Chiang Mai / Zinn Mai and Myanmar

Chiang Mai was the capital of the kingdom of Lanna (the kingdom of a million fields), which enjoyed a golden age throughout the 15th century. During this age the powerful inland kingdom came to control most of what now constitutes northern Thailand, north-western Laos, the eastern Shan states of Burma and Xishuangbanna in southern Yunnan.

King Mangrai founded Chiang Mai. 1296

Lan Na had been the old and powerful kingdom since the early times. According to Lan Na Chronicles, in the year Kad Sai, B.E. 1181 (A.D. 638) Thai Yuan principalities had been consolidated into a leading, powerful kingdom. It corresponded to the neighborhoods of Chiang Lao-Chiang Saen, the first ruler of which was Lava-changaraj.

And King Lava-changaraj was succeeded by many kings until Phya Mangrai, the 25th monarch of Lava-changaraj Dynasty (B.E. 1805-1854 / A.D. 1262-1311).

The Mao Chiefs claim the honour of this dominion. They annexed Chieng-mai about AD 1295, and were strong enough to attack Cambodia. Between 1285 and 1292 the Mao Shans shattered the Burman Empire. About 1293 they annexed Chieng-mai (most likely driving the Chieng-mai Shans to Chaliang, whence the Siamese, to escape a pestilence, descended and founded Ayuthia in 1350).

After his founding of the Lan Na Kingdom in the mid-13th century, King Mangrai established friendly relations with Burma when he travelled to the court of King Suttasoma of Pegu. King Suttasoma cemented this friendship by giving Mangrai his daughter, the Lady Phai Kho, in marriage. According to the Chiang Mai Chronicle “the two rulers met at the Asa (Sittang?) River, and feasted their retainers with food and drink, and staged great entertainments for three days and three nights.

According to the same source, the King of Pagan in Upper Burma was also on good terms with Mangrai, and sent five hundred families of artisans, including silver, gold, bronze and iron workers, as a gift to the Lan Na court

The Chieng-mai “adventurer” named Magedu established himself at Martaban as “King Wareru of Pegu” in AD 1287, founding a dynasty that maintained itself in the heart of the Mon kingdom for 253 years.

When Mengrai Dynasty Lanna began to crumble, with no reign ending peaceably for a quarter century, a LanSang ruler, King Potisarat, began to fantasize of becoming the ‘wheel-turning universal monarch whose righteousness and might make all the world turn around him.’ Unfortunately, at the same time, so did a King Burengnong from Toungoo (due west from ChiangRai, separated by Karen people and the mighty Salween River). After Mengrai’s direct line ended, half of the last independent rulers were women. One, MahaTevi Jiraprapa (sometimes said named PhraNang Yout KhamThip), was a full, absolute ruler from 1545- 46.

In July, 1545, Shan King FaYongHui of Mong Nai (Muang Nai, on the Salween, were Lanna’s last king was from) attacked ChiangMai. As he did, an earthquake destroyed nine revered reliquaries there, including a couple of the most important (finials at Wat Jedi Luang and Wat PraSing). For a month attackers poured dirt into the city moat and tried to cross it with bamboo bridges; but defenders burnt the attackers’ encampment, and the Shans withdrew.

1545-47 and 1564-78 Queen Regnant Phra Chao Chira Prapa Mahadevi
Also known as Chiraprabha, Mahatevi Jiraprapa or Phra Nang Yout Kham Thip, she was the oldest daughter of king Phaya Ket, and took over after a power struggle among various factions and during civil war in the region. According to some sources, King Burengnong married her, (now in her 40s (at least), and she ruled for a second time from 1564 until her death in 1578, according to other sources, it was her younger sister, Queen Wisutthithew, that Burengong married, and it was she who ruled from 1564.

