa, Heng of Kokang – see below.
  • 2) Yang Guo Chang.
  • 3) Yang Guo Mon.
  • 4) Yang Yang Guo Mei.
  • 5) Yang Guo Fan.
  • 6) Yang Guo Zhen [Hkun Lu Kwan], Heng of Kokang – see below.

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1840 – 1874 Yang Guo Hwa, Heng of Kokang. b. 1814, eldest son of Yang Yon Gen, Heng of Kokang, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1840. He d. at Kya Tzi Shu, Kokang, 1874, having had issue, an only son:

  • 1) Yang Chun Yon [Rong], Heng of Kokang – see below.

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1874 – 1916 Yang Guo Zhen [Hkun Lu Kwan], Heng of Kokang, ATM (22.6.1897). b. 1840, youngest son of Yang Yon Gen, Heng of Kokang, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1874. Came under British protection after China relinquished any jurisdiction over Kokang, 4th February 1897. Became blind and resigned in favour of his nephew, 1916. Rcvd: Delhi Durbar medals (1903 and 1911). m. (first) … m. (second) Lui Shi Siao Pin. He d. at Kya Tzi Shu, Kokang, 1919, having had issue, ten sons:

  • 1) Yang Chuan Da. He d. 1922, having had issue:
    • a) Yang Wen Huan, of Mon Hon.
  • 2) Yang Chuan …
  • 3) Yang Chuan Yong. He d. young, in the small-pox epidemic of 1879.
  • 4) Yang Chuan …
  • 5) Yang Chuan …
  • 6) Yang Chuan …
  • 7) Yang Chuan …
  • 8) Yang Chuan Pei alias Par Lao Yeh. Exiled to Kutkai for intriguing against Sao Yang Wen Pin.
  • 9) Yang Chuan Kyin alias Khun Gui Lao Yeh. b. 1894 (s/o Lui Shi Siao Pin). Exiled to Kutkai by his cousin. He d. at Lashio, 1978.
  • 10) Yang Chuan Pin (s/o Lui Shi Siao Pin).

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1916 – 1927 Yang Chun Yon alias Yang Shwin Yong Tzu Ye [Cha-Tan-Shu] [Lao Lai], Myosa of Kokang, TDM (1.1.1921). b. at Kya Tzi Shu, Kokang, 1878, only son of Yang Guo Hwa, Heng of Kokang, educ. privately. Assisted his uncle in the administration of the state before his accession. Succeeded on his resignation, in accordance with the agreement with his father, 1916. Raised to the hereditary title of Myosa. m. several wives. He d. at the Yamen, Kya Diling, Kokang, 17th January 1927, having had issue, four sons and seven daughters:

  • 1) Yang Wen Pin, Myosa of Kokang – see below.
  • 2) Yang Wen Tsan [Can]. b. 1904. Cdr Kokang Self Defence Force 1942-1943, Acting Myosa during the absence of his brother in India1943-1945. m. three times, including a lady from Malipa. He d. 1997, having had issue, one son and one daughter by his first, three sons and two daughters by his second, and one son and seven daughters by his third wife, including:
    • a) Yang Kyein Shein. b. 1923, educ. Tali Military Sch, China.
    • b) Yang Kyein Yui. b. 1931, educ. Tsu Shong Middle Sch.
    • c) Colonel Yang Kyein Gyi. b. 1937, educ. Guardian Angel’s Convent, Lashio. Joined Kokang Revolutionary Force 1964, later Col and cdr at Tan Wo. He was k. in action against the Burmese army, 1979.
  • 3) Yang Wen Ying. He d. aged three years. Copyright© Christopher Buyers
  • 4) Yang Wen Shon [Xian] [Charlie Yang]. b. 1920, educ. Shan Chief’s Sch., Taungyyi. m. Yang Sung Kying (b. 1920; d. 2006) of Pao Shan. He d. 1999.
  • 1) A daughter. m. …
  • 2) A daughter. m. …
  • 3) A daughter. m. Peng Lao Yeh.
  • 4) A daughter. m. the second son of the Myosa of Mongwun.
  • 5) A daughter. m. Kambawasa Sri Mahavamsa Dharmaraja Sao Shwe , Saopha of Mongpan (b. February 1921), eldest son of Kambawasa Sri Mahavamsa Dharmaraja Sao Hkun On, Saopha of Mongpan, KSM, by his first wife, Sao Nang Yon, Mahadevi. She had issue – see Burma (Mongpan).
  • 6) A daughter. m. second son of Kambawasa Sri Mahavamsa Dharmaraja Sao Hkun On, Saopha of Mongpan, KSM. She had issue – see Burma (Mongpan).

