The Rakhine mud volcanoes

There are many mud volcanoes in Rakhine, the best documented in Kyaukphyu township of Ramree island in the Rakhine State.
The largest island in Myanmar, Yanbye Island or Ramree Island as it is also called is located off Rakhine coast facing the Bay of Bengal. The island has some mud volcanoes which are called Nagapwet-aing (lake) meaning dragon’s lair by the locals. They mostly exist inside the Kyaukphyu township and are dormant most time but become active at times, either flowing out or explosive in nature.

There are also many offshore with islands of mud volcanoes forming and disappearing over the time.
Mud volcanoes in Rakhine are also linked to Nagars, mythical snake like water dragons as with the Nagapwet taung, the only active mud volcano in central Myanmar near Minbu. They are said to live within the mud underground at these mud volcanoes and also in the sea and rivers elsewhere.
There are around 14 volcanoes near Saichon village စိုင္ျခံဳေက်းရြာ, Kyaukphyu Township, Rakhine State
Retired geologist Soe Thein said volcanos in the Kyaukphyu Township area on Ramree Island were set off along a fault line
“When there is earth crust movement in these fault lines, there will be underground water circulation and more water will move up to the surface as hot springs, but they are not like real volcanoes. They do not pose a danger to people,” Soe Thein said.
The highest number of underground hot spring fault lines is in Kyaukphyu Township. The hot spring fault line runs through Magwe Region.

Wet Ann Nagar mud volcano, less than two miles from Saichon village in Kyaukphyu Township, Rakhine State, erupted on October 4, 2016, destroying farmland. Molten lava flew about 70-feet high. ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ေက်ာက္ျဖဴၿမိဳ႕ စိုင္ျခံဳေက်းရြာ၏အေ႐ွ႕ဘက္ ၁ မိုင္ ၄ဖာလံုခန္႔ အကြာတြင္႐ွိေသာ ဝက္အမ္းနဂါး ရႊံ႕မီးေတာင္သည္ ေအာက္တိုဘာလ ၄ ရက္ ညေန (၅) နာရီေက်ာ္ခန္႔က ေပါက္ကြဲခဲ့သည္။


A volcano erupts to the south of Saichon village, Kyaukphyu Township, Rakhine State



A mud volcano in Kyaukphyu Township.

An earthquake hit the township and two mud volcanoes erupted on 2016 August 24.

ေက်ာက္ျဖဴ ၿမိဳ႕နယ္တြင္း ယခုေပါက္ကြဲသည့္ ၀က္အမ္းနဂါး မီးေတာင္ အပါ ၂၀၁၆ ခုနွစ္အတြင္း ရႊံ႕မီးေတာင္ သံုးလံုး ေပါက္ကြဲခဲ့ျပီဟု သိရသည္။
၂၀၁၆ ခုႏွစ္ ၾသဂုတ္လ ၂၄ ရက္က ေျမငလွ်င္ လႈပ္ၿပီး ၁၀ မိနစ္ ခန္႔အၾကာတြင္ စည္ေမာ္ေက်းရြာ အေနာက္ေတာင္ဘက္တြင္ တည္ရွိေသာ ၾကက္ေသနဂါး မီးေတာင္ ႏွင့္ စိုင္ျခံဳ ရြာအေ႐ွ႕ဘက္တြင္ တည္ရွိေသာ သေျပေတာနဂါး ရႊံ႕မီးေတာင္တို႕ ေပါက္ကြဲခဲ့သည္။
စည္ေမာ္ရြာ ၾကက္ေသနဂါး မီးေတာင္မွာ အျမင့္ေပ ၂၀၀ ထိ ရႊံ႕ရည္မ်ားကို မႈတ္ထုတ္ခဲ့ျပီး ဝဲ ယာ ေပ ၄၀ ေက်ာ္ ရႊံ႕ရည္မ်ား ျပန္႔က်ဲခဲ့ေၾကာင္း ေဒသခံမ်ားက ေျပာၾကားသည္။