1551 – 1564 Mekuti
Lanna endured anarchy and civil war, with nobles fighting on elephants in the middle of ChiangMai City. Petty officials and rulers of principalities proved more interested in their changing relative power than in the threat from Burma (as seems the case today), until Mekut of MongNai (a Shan State where rebellious descendents of Mengrai were sometimes sent to rule) was made king in 1552.
In 1551 the influential court officials at Chiang Mai, seeking to end this chaotic interregnum, invited Mae Ku, then reigning in Mong Nai, to come to Chiang Mai and rule over the Kingdom of Lan Na.
Mae Ku, legitimised by his status as a direct descendant of King Mangrai, accepted the invitation. According to the Chiang Mai Chronicle: ‘On the fourth waxing of the 9th month 913 (9 May 1551), King Mae Ku entered the city of Chiang Mai and was enthroned in the royal palace on the bejewelled throne’.
Phra Mekuti (r.1551- 1564) began an oppressive and unpopular rule. He forbade worship of Chiang Mai pillar, an act which is thought to have brought misfortune to Chiang Mai.
Mekhut levied heavy taxes and conscription. Sensing weak public support, other princes of Maung Nai decided to invade. Mekhut was briefly aided by King Burengnong (Bayinnaung of Hantawaddy and Pegu)
Mae Ku was the 17th monarch of the Mangrai Dynasty(1263-1578), who ruled North Thailand from 1551 to 1564, the last six years of his reign as a vassal of King Bayinnaung of Taungoo. Mae Ku, whose full name was Phra Maekutawisutthiwong, was a direct descendant of King Mangrai through the latter’s son, Khun Khrua, who Mangrai had sent, in 1312, to rule over Mong Nai in Shan State.
In 1555, Mekut’s brothers attempted to seize Lanna’s Mekong region, and gained ChiangRai and ChiangSaen… so Mekhut “was not at first inclined to listen to his brothers’ cry for help” when Burengnong, who’d become king in 1551, took Ava in 1555, then Hsenwi, then KengTung…
For the next seven years King Mae Ku ruled Lan Na without serious challenge, though in October 1556, while making merit at Wat Lampang Luang, he saw ‘a cloud shaped like a naga serpent… more than seven fathoms long’. At the same time ‘the planet Jupiter appeared like a comet with its tail to the north, which could be seen for a month before disappearing’. The Chronicle interprets these events (with the ease of hindsight) as bad omens, and sure enough one year later, in 1557/58, King Bayinnaung of Taungoo crossed the Salween into North Thailand at the head of his army. On 31 March 1558 he besieged Chiang Mai ‘for three days and three nights’, before taking the city, apparently with little opposition, early in the morning of April 2 1558.
King Min Taya of Pegu advances, demanding Mae Ku to come and meet him at Salween River. Mae Ku evades his invitation, sending officials instead. Min Taya takes Chiang Mai. Min Taya stays in Chiang Mai for 1 month and 12 days.
Setthatirat returned, defeating ChiangMai and almost taking ChiangSaen in 1558. Governors of Lampang, Prae and Nan joined his, but Burengnong forced him back to Laos, where the Burmese ran out of provisions.
Min Taya allows Mae Ku to rule Lan Na as before, but leaves a Burmese commissioner, a deputy commissioner and 10,000 troops to stay in Chiang Mai.

Between 1558 and 1564 Mae Ku continued to govern Chiang Mai, but as a vassal ruler of Bayinnaung.

Keng Tung has remained with Burma since that time (1559) except for two brief instances, in 1802 and during Japanese occupation in the Second World War.

In 1559 Mae Ku led a military expedition, well documented in the Chiang Mai Chronicle, to subdue provincial lords in Chiang Rai, Phayao and Phrae who remained loyal to Luang Prabang.

As a vassal state of Burma, Chiang Mai had to send Burma some tributes in terms of “silver trees, golden trees” and revenues, including foodstuffs in the wartime. As regards the administration, in the beginning the Burmese government did not come to take a direct rule but allowed Phra Mekuti to be the king of Chiang Mai as before.
Mekut revolted against his obligations, and the Burmese returned, invading Luang Prabang to capture Mekut, who’d taken refuge there.
Perhaps before going back to Burma, Burengnong married Princess Jiraprapa, now in her 40s (at least). Perhaps he married another ChiangMai princess.
The woman who ruled Lanna from 1564 until her death in 1578 is called Wisutthitewi. This PhraNang Visuti (Wisutatewi, a.k.a. MahaTewi), whom Burengnong replaced Phra Mekut with, may have been a different, younger daughter of Phaya Ket.
However, Burma dethroned Phra Mekuti when he tried to gain independence and appointed Phra Nang Visuddhidevi or Nang Phaya Rajadevi as a ruler of Chiang Mai.

Mekut was taken to Pegu
Mekut died in exile at Pegu or Ava, and became known as one of Burma’s famous “37 Nat” spirits, YunBayin. The Mengrai line is said to end there, but the last person descended from Mengrai to rule might have been Thado Gyaw, 4th Lanna ruler (descended from urengnong/MinTaya) through MahaTwei Jiraprapa).