Copyright© Christopher Buyers

1927 – 1949 Colonel Sao Yang Wen Pin, Saopha of Kokang, OBE (c. 1.1.1946), TDM (1.1.1936). b. 1897, eldest son of Yang Shwin Yong Tzu Ye [Cha-Tan-Shu] [Lao Lai], Myosa of Kokang, TDM, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father as Myosa of Kokang, 17th January 1927. Installed at Kokang, 1929. Served in WW2 behind enemy lines 1941-1943 (rcvd: MID), deposed, arrested and imprisoned by the Kuomintang 1943-1944, later released and taken to India, where he worked with the Burmese government in exile 1944-1945. Returned to Kokang and resumed direct rule, October 1945. The State of Kokang was recognised as independent of Hsenwi North, 12th August 1947, thereafter assumed the hereditary title of Saopha, 25th August 1947. Col Kokang Self Defence Force 1942. Hon Col Chinese Army. Rcvd: Silver Jubilee medal (1935), Coron medal (1937), MID, 39/45 and Burma stars, British War and Defence (1945) medals, etc. m. (first) Chiang Chu Min, the Myosa Kadaw (b. at Zhenkhan, and m. the Myosa when she was aged fourteen). m. (second) Chiang Pi Ju. He d. 1949, having had issue, nine sons and six daughters:

  • 1) Yang Kyein Yuan (s/o Chiang Chu Min), educ. Anglo-Vernacular Sch., Lashio. He d. young from food poisoning, at Laisho, 1930.
  • 2) Yang Kyein Sai [Edward Yang], Saopha of Kokang – see below.
  • 3) Yang Kyein Sein [Jimmy Yang]. b. at Kya Tzi Shu, Kokang, 14th April 1922 (s/o Chiang Pi Ju), educ. Anglo-Vernacular Sch, Lashio, Shan Chief’s Sch, Taungyyi, Rangoon Univ, and Chiaotung Univ, Chungking, China. Cmsnd. Capt. Chinese Army 1943, served in WW2 at HQ Supreme Army cmnd 1945-1946, COS Kokang Defence Force 1946-1948, Chief Minister of Kokang 1948-1950, Attaché and Foreign Service Officer Union of Burma govt service 1950-1951, Union MP (Kokang) 1952-1962, Chair East Burma Bank Ltd, Mbr Opium Cmsn, founder of the Kokang Revolutionary Force in 1964, Mbr Shan State War Council 1966, Cdr Eastern Cmnd Burmese Resistance Force 1968, Mgr Rincome Hotel, Chiengmai, Thailand 1969-1971, an exile in France 1971-1980, returned to Burma under an amnesty in 1980. m. 1946, Chou Guo Fan [Jean Yang] (b. Kunming, China). He d. at Rangoon, 1985, having had issue, two sons and one daughter:
    • a) Yang Kya Gui [John Yang]. b. 1950, educ. English Methodist High Sch, Rangoon, and the New York Sch of Design, Parsons, New York, USA. Designer with Calvin Klein, Chief Designer for Jack Mulqueen, and MD John Yang Design.
    • b) Yang Kya Wa [David Yang]. b. 1952, educ. English Methodist High Sch, Rangoon.
    • a) Yang Nern Chan [Veda Yang], educ. English Methodist High Sch, Rangoon.
  • 4) Yang Kyein Hsiang b. 1925. He was k. at Fu Guo Yin, 1st October 1942.
  • 5) Yang Kyein Hui [Ah’vu]. b. 1931. m. 1949, Chiang Su Fang (b. at Mongpan), daughter of Kambawasa Sri Mahavamsa Dharmaraja Sao Shwe Kyi, Saopha of Mongpan, by his wife, a daughter of Yang Chun Yon, Myosa of Kokang, TDM. He d. 2003, having had issue, a son:
    • a) Yang Kya … b. 1953.
  • 6) Yang Kyein Shuen [Ah’pao] [Francis Yang]. b. at Kya Di Ling, Kokang, 1937, educ. Guardian Angels Convent, Lashio, St Albert’s High Sch, Maymyo, and Rangoon Univ. Anaesthetist in Manchester since 1979. m. 1969, Sao Lao Kham [Maggie].
  • 7) Yang Kyein Lei [Ah’shi] [Kenneth Yang]. b. 1940, educ. Rangoon Univ. Mathematician. He d. 1981.
  • 8) Yang Kyin … Copyright© Christopher Buyers
  • 9) Yang Kyin …
  • 1) Yang Kyin Mei. b. 1923. m. at Kokang, 1947, Hsin Shiu Tang Man. She d. 1995, having had issue, six sons and two daughters, including:
    • a) Francisca Mie Mie Åkerström, educ. Guardian Angels Convent, Lashio, and the Arts and Science Univ, Rangoon (B.Sc.), and Univ of Örebro, Sweden. m. (first) (div.) … Åkerström, a Swedish national. m. (second) Dr. Folke Johansson, MD, educ. Göteborg Univ, chief of clinic in Göteborg. She had issue, one son and two daughters by her first husband:
      • i) Erik Åkerström.
      • i) Helen Åkerström.
      • ii) Louise Åkerström.
  • 2) Yang Lyin Hsui [Olive Yang]. b. 1927, educ. Guardian Angel’s Conv., Lashio. Took control of Kokang in 1960. Imprisoned by the Burmese authorities at Mandalay 1952-1957 and Insein 1962-1968. m. 1948 (div. 1950) Twan Sao Wen, son of a Tamuying Chief. She had issue one son:
    • a) Jipu. b. 1950.
  • 3) Yang Kyin …She d. young.
  • 4) Yang Kyin Pin [Jane]. b. 1939 (d/o Chiang Chu Min). m. 1959, U Thin Pen. She had issue, one son and one daughter.
  • 5) Yang Kyin Mun [Judy]. b. 1942. m. 1963, U Win Kyi. She had issue, one son and one daughter.
  • 6) Yang Kyin …