Kyauk Phyu, Si Maw village, Kyet Thay Nagar volcano


“The last volcano eruption at the Wet Ann Nagar mud volcano ဝက္အမ္းနဂါး ရႊံ႕မီးေတာင္, Saichon village was in 1987, and flames and lava came out. About 40 acres of farmland were destroyed. The current volcano eruption isn’t strong and the damage is far smaller. Farmers need to be aware of the volcanoes as they can erupt any time,” said villager Aung Than.
Two mud volcanoes in Sai Chong village east of Kyaukphyu erupted in January 2008. Lava and magma shot up to 300-feet high and a small amount of lava covered about 200 feet in the nearby area, the New Light of Myanmar reported on January 8.
A similar volcano mud eruption took place near Sai Chong village in 2006, and an eruption in 1996 damaged more than 40 acres of farmland in the same area



Mud volcano erupts in Arakan

The mud volcano near Yaukchaung Village began spewing mud on Aug. 31, 2014, immediately inundating 30 acres of surrounding farmland. The mud has since flowed into another 170 acres of land, mostly rice paddy, said Aung Saw Thein, a local of Kyaukphyu, which is on Ramree Island



On both Ramree Island and the adjacent Manaung Island, mud volcanoes are common, according to geologist Soe Thura Tun, who conducted research there two years ago.
He said the mud volcanoes on the islands are different from those in other parts of Burma as they are shallower in depth and sometimes erupt in flames as they expel natural gas. Geological formations in the area suggest that mud volcanoes were once even more common there, he said.


Volcano_Rambree_island 2008

“Volcano eruptions here do not cause serious damage, and only farmland is destroyed by these volcano eruptions,” said Soe Thura Tun.
“They erupt once every two or three years, but there is no regularity to their eruption. Some volcanoes have already gone extinct, according to our research.”
“Not only Yaukchaung Village was affected. Farms and pasture in Simaw and Kyettel villages were also damaged by muddy water,” he said.
“Muddy water is still flowing into farms and the paddy in all those farms will be dead. We have three other mud volcanoes in the south west of the village.”

A mud volcano erupted on 2011 November 26 on a small hill one mile west of Bawyabaya village, about 32 miles from Kyaukphyu. The eruption sent magma and lava 15-feet into the air, and about 5 acres of nearby land was covered by magma.

The mud volcanoes are not igneous and therefore do not tend to produce lava, hot molten earth. They are associated with oil and gas fields and the cold or warm mud contains natural gas which is flammable in presence of oxygen when it reach the surface of the earth. There have been mud volcano explosions associated with fire ball when large amounts of gas had been released.

Nantha Kyun is an island off the coast of Rakhine State, Burma

The island is 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi) long and 1.7 kilometres (1.1 mi) wide. It is located roughly 30 km (19 mi) to the southwest of the Maw Yon headland in the Rakhine coast.[1]

Nantha Kyun rises to a height of 168 metres (551 ft) and has a large active mud volcano in the middle. It is thickly wooded except on its western shores where the terrain is scarred between the crater and the shoreline.[2]
Definition: Mud volcanoes are geological structures formed by a combination of mud eruption, gas emission, and water seepage from the subsurface at both the earth’s terrestrial surface and the seafloor (Fig. 1-1)(Milkov, 2000; Dimitrov, 2002; Kopf, 2002). Water, gas, and fine-grained muddy sediment in semi-liquid form are forced by tectonic compressions to migrate up through fissures or narrow openings in the crust and produce an outflowing mass of mud on the earth’s surface (Dimitrov, 2003).



Types of Mud Volcanoes
Based on the variable morphological expression and the active characteristics of mud volcanoes, Kalinko (1964) grouped them in three main types:
I class—Lokbatan type
This type of mud volcano has a strong, explosive character, always accompanied by the ignition of the emitted gases. Activity periods are short and separated by long, passive periods. Because the extruded mud breccias are usually of low viscosity, this
type of mud volcano forms the well-formed steep conical shape.
II class—Chikishlyar type
In contrast to Lokbatan volcanoes, Chikishlyar mud volcanoes are characterized by calm, relatively weak, and continuous activity. Gases are continuously released in more or less uniform quantities, and numerous vents eject small amounts of gassy
mud and water. These volcanoes usually form very low, flat domes, which merge with the surrounding plane, or plate-shaped depressions that are often filled with water.
III class—Schugin type
Schugin mud volcanoes are transitional ones, sharing qualities with the other two types. Eruptive periods are intermittently replaced by periods of continuous weak activity. This type of mud volcano has the widest global distribution and is
characterized by a wide variety of forms, though they typically build composite craters.


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