King Mae Ku: From Lan Na Monarch to Burmese Nat
http://www.cpamedia.com/research/king_mae_ku/
Between 1558 and 1775, for a period of 217 years, the Lan Na Kingdom and its capital of Chiang Mai were ruled by a succession of Burmese-appointed suzerains owing allegiance to the Kings of Pegu in Lower Burma. During this period of lost independence, Chiang Mai and its people were inevitably influenced by Burmese culture and traditions- but the traffic wasn’t all one way. One of the most fascinating and enduring associations between Burma and North Thailand is the continuing widespread veneration in Burma of a Chiang Mai king in the pantheon of Nats that plays so great a role in the spiritual tradition of the Burman people.
Sir Richard Temple describes in considerable detail the full order of thirty-seven Nats of which one in particular stands out where Chiang Mai-known in the Burmese annals as Zinme or Zimme-is concerned. This is the 22nd, or Yun Bayin Nat, a member of Temple’s 5th Group of Nat belonging to the Bayinnaung Cycle. These are defined as a group of four spirits ‘whose direct reference is not clear, but are… of a very late date and are connected with the great conqueror Bayinnaung… and his dynasty in the 17th century’. Of these four spirits, Yun Bayin Nat is the only non-Burmese spirit hero associated with the Nat cult, and as such occupies a special place in the pantheon, emphasising Chiang Mai’s once close association with the courts of Pegu, Toungoo and Ava.
Relatively little is known of the earthly incarnation of the Yun Bayin Nat. According to Temple, he was the ‘Yun Shan’-that is, Northern Thai-ruler of Chiang Mai, who was taken prisoner by King Syinbyumyashin of Hanthawadi (Pegu), the ‘Lord of Many White Elephants’, and taken to Yangon. He is known as Yun Bayin, or ‘King of the Yun’, with reference to the old Burmese name for the Tai Yuan or Northern Thai. He is reported to have died of dysentery in 1558, and thereafter to have become a Nat. The Yun Bayin Nat, who is still widely revered throughout Burma, is generally represented as seated on a lotus throne in high court dress, holding a sheathed sword.
There is no direct reference to the Yun Bayin Nat, or indeed to any ruler of the Lan Na Kingdom dying in captivity in Yangon, either in the Northern Thai Chiang Mai Chronicle or in its Burmese equivalent, the Zinme Yawazin. Both chronicles do, however, record the invasion of Lan Na and the seizure of Chiang Mai by King Bayinnaung in 1558. The Chiang Mai ruler at that time was Mae Ku, who was obliged to pay tribute to Bayinnaung for the last six years of his reign.
Bayinnaung was the second monarch of the Taungoo Dynasty (1531-1752), founded by King Tabinshweti of Taungoo (1531-1550), who conquered the rival Kingdom of Pegu (Temple’s Hanthawadi) and crowned himself King of all Burma. He was succeeded by Bayinnaung (1551-1581), who proved to be a remarkable military commander, subduing Upper Burma, the Shan States, Manipur, North Thailand and parts of Laos.
Mae Ku was the 17th monarch of the Mangrai Dynasty(1263-1578), who ruled North Thailand from 1551 to 1564, the last six years of his reign as a vassal of King Bayinnaung of Taungoo. Mae Ku, whose full name was Phra Maekutawisutthiwong, was a direct descendant of King Mangrai through the latter’s son, Khun Khrua, who Mangrai had sent, in 1312, to rule over Mong Nai in Shan State.
In 1545 King Ket Chettharat of Chiang Mai was assassinated, ushering in-according to the Chiang Mai Chronicle-a ‘Kali Era’ of decline for the Lan Na Kingdom. He was briefly succeeded by his daughter, Queen Maha Thewi Chiraprapha, who ruled as regent (1545-1546), and then by King Setthathirat of Luang Prabang who remained in Chiang Mai for just one year (1546-1547) before returning to Laos, taking with him the fabled Emerald Buddha which had been installed in Chedi Luang and leaving Lan Na without a king for the next four years. In 1551 the influential court officials at Chiang Mai, seeking to end this chaotic interregnum, invited Mae Ku, then reigning in Mong Nai, to come to Chiang Mai and rule over the Kingdom of Lan Na.
Mae Ku, legitimised by his status as a direct descendant of King Mangrai, accepted the invitation. According to the Chiang Mai Chronicle: ‘On the fourth waxing of the 9th month 913 (9 May 1551), King Mae Ku entered the city of Chiang Mai and was enthroned in the royal palace on the bejewelled throne’. For the next seven years King Mae Ku ruled Lan Na without serious challenge, though in October 1556, while making merit at Wat Lampang Luang, he saw ‘a cloud shaped like a naga serpent… more than seven fathoms long’. At the same time ‘the planet Jupiter appeared like a comet with its tail to the north, which could be seen for a month before disappearing’. The Chronicle interprets these events (with the ease of hindsight) as bad omens, and sure enough one year later, in 1557/58, King Bayinnaung of Taungoo crossed the Salween into North Thailand at the head of his army. On 31 March 1558 he besieged Chiang Mai ‘for three days and three nights’, before taking the city, apparently with little opposition, early in the morning of April 2 1558.
Between 1558 and 1564 Mae Ku continued to govern Chiang Mai, but as a vassal ruler of Bayinnaung. In 1559 he led a military expedition, well documented in the Chiang Mai Chronicle, to subdue provincial lords in Chiang Rai, Phayao and Phrae who remained loyal to Luang Prabang. In 1563, however, Mae Ku ignored Bayinnaung’s orders to assist in an expedition against Ayutthaya, effectively repudiating Burmese sovereignty. This was seen as an act of rebellion by Bayinnaung, who-according to the Chiang Mai Chronicle-brought up an army and took Chiang Mai, capturing Lord Mae Ku and taking him back to Pegu, while leaving Lady Wisuttha Thewi to rule in his place’. Queen Wisuttha Thewi ruled over Chiang Mai as a vassal of the Burmese from 1564 to 1578. On her death Bayinnaung’s son, Nawrahtaminsaw, better known in the Chiang Mai annals as ‘Tharawaddy Prince’, succeeded her, ruling over Lan Na from 1578 to 1607.
We know little of Mae Ku’s life as an exile, but The Glass Palace Chronicle tells us he was treated generously by Bayinnaung, being accorded the same royal status as the defeated Kings of Ava also captured by Bayinnaung and taken to his capital at Pegu. The chronicle also relates that on completion of Bayinnaung’s new royal palace called Kambawzathadi, Mae Ku was given the privilege of residing in a royal residence with a double-tiered roof.
Apart from these small but fascinating details, following his exile Mae Ku disappears from the pages of history but enters the realm of the supernatural. Temple tells us that he reportedly died of dysentery while in captivity, but without revealing his source. Yet somehow, despite his defeat and capture by King Bayinnaung and subsequent mundane and rather inglorious end, Mae Ku became venerated as a Nat. How was this possible? By Temple’s definition, the 37 Nats are overwhelmingly heroic spirits ‘either of former royalty, or of persons connected with royalty’. Nats are also, generally, the spirits of people ‘who have met a violent or tragic death’. As a descendant of King Mangrai and King of Chiang Mai himself, Mae Ku was clearly closely associated with royalty, just as his death in exile in Burma was certainly tragic. But what of his status as hero? Perhaps his expedition against the Lao in 1559, or even his spirited rebellion against Bayinnaung in 1564, made him heroic in Burman eyes. Or perhaps he acquitted himself bravely while in exile in Pegu. It seems unlikely that we shall ever know.