Copyright© Christopher Buyers

1949 – 1959 Sao Edward Yang Kyein Sai, Saopha of Kokang. b. at the Yamen, Kya Diling, Kokang, 1918, second and eldest surviving son of Colonel Sao Yang Wen Pin, Saopha of Kokang, OBE, TDM, educ. Anglo-Vernacular Sch, Lashio, Shan Chief’s Sch, Taungyyi, and Rangoon Univ. Appointed as Heir Apparent with the title of Ying Kwan, 1941. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1949. MHR Parliament of the Union of Burma 1947-1948, Minister for Finance of Shan State 1948, Mbr Union of Burma Chamber of Nationalities (Upper House) 1948-1950, Mbr Union of Burma Chamber of Deputies 1950, Burmese Delegate to the UN General Assembly in New York, 1950. Refused to surrender his powers to the Shan State and abdicated in favour of the people of Kokang instead, 17th May 1959. Retired to Lashio. Confined under house arrest by the military government of Burma 1963-1971. m. at Chanling, Yunan, 1941, Lu Shwin Kyin, Mahadevi (b. 1925; d. at Mayangon, Rangoon, 25th October 2007, bur. there at the Yayway Cemetery), styled Ying Tai 1941-1949, fifth daughter of Lu Shao Shin, sometime Sec of the Finance Ministry, Yunan Province, China, by his wife, Chang Ou Shin. He d. from cancer, at Lashio, 1971, having had issue, two sons and six daughters:

  • 1) Yang Kya Ying [Oscar Yang]. unm.
  • 2) Yang Kya Min [Ernest Yang]. Copyright© Christopher Buyers
  • 1) Yang Li [Jackie Yang Rettie]. b. at Kokang, 1946, educ. St John’s Convent High Sch, and the Arts & Science Univ, Rangoon (MA), and the Australian National Univ (ANU), Canberra, ACT, Australia. Mbr Burmese Pro-Democracy Movement. Author of “The House of Yang, guardians of an unknown frontier” (1997). m. David Rettie, and Australian citizen employed with UNO. She has issue, one son and one daughter:
    • a) Lee Yang Rettie.
    • a) Meiling Rettie.
  • 2) Yang Mon Shon [Laura Yang]. m. Tom Hsin, son of Hsin Shiu Tang Man, by his wife, Yang Kyin Mei, daughter of Colonel Sao Yang Wen Pin, Saopha of Kokang, OBE, TDM. She had issue, one daughter:
    • a) Pailing. Copyright© Christopher Buyers
  • 3) Yang Khuen [Lena Yang]. unm.
  • 4) Yang Hui [Helen Yang]. unm.
  • 5) Yang Mei [Mrs Faith Yang-Wolf]. m. Dr. Guenther Ernst Wolf. She has issue, one son and two daughters:
    • a) Marcus Yang Wolf.
    • a) Lynn Yang Wolf. Copyright© Christopher Buyers
    • b) Ming Yang Wolf.
  • 6) Yang Fei [Elfreda Yang-Goodroe]. b. 1958. m. James W. Goodroe, Jnr (b. 1959), from Virginia, USA. She had issue, three sons and one daughter:
    • a) E. James Goodroe.
    • b) John Goodroe.
    • c) Ronnie Goodroe.
    • a) Cathy Goodroe.

Copyright© Christopher Buyers


ကိုးကန္႕တို႕၏ သမိုင္းေၾကာင္းအက်ဥ္း

from ေဒါင္းမာန္ဟုန္ by than htut



တရုတ္ၿပည္ မင္မင္းဆက္ကို မန္ခ်ဴးေတြက ၿဖဳတ္ခ်လိုက္တဲ႔အခါမွာ မင္ဘုရင္ႀကီးဟာ ၿမန္မာၿပည္ထဲ ေၿပးဝင္လာတယ္လို႕ ဆိုပါတယ္။ အဲဒီအခ်ိန္ၿမန္မာၿပည္ဟာ ေညာင္းရမ္းဆက္ တနဂၤေႏြမင္း [the TaNinGaNway Minn ruled 1076 – 95 ME / 1714 – 33 AD, much later than the times of emperor YongHle who reached Ava during the rule of PinnTaLae Minnr ပင္းတလဲ မင္း 1010 – 1023 ME / 1648 – 1661 AD according to the Glass Palace Chronicle မွန္နန္းရာဇဝင္ and the Myanmar Yarzawin ျမန္မာရာဇဝင္ by U Ba Than] အုပ္စိုးေနခ်ိန္တဲ႔။ တရုတ္စစ္ေၿပးေတြဟာ ၿမန္မာၿပည္မွာ ခိုလွံဳေနတာသိရေတာ႕ မန္ခ်ဴးေတြက ၿပန္ပို႕ဖို႕ ရာဇသံပို႕တယ္၊ ဒါကိုၿမန္မာမင္းလည္း ေႀကာက္ရြံ႕ၿပီး တရုတ္ဘုရင္ကို မန္ခ်ဳးလက္အပ္လိုက္ပါတယ္။ မေက်နပ္တဲ႔ တရုတ္ဘုရင္ေနာက္လိုက္ေတြဟာ ၿမန္မာၿပည္မွာ ပုန္ကန္ထႀကြခဲ႔ႀကတယ္ ဒီလိုပုန္ကန္ထႀကြခဲ႔လို႕လည္း ေညာင္ရမ္းမင္းဆက္ကို ဟံသာဝတီ ဗညားဒလက ၿဖဳတ္ခ်နိဳင္ခဲ႔လို႕ တိုင္းၿပည္ပ်က္ခဲ႔ရပါတယ္။
ေနာက္ မင္မင္းဆက္ေနာက္လိုက္ တရုတ္ေတြဟာ အခုကိုးကန္႔ေဒသကိုသြားၿပီး ကိုးကန္႔ၿပည္ရယ္လို႕ ထူေထာင္ခဲ႔ႀကပါတယ္။ ကုန္ေဘာင္ေခတ္တေလွ်ာက္လံုး ကိုးကန္႔ဟာ ၿမန္မာမင္းကို ပ႑ာဆက္ခဲ႔ႀကတာပါတယ္။ အဂၤလိပ္နဲ႔ တရုတ္စာခ်ဳပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေတာ႕ အဂ္လိပ္ေတြက ပထမေတာ႕ ကိုးကန္႔နယ္ကို တရုတ္နယ္ထင္ၿပီး တရုတ္ၿပည္ထဲထဲ႔ဆြဲထားေသးတယ္ ေနာက္သိေတာ႕မွ ၿပန္သိမ္းလိုက္တာပါ။
အဂၤလိပ္လက္ေအာက္ဆိုေပမဲ႕ ကိုးကန္႔ေတြဟာ သူေစာ္ဘြားနဲ႔သူ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေနခဲ႔တယ္ အဂၤလိပ္ကလႊတ္လိုက္တဲ႔ ကိုလိုနီဝန္ထမ္းကိုလည္း ေလးေလးစားစားမဆက္ဆံဘူး၊ အဂၤလိပ္ေတြလည္း ဒီေဒသက အက်ိဳးအၿမတ္မရေတာ႕ သိပ္စိတ္မဝင္စားခဲ႔ဘူး။ ဂ်ပန္ေခတ္ေရာက္ေတာ႕ ခ်န္ေကရွိတ္တပ္ေတြနဲ႔ ေပါင္းၿပီး ကိုးကန္႔ေတြ ဂ်ပန္ကိုတိုက္ခဲ႔ႀကတယ္၊ ေနာက္ေတာ႕ တရုတ္ၿဖဴေတြကို တိုက္ဖို႕ၿမန္မာတပ္ေရာက္လာေတာ႕ ၿမန္မာနဲ႔ေပါင္းတယ္။ ေနာက္ဆံုးေတာ႕ ဗ-က-ပ လက္ေအာက္ေရာက္သြားတယ္။ ေနာက္ခြဲထြက္ၿပီး ကိုးကန္႔အဖြဲ႔ၿဖစ္လာတယ္။ နယ္ေၿမ၃ပိုင္းရွိၿပီး ေတာင္ပိုင္းက ေရရွားတယ္ ေက်ာက္ဆန္ေၿမသား၊ ဘိန္းစိုက္တာလြဲ ဘာမွမၿဖစ္ထြန္း၊ အလယ္ပိုင္းက ၿမက္ခင္းေဒသ ၿမင္းေကာင္းေတြထြက္တယ္၊ ေၿမာက္ပိုင္းက စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးလုပ္ၿပီး သစ္ေတာ႕သီး သႀကားသီး ဇီးသီး ပန္းသီး မက္မံုသီးေတြစိုက္တယ္။
ကိုးကန္႔ရဲ႕ လူေနမွဳစနစ္က စပါတာလိုပဲ ငယ္ငယ္ကတည္းက တရုတ္စာသင္ေက်ာင္းမွာ အပ္လိုက္တာပဲ၊ ဒီေက်ာင္းက စစ္သင္တန္းေပးတယ္ စာသင္တယ္ အမ်ိဳးသားေရးသီခ်င္းေတြ သင္ေပးတယ္။ ေက်ာင္းထြက္ရင္ မိဘလက္ငုတ္လက္ရင္းဝင္ကူ ေတာင္ယာခုတ္ ဘိန္းစိုက္ ၿမင္းေမြး ၿခံစိုက္ ဘိန္ကုန္ကူး ဒါပဲ။ အခုေတာ႕ လူေနမွဳစနစ္ေတြ ေၿပာင္းေလာက္ၿပီေပါ႔ တရုတ္က တိုးတက္ေနၿပီကိုး။
ကိုးကား- မွဴးသမိန္ ဘံုဘဝ ႀကံဳေတြ႔ရဇာတ္လမ္းမ်ား

ကိုးကန္႔ေခါင္းေဆာင္ ဖုန္ၾကားရွင္ မူးယစ္ေဆးဝါး လုပ္ငန္းေတြမွာ ပတ္သက္တယ္ ဆိုတဲ့ စြပ္စြဲခ်က္က တျခားတျခားေသာ ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ယူထားတဲ့ အဖြဲ႔အစည္းေခါင္းေဆာင္ပိုင္းေတြ အားလံုးမကင္းဘူးလို႔ ထင္ပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာ စစ္ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေတြလည္း မကင္းဘူးလို႔ ထင္ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီကိစၥက အခုမွ မဟုတ္ပါဘူး၊ သူတို႔ေတြ ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ယူကတည္းက ျဖစ္ေနတာပါ။ ‘ဒါကို အစိုးရကလည္း သိသိၾကီးနဲ႔ ခြင့္ျပဳထားခဲ့တာပါ။ အခုက်မွ မူးယစ္ေဆးဝါး အေၾကာင္းျပဳျပီး ဖမ္းဝရမ္းထုတ္တယ္ ဆို တာ လူၾကားေကာင္းေအာင္ ေျပာတာပါ။တကယ္ အေၾကာင္းရင္းက ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ယူထားတဲ့ အဖြဲ႔အစည္း အမ်ားစုက အစိုးရရဲ႔ နယ္ျခားေစာင့္ ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ႔ အသြင္ေျပာင္းေရးကို လက္မခံပါဘူး၊ အေလ်ာ့ေပးရင္ သိကၡာက်မယ္။ သူတို႔ စိတ္တိုင္းက် ဆြဲထားတဲ့ အေျခခံ ဥပေဒနဲ႔လည္း မညီေတာ့ဘူး ျဖစ္သြားမယ္။ အားလံုးထဲမွာ အင္းအား အေသးဆံုးလို ယူဆရတဲ့ ကိုးကန္႔တပ္ဖြဲ႔ကို စံနမူနာျပ အေနနဲ႔ ဆံုးမျပလိုက္ရင္ တျခားအဖြဲ႔ေတြပါ ျငိမ္သြားမယ္လို တြက္တယ္။ ‘ဒါေၾကာင့္ အခုက်မွ ကိုးကန္႔ေခါင္းေဆာင္ ၄ ဦးဟာ မူးယစ္ေဆးဝါး နဲ႔ ပတ္သက္ေနတယ္ဆိုျပီး ျပသာနာရွာတာပါ။

Kokang of Shan State : A Timeline

Wednesday, 02 September 2009 08:58 News Shan Herald Agency for News

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Many readers have told SHAN they had never heard of Kokang until 1989, when the former ethnic forces of the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) mutinied and concluded ceasefire pacts with Rangoon.

We therefore hope this chronology will help shed some light on this truly fascinating people.

Kokang lies east of the Salween, between China in the north and east, Shan State proper in the west and Wa in the south. Wa and Kokang are divided by the Namting that flows east to west into the Salween.

Kokang is 2,200 known for its tea plantations and opium production. During the British days, it was said to produce 30% of Shan State’s total output (Wa was 60% and Loimaw 10%).

17th century    Kokang founded by the Yangclan loyal to the Ming dynasty who fled to Yunnan. The capital was Ta Xuetang (Ta Shwehtang).

19th century        Became part of British Hsenwi State in northern Shan States

World War II (1939-45)    Fights under Kuomintang forces against Japanese occupiers of Burma.

1947    Secedes from Hsenwi, becomes the 34th principality of Federated Shan States.

1949    Yang Zhensai (Edward Yang) becomes Saofa (One of his sisters is the colorful and manly Yang Jinsiu aka Olive Yang).

1959    Yang Zhensai joins other Saofas in relinquishing traditional power to the Shan State Government

1962    Military coup by Gen Ne Win. Most fomer Saofas including Yang detained.

1963    Jimmy Yang aka Yang Zhensheng aka Sao Ladd, Edward’s brother forms Kokang Revolutionary Force

1964    KRF joins Shan State Army as its Fifth Brigade but later split into several factions.

1967    Peng Jiasheng, one of the Kokang commanders, invited to China to form the Kokang People’s Liberation Army (KPLA)

1968    Communist Party of Burma (CPB), backed by China, enters Shan State. KPLA becomes part of CPB forces

1989    11 March: Peng mutinies, an act followed by Wa, Mongla and Kachin forces. All conclude ceasefire agreement with Burma’s military government

1992    Ousted by Yang Mouliang but returns to power two years later

Latest developments

April    All ceasefire groups told by Naypyitaw ceasefire era is over and they have to transform themselves to Border Guard Forces (BGF), nominally commanded by ethnic officers but run by the Burma Army officers

July    Peng expels 6 executive members including his deputy Bai Souqian and Liu Guoxi. They had reportedly been angry with Peng for unfair distribution of power and were in favor of the BGF status. They defect to the Army

6 August    Junta investigators arrive to look for drug refineries and an arms factory, after allegedly reported by the 6 defectors of their existence. Peng stalls

8 August    Burma Army arrives in force, Kokang army surrounds it. Intercession by China saves the day. Burma Army returns home without finding anything.

10 August    Five pro-Peng officials invited to Lashio and detained. Two sent to Laogai to persuade Peng to attend meeting in Lashio. He declines to come.

21 August    Peace and Democrat Front (PDF) issues statement in support of Peng and urges Naypyitaw to resolve all differences and disagreements peacefully.

22 August    Police serves summons for Peng, his brother Jiafu and his two sons (Daxun and Dali) to appear in court. Again he declines to.

24 August    Police issues arrest for Peng and three others

25 August    Burma Army comes in force and sets up a new provisional executive committee led by Bai Souqian. Peng retreats to the border.

27 August    Fighting, mainly in Laogai and Qingsuihe (Chin Shwe Haw) on the border with Wa.

28 August    Peng issues statement exhorting his allies to rise and fight

29 August    The bulk of Kokang force retreats into China and disarmed by PLA. The remainder continues to fight

Kokang and Kachin in the Shan State (1945-1960): A book dripping with gems Saturday, 24 October 2009 13:20 S.H.A.N.


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The book was published in June 2005, but following the occupation of Kokang in August, became a bestseller when it was put on sale during the International Conference on Shan Studies (ICSS), 15-17 October, held at Bangkok’s Chulalongkorn University.

Written by Professor Sai Kham Mong and published by the Institute of Asian Studies, the 193 page report was the result of, as said in the preface, “careful use of Burma Government files and documents, material which is beyond the reach of ordinary researchers.”

The book certainly does not disappoint the student who is eager to learn as much as he/she can about Kokang and Kachin of Shan State.

Here are some of the facts that I would like to share with the reader:

On Kokang

Kokang, according to the author, comes from the Shan word, Kao Kang (Nine Guards), which I’m sure other Shan researchers will object by saying it actually means (Nine village headmen) The villages were: Taw Nio, Yang Tang, Pang Song, Pang Yang, Ken Nge, Ken Fan, Ken Pwi, Maw Htai and Mong Hawm. The name Malipa is also used by the locals for Kokang.

Even before the British came, it was one of the 49 Mongs of Hsenwi, on the eastern part of the principality.

On 1 March 1894, after the frontiers got demarcated for the first time in Southeast Asian history, it was ceded to China. However, the new agreement in 1897 between Great Britain and China returned it to the former, the reason why the only Chinese majority locale has been in Burma. It is interesting to note that these territorial agreements also turned over Shan majority areas to China. Obviously, the powers then in existence were thinking in terms of subjects other than ethnicity.

Before WWII, the statelet was governed by a Heng, a title just higher than a Kang (village headman). However, when the war started, Kokang became a Myosa (literally a town eater) and in 1951 he became a Saofa (literally a lord of heaven, the highest title a Shan prince held).

Kokang, he says, was known for three things: the population was almost entirely Chinese, its staple crop was opium poppy and its standing defense force.

One of the major headaches complained by successive governments have therefore been in the administrative sector. “In the state administrative body of Kokang state, the sawbwa (saofa) was the only person knowledgeable in English and Burmese,” it says. “No other officials understand other literature except Chinese.”

Another headache was its hilly region with difficult terrain “where the people depended wholly on rainfall. Major coops like rice and corn grown are enough for only 6 months.” Rice was irrigated in the valleys and on the hills it was grown on terraces. Still the yield was insufficient and the statelet had to import rice from the outside. People there depended almost wholly on opium cultivation, as “the physical feature of the area made opium the only alternative crop that could be easily grown in Kokang.”

The situation was such the Shan State government that came into being following independence “conceived that opium cultivation in Kokang should be allowed until such time suitable as cash crop with yield equal or better value could be found to substitute it.”

However, the issue, he wrote, “could not be resolved because of the implications of the complicated political issues in the Shan State.”

In 1950, KMT forces, defeated by Mao Zedong in China, entered Shan State through Kokang, Wa and Kengtung. At the same time, the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) also set up bases on the western part of Shan State to fight against the elected government. Then in 1952 martial law was declared in Shan State and the Burma Army was sent into fight against the KMT and the CPB and also to nip the brewing Shan resistance in the bud.

Up to 1956, motor roads were non-existent. And the Kunlong bridge over the Salween came into being only after the Burmese military took power in a coup d’état.

During World War II, the Kokang home guards were trained like a regular army. “The trainings were given in rigid Chinese military code and they became experts in mountain paths and seemed infatigable for long journey in the mountainous region.”

It naturally follows that there were 4 kinds of tax levied upon the people:
•    Yearly household tax
•    Paddy tax
•    Opium tax
•    Home guard tax

In 1950, the Prince of Kokang Edward Yang aka Yang Zhensai decided to move to Lashio leaving the administration with his younger brother Yang Zhensheng aka Jimmy Yang aka Sao Ladd. However, the most influential figure in Kokang following his absence was his sister Yang Jinxiu, better known as Olive Yang or called by Shans as Nang Kha Khon (Ms Hairy Legs). And the legend of Olive Yang was thus born.

In 1964, the conference of the commanders of the Burma Army decided that “the question of defense should not be concerned with only the Tatmadaw but also the people of the country.” People’s Defense Forces (Kakweye) “were thus formed in insurgent-infested areas to help the Army whenever military operations were launched against the insurgents.”

Two of the 23 kakweye groups formed at that time were Kokang with 1,374 men and Ving Ngun (Wiang Ngeun) with 578 men, which later became the Wa National Army (WNA).

As for the former, it later split into 3 factions led by:
•    Jimmy Yang who found the Kokang Revolutionary Force and joined the Shan State Army (SSA)
•    Law Hsing Harn (Luo Xinghan) who, except for a brief period in 1973 when the kakweye program was terminated, remained under the leadership of Burma’s ruling military junta
•    Peng Jiasheng (also written Hpon Kya Shin) who joined the CPB to become the Commander of its 404th Regiment and later Commander of its Northeastern Military Region and Central Committee member until his mutiny on 11 March 1989.

The Kokang part ended with the meeting between Prince Yang and Head of Shan State Sao Homfa on 17 May 1959 in Maymyo, where he surrendered all his powers and hereditary rights. One of his demands was to secede from Shan State and place his statelet under the central government.

On Kachin

The book’s second part deals with the story of Kachin sub-states in Shan State.

On the eve of independence in 1947, the Kachin elders requested for the creation of Kachin sub-states inside three principalities of Shan State.

Accordingly, Kachin sub-states in Mongmit, Tawngpeng and Hsenwi states came into existence by the Notification of the Shan State Government issued on 6 July 1948.

Within Hsenwi, there were 45 village tracts that were included in the sub-state such as Hpawnghseng, Mongkoe, Mongpaw, Mongzi, Loi Kang, Tima, and Mong Hawm.

Sao Homfa (Sao Hom Hpa) was not to be disappointed in 1949, when the Karen insurrection started which was joined by Naw Seng, an ex-army captain of the 1st Kachin Rifles, stationed in northern Shan State. The uprising failed in a few months “because most of the Kachin elders remained loyal to the Government of Burma. It was largely due to the foresightedness of Sao Hom Hpa, the Sawbwa of North Hsenwi State,” said Sai Kham Mong. The Kachins of Shan State also fought against the KMTs who had better arms.

But in 1959-60, the situation changed for the worse for Hsenwi’s Kachin sub-states through 2 major events:
•    Reformation of new administration in the wake of the surrender of the Saofas’ hereditary rights (Out of the former 45 circles or village tracts of the sub-state, 2 were merged with Muse township and 14 with Hsenwi township)
•    The new Sino-Burma border agreement, signed on 1 October 1960, that handed over lands cultivated by the Kachins to China

In the area, there were over 100,000 inhabitants and only a fraction of it were able to migrate to other locales leaving behind  those without means of livelihood.

Which helps to explain the existence of the Kachin State based Kachin Independence Army’s 4th Brigade in Shan State.

All in all, we all have to thank Professor Sai Kham Mong and Chulalongkorn University’s Institute of Asian Studies for bringing light to many of the recent historical facts which, but for them, would be still lying hidden in the mountains of the official files.


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