Queen Wisuttha Thewi ruled over Chiang Mai as a vassal of the Burmese from 1564 to 1578.
Burengnong replaced Phra Mekut with Phra Nang Visuti (Wisutthatewi), a younger daughter of Phaya Ket whom he’d married, and the last descendent of Mengrai to rule.

In 1565, just seven years after Bayinnaung’s conquest, the Burmese military commander in Lan Na had a huge bronze Buddha image cast, in cooperation with Queen Wisutthithewi of Chiang Mai. It was named ‘Phra Buddha Müang Rai’, doubtless in honour of King Mangrai, the city’s founder. The image has survived the intervening centuries, and today can be seen at Wat Chai Phra Kiat on the north side of the Old City’s central Ratchadamnoen Avenue, not far from Wat Phra Singh. It is in Lan Na style, and so was certainly cast by local artisans

Upon the termination of Phra Nang Visuddhidevi’s reign, the Burma government sent Burmese nobles and officials to rule Chiang Mai directly.

Lanna continued to be troubled by attacks from Shans, and in 1578 Visuti died. Her successor was a son of Burengnong by someone else, Mangnorathacho (Min Noratha, prince of Therawaddy).
Bayinnaung appointed his son, Minthasit (born 1551), to rule over Chiang Mai. At the time Minthasit was administering the Burmese district of Tharyarwaddy, near Pegu, and hence was known as Tharyarwaddy Min, or “the Tharyawaddy Prince”. In 1576, two years before he assumed the throne of Chiang Mai, he successfully put down rebellions against his father’s rule in Mogaung and Mohnyin, as a consequence of which he was given the title Nawrahtaminsaw, the name by which he is best known as the first Burmese ruler of the Lanna Kingdom. He was to rule over Chiang Mai from 1578 to 1607.
In 1578 when Nawrahtaminsaw journeyed to Chiang he brought with him his wife, Queen Hsinbyushinme, the “Lady of the White Elephant”.
http://www.cpamedia.com/research/hsinbyushinme/
It is clear that these new rulers of Chiang Mai were no ingénues. Rather, they were educated sophisticates of their time. Nawrahtaminsaw was a poet and patron of the arts, as well as a warrior prince. For her part Hsinbyushinme was a sophisticated court lady and princess, well suited to rule over-and grow to love-her new home, the city of Chiang Mai.
Hsinbyushinme was a skilled composer of yadu poems, a Burmese verse-form where three stanzas are linked by the rhyming of their last lines. According to Ni Ni Myint, the Director of the Universities Historical Research Centre at Yangon and the skilled linguist who first translated Hsinbyushinme’s verses on Chiang Mai into English, yadu poems generally evoke ‘a mood of wistful sadness through the contemplation of nature in the changing seasons or the yearning for a loved one temporarily separated’.
Hsinbyushinme was the daughter of Thado Dhamma Raja, King of Pyay, a younger brother of King Bayinnaung, and Narapati Medaw, a Burmese lady of high birth. As a young girl Hsinbyushinme learned the art of yadu verses from the great poet Nawade. Nawade even composed an ayegyin song celebrating Hsinbyushinme’s virtues and beauty:
Endowed with the Five Virtues
Exceedingly clear and unblemished
Like a vein of lightning peeping
Lady of the White Elephant
Hsinbyushinme was married to her cousin Minthasit, the future Nawrahtaminsaw, in 1574. On being appointed King of Chiang Mai by Bayinnaung, Nawrahtaminsaw set out with Hsinbyushinme from Pegu in April, 1579. During their journey Hsinbyushinme gave birth to a son at Doi Luang, naming him Tu Luang after the place of his birth. The family arrived at Chiang Mai in July, 1579, and assumed their positions as King and Queen of Lanna. But Nawrahtaminsaw was a warrior prince who loyally served the interests of his father, King Bayinnaung, and was destined to be absent from both Chiang Mai and his beloved wife Hsinbyushinme on many occasions.
How do we know Hsinbyushinme was so loved by Nawrahtaminsaw? Because the latter was also a skilled composer of yadu verse. In one such poem which begins ‘Golden Yun, pleasant country’ (Yun being an old Burmese name for Chiang Mai and its people) he writes of Hsinbyushinme:
None there be in the thousand lands Though should I search
Let alone an equal I will find none
To match a strand of her hair
Fragrant as attar of jasmine
Sweet-voiced, pleasant of expression
Generous of thought, lovely of disposition
My heap of life
The warm nest of my sight
For her part, Hsinbyushinme stayed behind in Chiang Mai when Nawrahtaminsaw was away campaigning. She clearly grew to love her new home and its verdant surroundings. A pious Buddhist, she drew comfort during her husband’s absences by worshipping at various Chiang Mai temples, most notably venerating the Phra Kaew (Emerald Buddha) image at Wat Chedi Luang (now in Bangkok) and the Phra Singh image at Wat Phra Singh. Sometimes she would make the more arduous journey out of town to Doi Suthep, where she would pray at the shrine there and enjoy the view across the country of which she was queen.
In March, 1583, when Nawrahtaminsaw was away campaigning in Yunnan, Hsinbyushinme composed a yadu poem characterised by its translator, Ni Ni Myint, as ‘poetry of grace and fluency’. Across more than four centuries, her love not just for her husband, but also for her adopted city of Chiang Mai, remains clear, genuine and moving:
Victory Land of Golden Yun, Our Home
Thronged pleasantly like paradise.
The clear waters moving without cease
The forests teeming with singing birds
The breezes replace the sere leaves
As buds peep and petals spread
ingyin, yinma, thawka, tharaphi
gangaw, swedaw, fragrant hpetsut
anan, thazin, gamone, balmy in bloom
Luxuriantly scenting the air in the early summer…
Yet my love is not here to enjoy
I in loneliness watch the delights
In this season of diverse scents
In Yun City, created by you, lord
And await your return
Topmost of the royal lineage of the sun
Brilliant like the flame of the sun
Ever-triumphant conqueror of the foes
My husband marches boldly to far-off China and Lan Chang
To clear the enveloping enemies…
Sadly I nurse my loneliness
Clear the enemy before [the month of] Tagu!
All enemies bow to Chiang Mai City
Encircled by cool waters and wall-like hills
Unequalled Lord of Golden Yun…
My topmost lineage of the sun
Now that the south wind blows, the sere leaf falls
The golden laburnum flutters, liquid emerald
I do not know how to wear
Fragrant flowers in my top-hair
Since my lion-hearted husband marched to war
I guard my mind and kneeling
Before Buddha’s images
Of Phra Kaew, Phra Singh, golden Maha Chedi
And the famous Phra Suthep
Images bright as sun
On western hill-top beyond the city, and within
With reverence I say my prayers
Rising glory of the lineage of the sun
Nawrahtaminsaw did indeed return ‘to the Palace of Pleasant Victorious Yun’, ruling over Chiang Mai for 28 years. Hsinbyushinme bore him four children, two of whom-Min Ye Dibba (1607-1613?) and Thado Kyaw (1613-1614?)-succeeded their father as kings of Chiang Mai, albeit more briefly and with less glory. Little is known of Hsinbyushinme’s later life, but it seems likely she stayed at Nawrahtaminsaw’s side until her death in the adopted city she loved so much.
Unfortunately no chedi are known definitely to contain the remains of Nawrahtaminsaw or Hsinbyushinme, though it is possible-even likely-that ashes of both monarchs were interred in the “water melon stupa” of Wat Ku Tao, which was erected in 1613, six years after Nawrahtaminsaw’s death. Be this as it may, as Ni Ni Myint points out: ‘The cool waters and wall-like hills around Chiang Mai which Hsinbyushinme once viewed still remain. The fragrant flowers which she loved to wear in her hair when her husband was with her still bloom in their season. Although Phra Kaew has been moved (to Wat Phra Kaeo in Bangkok), Phra Singh and Phra Suthep, before which she knelt and worshipped with great devotion, still attract devotees. And as these things which she loved and reverenced endure, the presence of Hsinbyushinme lingers in this Victory Land of Golden Yun as it does also in her graceful poetry’.

Min Ye Dibba (1607-1613?) son of Nawrahtaminsaw

Thado Kyaw (1613-1614?) son of Nawrahtaminsaw

In 1628 Burma relocated the center for administration of Lanna to Chiang Saen.

About 1660 Chinese troops invaded northern Burma in search of the emperor Yung-lei (or Yunhli), last of the Ming dynasty. The governor of Chiang Mai, aware of the Burmese army’s defeat and afraid of a Chinese invasion, asked for Ayudhaya’s protection. King Narai sent an army, but as it approached, Chiang Mai pulled away its men. Narai’s force took Lampang but not Chiang Mai. Soon after, Narai sent a much larger army, led by the best of his generals. This force was successful, seizing much of value including the famed Sihinga Buddha image of Wat Phra Sing. In 1664, a local revolt drove the Siamese back out.
When the Chinese had taken Yung-lei off, the Burmese started a harder line of impositions on Lanna. Burmese princes were regularly sent to Chiang Mai as viceroys for the region, and for half a century, Lanna peoples suffered heavy taxation and conscription into the Burmese army, with corvée duties far away.

1661 King Narai (r.1656-1688) of Ayutthaya captured and briefly held Chiang Mai.

1672 The Burmese regain control of the kingdom.

1672 – 1675 Ingsemang Burmese ruler.
9. Uparaj Uang Sae (Ava City) B.E. 2215-2218 (A.D. 1672-1675)

1675 – 1707 Chephutarai Burmese ruler.
10. Cheputrai (son of Chao Chekutra) B.E. 2218- ? (A.D. 1675- ?)

In 1628 Burma relocated the center for administration of Lanna to Chiang Saen. Chiang Saen suffered repeated invasions, and in 1717 the Mae Khong River flooded the town to a depth of five feet. Still, as Chiang Saen was favored by the Burmese, it came under direct administration from Ava, the Burmese capital. It was strongly held, and the last area retaken from Burma, in 1804 (and then only with assistance from independent Nan Kingdom). By 1705, Chiang Mai and southern Lanna were ruled as a military-controlled vassal state. The over two centuries of rebellion, shifting alliances and recurrent warfare resultant from Burmese failure to control, consumed all Lanna, limiting material access, destroying cities and towns and displacing much of the population.

Advertisements

Tags: , , , ,

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: