Loch Ness monster

June 22, 2016
Loch Ness monster statutte at the boat ride stop

Loch Ness monster statute at the boat ride stop

 

We went to Loch Ness during my recent visit to Edinburgh, not to see the Loch Ness monster but to see the famous Loch Ness which is the second largest Scottish Loch.

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Loch Ness is the second largest Scottish loch by surface area at 22 sq mi (56 km2) after Loch Lomond, but due to its great depth, it is the largest by volume in the British Isles. Its deepest point is 755 ft (230 m), making it the second deepest loch in Scotland after Loch Morar. A 2016 survey claimed to have discovered a crevice that pushed the depth to 889 ft (271 m) but further research determined it to be a sonar anomaly. It contains more fresh water than all the lakes in England and Wales combined, and is the largest body of water on the Great Glen Fault, which runs from Inverness in the north to Fort William in the south.

 

 

Loch Ness map

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Geology

Loch Ness lies along the Great Glen Fault, which forms a line of weakness in the rocks which has been excavated by glacial erosion, forming the Great Glen and the basins of Loch Lochy, Loch Oich and Loch Ness.

It is because it is on the Great Glen Fault that the Loch Ness is so straight (as with the 3rd Ayeyarwaddy defile at Thabeik Kyinn).

 

Loch Ness is narrow and long.

Loch Ness (/ˌlɒx ˈnɛs/; Scottish Gaelic: Loch Nis, [l̪ˠɔxˈniʃ]) is a large, deep, freshwater loch in the Scottish Highlands extending for approximately 23 miles (37 km) southwest of Inverness. Its surface is 52 ft (16 m) above sea level. Loch Ness is best known for alleged sightings of the cryptozoological Loch Ness Monster, also known affectionately as “Nessie”. It is connected at the southern end by the River Oich and a section of the Caledonian Canal to Loch Oich. At the northern end there is the Bona Narrows which opens out into Loch Dochfour, which feeds the River Ness and a further section of canal to Inverness. It is one of a series of interconnected, murky bodies of water in Scotland; its water visibility is exceptionally low due to a high peat content in the surrounding soil.

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Loch Ness Monster

 

 

Loch Ness is thought by some to be the home of the Loch Ness Monster (also known as “Nessie“), a cryptid, reputedly a large unknown animal. It is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere, though its description varies from one account to the next. Popular interest and belief in the animal’s existence has varied since it was first brought to the world’s attention in 1933.

Hoaxed_photo_of_the_Loch_Ness_monster

Spicers (1933)

Modern interest in the monster was sparked by a sighting on 22 July 1933, when George Spicer and his wife saw “a most extraordinary form of animal” cross the road in front of their car. They described the creature as having a large body (about 4 feet (1.2 m) high and 25 feet (8 m) long) and a long, wavy, narrow neck, slightly thicker than an elephant’s trunk and as long as the 10–12-foot (3–4 m) width of the road. They saw no limbs. It lurched across the road towards the loch 20 yards (20 m) away, leaving a trail of broken undergrowth in its wake.

In August 1933 a motorcyclist, Arthur Grant, claimed to have nearly hit the creature while approaching Abriachan (near the north-eastern end of the loch) at about 1 a.m. on a moonlit night. According to Grant, it had a small head attached to a long neck; the creature saw him, and crossed the road back to the loch. Grant, a veterinary student, described it as a cross between a seal and a plesiosaur. He said he dismounted and followed it to the loch, but only saw ripples. Some interpret the story as a humorous explanation of a motorcycle accident.

Sightings of the monster increased after a road was built along the loch in early 1933, bringing workers and tourists to the formerly-isolated area. Sporadic land sightings continued until 1963, when poor-quality film of the creature was shot in the loch from a distance of 4 kilometres (2.5 mi).

This photo was later proved to be a hoax but interest and popularity soared.

 

In folklore, the Loch Ness Monster is an aquatic being which reputedly inhabits Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands. It is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere, although its description varies; it is described by most as large. Popular interest and belief in the creature has varied since it was brought to worldwide attention in 1933. Evidence of its existence is anecdotal, with few, disputed photographs and sonar readings.

The most common speculation among believers is that the creature represents a line of long-surviving plesiosaurs.[5] While adherents of cryptozoology, a pseudoscience, describe the creature as a cryptid,[6] the scientific community regards the Loch Ness Monster as a myth, explaining sightings as misidentifications of mundane objects, hoaxes, and wishful thinking.[7] The creature has been affectionately called Nessie[b] (Scottish Gaelic: Niseag)[8] since the 1940s.

 

Origins

The word “monster” was reportedly applied for the first time to the creature on 2 May 1933 by Alex Campbell, water bailiff for Loch Ness and a part-time journalist, in an Inverness Courier report.[10][11][12] On 4 August 1933 the Courier published a report by Londoner George Spicer that several weeks earlier, while they were driving around the loch, he and his wife saw “the nearest approach to a dragon or pre-historic animal that I have ever seen in my life” trundling across the road toward the loch with “an animal” in its mouth.[13] Letters began appearing in the Courier, often anonymously, claiming land or water sightings by the writer, their family or acquaintances or remembered stories.[14] The accounts reached the media, which described a “monster fish”, “sea serpent”, or “dragon”[15] and eventually settled on “Loch Ness monster”.[16]

On 6 December 1933 the first purported photograph of the monster, taken by Hugh Gray, was published in the Daily Express;[17] the Secretary of State for Scotland soon ordered police to prevent any attacks on it.[18] In 1934, interest was further piqued by the “surgeon’s photograph”. That year, R. T. Gould published an account[19] of the author’s investigation and a record of reports predating 1933. Other authors have claimed sightings of the monster dating to the sixth century AD.

 

History

Saint Columba (565)

The earliest report of a monster in the vicinity of Loch Ness appears in the Life of St. Columba by Adomnán, written in the seventh century AD.[20] According to Adomnán, writing about a century after the events described, Irish monk Saint Columba was staying in the land of the Picts with his companions when he encountered local residents burying a man by the River Ness. They explained that the man was swimming in the river when he was attacked by a “water beast” which mauled him and dragged him underwater. Although they tried to rescue him in a boat, he was dead. Columba sent a follower, Luigne moccu Min, to swim across the river. The beast approached him, but Columba made the sign of the cross and said: “Go no further. Do not touch the man. Go back at once.”[21] The creature stopped as if it had been “pulled back with ropes” and fled, and Columba’s men and the Picts gave thanks for what they perceived as a miracle.[21] The oldest manuscript relating to this story was put online in 2012.[22]

Believers in the monster point to this story, set in the River Ness rather than the loch itself, as evidence for the creature’s existence as early as the sixth century.[23] Sceptics question the narrative’s reliability, noting that water-beast stories were extremely common in medieval hagiographies and Adomnán’s tale probably recycles a common motif attached to a local landmark.[24] According to sceptics, Adomnán’s story may be independent of the modern Loch Ness Monster legend and became attached to it by believers seeking to bolster their claims.[23] According to R. Binns, this account is the most credible of the early sightings of the monster; all other claims before 1933 are dubious and do not prove a tradition of sightings before that date.[11]

D. Mackenzie (1871–72)

Pre-1933 sightings of the creature were rare.[25] In October 1871 (or 1872), D. Mackenzie of Balnain reportedly saw an object resembling a log or an upturned boat “wriggling and churning up the water”. The object moved slowly at first, disappearing at a faster speed.[26][27] Mackenzie sent his story in a letter to Rupert Gould in 1934, shortly after popular interest in the monster increased.[27]

William Fraser (1938)

In 1938 William Fraser, chief constable of Inverness-shire, wrote a letter that the monster existed beyond doubt and expressed concern about a hunting party which had arrived (with a custom-made harpoon gun) determined to catch the monster “dead or alive”. He believed his power to protect the monster from the hunters was “very doubtful”. The letter was released by the National Archives of Scotland on 27 April 2010.[33][34]

C. B. Farrel (1943)

In May 1943, C. B. Farrel of the Royal Observer Corps was reportedly distracted from his duties by a Nessie sighting. He claimed to have been about 230 metres (750 ft) away from a large-eyed, “finned” creature with a 6-to-9-metre (20 to 30 ft) long body and a neck which protruded about 1.2 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) out of the water.[35]

Sonar readings (1954)

In December 1954, sonar readings were taken by the fishing boat Rival III. Its crew noted a large object keeping pace with the vessel at a depth of 146 metres (479 ft). It was detected for 800 m (2,600 ft) before contact was lost and regained.[35] Previous sonar attempts were inconclusive or negative.

 

Photos and video

Hugh Gray photograph (1933)

On 12 November 1933, Hugh Gray was walking along the loch after church when he reportedly saw a large creature rising from the lake. Gray took several pictures, but only one was successfully developed. The blurry image appeared to show a creature with a long tail and thick body on the surface of the loch.[36] Although critics have claimed that the photograph is of Gray’s Labrador Retriever swimming towards the camera (possibly carrying a stick), researcher Roland Watson suggests that there is an eel-like head on the right side of the image.[37] This is the first known photograph of the creature.

“Surgeon’s photograph” (1934)

The “surgeon’s photograph” is reportedly the first photo of the creature’s head and neck.[38] Supposedly taken by Robert Kenneth Wilson, a London gynaecologist, it was published in the Daily Mail on 21 April 1934.[39] Wilson’s refusal to have his name associated with its led to its being known as the “surgeon’s photograph”.[40] According to Wilson, he was looking at the loch when he saw the monster, grabbed his camera and snapped four photos. Only two exposures came out clearly; the first reportedly shows a small head and back, and the second shows a similar head in a diving position. The first photo became well-known, and the second attracted little publicity because of its blurriness.

Although for a number of years the photo was considered evidence of the monster, sceptics dismissed it as driftwood,[27] an elephant,[41] an otter, or a bird. The photo’s scale was controversial; it is often shown cropped (making the creature seem large and the ripples like waves), while the uncropped shot shows the other end of the loch and the monster in the centre. The ripples in the photo were found to fit the size and pattern of small ripples, unlike large waves photographed up close. Analysis of the original image fostered further doubt. In 1993, the makers of the Discovery Communications documentary Loch Ness Discovered analysed the uncropped image and found a white object visible in every version of the photo (implying that it was on the negative). It was believed to be the cause of the ripples, as if the object was being towed, although the possibility of a blemish on the negative could not be ruled out. An analysis of the full photograph indicated that the object was small, about 60 to 90 cm (2 to 3 ft) long.[40]

Since 1994, most agree that the photo was an elaborate hoax.[40] It had been accused of being a fake in a 7 December 1975 Sunday Telegraph article which fell into obscurity.[42] Details of how the photo was taken were published in the 1999 book, Nessie – the Surgeon’s Photograph Exposed, which contains a facsimile of the 1975 Sunday Telegraph article.[43] The creature was reportedly a toy submarine built by Christian Spurling, the son-in-law of Marmaduke Wetherell. Wetherell had been publicly ridiculed by his employer, the Daily Mail, after he found “Nessie footprints” which turned out to be a hoax. To get revenge on the Mail, Wetherell perpetrated his hoax with co-conspirators Spurling (sculpture specialist), Ian Wetherell (his son, who bought the material for the fake), and Maurice Chambers (an insurance agent).[44] The toy submarine was bought from F. W. Woolworths, and its head and neck were made from wood putty. After testing it in a local pond the group went to Loch Ness, where Ian Wetherell took the photos near the Altsaigh Tea House. When they heard a water bailiff approaching, Duke Wetherell sank the model with his foot and it is “presumably still somewhere in Loch Ness”.[27] Chambers gave the photographic plates to Wilson, a friend of his who enjoyed “a good practical joke”. Wilson brought the plates to Ogston’s, an Inverness chemist, and gave them to George Morrison for development. He sold the first photo to the Daily Mail,[45] who then announced that the monster had been photographed.[27]

Little is known of the second photo; it is often ignored by researchers, who believe its quality too poor and its differences from the first photo too great to warrant analysis. It shows a head similar to the first photo, with a more turbulent wave pattern and possibly taken at a different time and location in the loch. Some believe it to be an earlier, cruder attempt at a hoax,[46] and others (including Roy Mackal and Maurice Burton) consider it a picture of a diving bird or otter which Wilson mistook for the monster.[26] According to Morrison, when the plates were developed Wilson was uninterested in the second photo; he allowed Morrison to keep the negative, and the second photo was rediscovered years later.[47] When asked about the second photo by the Ness Information Service Newsletter, Spurling ” … was vague, thought it might have been a piece of wood they were trying out as a monster, but [was] not sure.”[48]

The hoax story is disputed by Henry Bauer, who claims that the debunking is evidence of bias and asks why the perpetrators did not reveal their plot earlier to embarrass the newspaper.[49] According to Alastair Boyd, a researcher who uncovered the hoax, the Loch Ness Monster is real; the surgeon’s photo hoax does not mean that other photos, eyewitness reports, and footage of the creature are also, and he claims to have seen it.[50]

Tim Dinsdale disputes the claim that the photograph is a hoax in his book, Loch Ness Monster, after reportedly extensively studying the photograph from a number of angles: “Upon really close examination, there are certain rather obscure features in the picture which have a profound significance.”[51] Two are a solid object breaking the surface to the right of the neck and a mark to the left and behind the neck.[52] According to Dinsdale, the objects are either a subtle fake or part of the monster.[53] Others are vague, small ripples behind the neck, apparently after the neck broke the surface.[53]

Taylor film (1938)

In 1938, South African tourist G. E. Taylor filmed something in the loch for three minutes on 16 mm colour film. The film was obtained by popular-science writer Maurice Burton, who did not show it to author Peter Costello and the Loch Ness Investigation Bureau.[citation needed] A single frame was published in his 1961 book, The Elusive Monster.

Dinsdale film (1960)

Aeronautical engineer Tim Dinsdale filmed a hump which left a wake crossing Loch Ness in 1960.[54] Dinsdale, who reportedly had the sighting on his final day of search, described it as reddish with a blotch on its side. He said that when he mounted his camera the object began to move, and he shot 40 feet of film. According to JARIC, the object was “probably animate”.[55][third-party source needed] Others were sceptical, saying that the “hump” cannot be ruled out as being a boat[56] and when the contrast is increased, a man in a boat can be seen.[55]

In 1993 Discovery Communications produced a documentary, Loch Ness Discovered, with a digital enhancement of the Dinsdale film. A person who enhanced the film noticed a shadow in the negative which was not obvious in the developed film. By enhancing and overlaying frames, he found what appeared to be the rear body of a creature underwater: “Before I saw the film, I thought the Loch Ness Monster was a load of rubbish. Having done the enhancement, I’m not so sure”.[50] According to sceptics, the angle of the film from the horizontal and the sun’s angle that day made underwater shadows unlikely.[57] Although the darker water is coincidentally shaped like a body,[58] there may be a smaller object (a second hump or a head) in front of the hump.[58]

“Loch Ness Muppet” (1977)

On 21 May 1977 Anthony “Doc” Shiels, camping next to Urquhart Castle, took “some of the clearest pictures of the monster until this day”.[citation needed] Shiels, a magician and psychic, claimed to have summoned the animal out of the water. He later described it as an “elephant squid”, claiming the long neck shown in the photograph is actually the squid’s “trunk” and that white spot at the base of the neck is its eye. Due to the lack of ripples, it has been declared a hoax by a number of people and received its name because of its staged look.[59][60][61]

Holmes video (2007)

On 26 May 2007, 55-year-old laboratory technician Gordon Holmes videotaped what he said was “this jet black thing, about 14 metres (46 ft) long, moving fairly fast in the water.”[62] Adrian Shine, a marine biologist at the Loch Ness 2000 Centre in Drumnadrochit, described the footage as among “the best footage [he had] ever seen.”[62] BBC Scotland broadcast the video on 29 May 2007.[63] STV News North Tonight aired the footage on 28 May 2007 and interviewed Holmes. Shine was also interviewed, and suggested that the footage was an otter, seal or water bird.[64] According to Joe Nickell, the footage shows a beaver or otter swimming in the loch.[65]

Sonar image (2011)

On 24 August 2011 Loch Ness boat captain Marcus Atkinson photographed a sonar image of a 1.5-metre (4 ft 11 in), unidentified object which seemed to follow his boat for two minutes at a depth of 23 m (75 ft), and ruled out the possibility of a small fish or seal. In April 2012, a scientist from the National Oceanography Centre said that the image is a bloom of algae and zooplankton.[66]

George Edwards photograph (2011)

On 3 August 2012, skipper George Edwards published what he claimed to be “the most convincing Nessie photograph ever”,[citation needed] which he said he took on 2 November 2011. Edwards’ photograph shows a hump above the water which, he said, remained there for five to ten minutes. According to Edwards, the photograph was independently verified by a Nessie sighting specialist and a group of US military monster experts. Edwards reportedly spent 60 hours per week on the loch aboard his boat, Nessie Hunter IV, on which he takes tourists for rides on the lake and claimed to have searched for the monster for 26 years.[67][68] Edwards said, “In my opinion, it probably looks kind of like a manatee, but not a mammal. When people see three humps, they’re probably just seeing three separate monsters.”[69]

Other researchers have questioned the photograph’s authenticity, and Loch Ness researcher Steve Feltham suggested that the object in the water is a fibreglass hump used in a National Geographic Channel documentary in which Edwards had participated.[70] Researcher Dick Raynor has questioned Edwards’ claim of discovering a deeper bottom of Loch Ness, which Raynor calls “Edwards Deep”. He found inconsistencies between Edwards’ claims for the location and conditions of the photograph and the actual location and weather conditions that day. According to Raynor, Edwards told him he had faked a photograph in 1986 which he claimed was genuine in the Nat Geo documentary.[71] Although Edwards admitted in October 2013 that his 2011 photograph was a hoax,[72] he insisted that the 1986 photograph was genuine.[73]

David Elder video (2013)

On 27 August 2013, tourist David Elder presented a five-minute video of a “mysterious wave” in the loch. According to Elder, the wave was produced by a 4.5 m (15 ft) “solid black object” just under the surface of the water.[74] Elder, 50, from East Kilbride, South Lanarkshire, was taking a picture of a swan at the Fort Augustus pier on the south-western end of the loch,[75] when he captured the movement.[76] He said, “The water was very still at the time and there were no ripples coming off the wave and no other activity on the water.”[76] Sceptics suggested that the wave may have been caused by a wind gust.[77]

Apple Maps photograph (2014)

On 19 April 2014, it was reported[4] that a satellite image on Apple Maps showed what appeared to be a large creature (thought by some to be the Loch Ness Monster) just below the surface of Loch Ness. At the loch’s far north, the image appeared about 30 metres (98 ft) long. Possible explanations were the wake of a boat (with the boat itself lost in image stitching or low contrast), seal-caused ripples, or floating wood.[78][79]

Google Street View (2015)

Google commemorated the 81st anniversary of the “surgeon’s photograph” with a Google Doodle,[80] and added a new feature to Google Street View with which users can explore the loch above and below the water.[81][82] Google reportedly spent a week at Loch Ness collecting imagery with a street-view “trekker” camera, attaching it to a boat to photograph above the surface and collaborating with members of the Catlin Seaview Survey to photograph underwater.[83]

 

Searches

Edward Mountain expedition (1934)

After reading Rupert Gould‘s The Loch Ness Monster and Others,[19] Edward Mountain financed a search. Twenty men with binoculars and cameras positioned themselves around the loch from 9 am to 6 pm for five weeks, beginning on 13 July 1934. Although 21 photographs were taken, none was considered conclusive. Supervisor James Fraser remained by the loch filming on 15 September 1934; the film is now lost.[84] Zoologists and professors of natural history concluded that the film showed a seal, possibly a grey seal.[85]

Loch Ness Phenomena Investigation Bureau (1962–1972)

The Loch Ness Phenomena Investigation Bureau (LNPIB) was a UK-based society formed in 1962 by Norman Collins, R. S. R. Fitter, politician David James, Peter Scott and Constance Whyte[86] “to study Loch Ness to identify the creature known as the Loch Ness Monster or determine the causes of reports of it.”[87] The society’s name was later shortened to the Loch Ness Investigation Bureau (LNIB), and it disbanded in 1972. The LNIB had an annual subscription charge, which covered administration. Its main activity was encouraging groups of self-funded volunteers to watch the loch from vantage points with film cameras with telescopic lenses. From 1965 to 1972 it had a caravan camp and viewing platform at Achnahannet, and sent observers to other locations up and down the loch.[88] According to the bureau’s 1969 annual report [89] it had 1,030 members, of whom 588 were from the UK.

Sonar study (1967–1968)

D. Gordon Tucker, chair of the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Birmingham, volunteered his services as a sonar developer and expert at Loch Ness in 1968.[90] His gesture, part of a larger effort led by the LNPIB from 1967 to 1968, involved collaboration between volunteers and professionals in a number of fields. Tucker had chosen Loch Ness as the test site for a prototype sonar transducer with a maximum range of 800 m (2,600 ft). The device was fixed underwater at Temple Pier in Urquhart Bay and directed at the opposite shore, drawing an acoustic “net” across the loch through which no moving object could pass undetected. During the two-week trial in August, multiple targets 6 m (20 ft) in length were identified rising from and diving to the loch bottom. Analysis of diving profiles ruled out air-breathers, because the targets never surfaced or moved shallower than midwater.[citation needed]

Robert Rines studies (1972, 1975, 2001, 2008)

In 1972, a group of researchers from the Academy of Applied Science led by Robert H. Rines conducted a search for the monster involving sonar examination of the loch depths for unusual activity. Rines took precautions to avoid murky water with floating wood and peat.[citation needed] A submersible camera with a floodlight was deployed to record images below the surface. If Rines detected anything on the sonar, he turned the light on and took pictures.

On 8 August Rines’ Raytheon DE-725C sonar unit, operating at a frequency of 200 kHz and anchored at a depth of 11 metres (36 ft), identified a moving target (or targets) estimated by echo strength at 6 to 9 metres (20 to 30 ft) in length. Specialists from Raytheon, Simrad (now Kongsberg Maritime), Hydroacoustics, Marty Klein of MIT and Klein Associates (a side-scan sonar producer) and Ira Dyer of MIT’s Department of Ocean Engineering were on hand to examine the data. P. Skitzki of Raytheon suggested that the data indicated a 3-metre (10 ft) protuberance projecting from one of the echoes. According to author Roy Mackal, the shape was a “highly flexible laterally flattened tail” or the misinterpreted return from two animals swimming together.[91]

Concurrent with the sonar readings, the floodlit camera obtained a pair of underwater photographs. Both depicted what appeared to be a rhomboid flipper, although sceptics have dismissed the images as the bottom of the loch, air bubbles, a rock, or a fish fin. The apparent flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement.[92] The first flipper photo is better-known than the second, and both were enhanced and retouched from the original negatives. According to team member Charles Wyckoff, the photos were retouched to superimpose the flipper; the original enhancement showed a considerably less-distinct object. No one is sure how the originals were altered.[93]

British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975, on the basis of the photographs, that the creature’s scientific name would be Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Greek for “Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin”).[94] Scott intended that the name would enable the creature to be added to the British register of protected wildlife. Scottish politician Nicholas Fairbairn called the name an anagram for “Monster hoax by Sir Peter S”.[95][96]

Another sonar contact was made, this time with two objects estimated to be about 9 metres (30 ft). The strobe camera photographed two large, white, lumpy objects surrounded by a flurry of bubbles. Some interpreted the objects as two plesiosaur-like animals, suggesting several large animals living in Loch Ness. This photograph has rarely been published.

In 2001, Rines’ Academy of Applied Science videotaped a V-shaped wake traversing still water on a calm day. The academy also videotaped an object on the floor of the loch resembling a carcass and found marine clamshells and a fungus-like organism not normally found in freshwater lochs, a suggested connection to the sea and a possible entry for the creature.[97]

In 2008 Rines theorised that the creature may have become extinct, citing the lack of significant sonar readings and a decline in eyewitness accounts. He undertook a final expedition, using sonar and an underwater camera in an attempt to find a carcass. Rines believed that the animals may have failed to adapt to temperature changes resulting from global warming.[98]

Operation Deepscan (1987)

Operation Deepscan was conducted in 1987.[99] Twenty-four boats equipped with echosounder equipment were deployed across the width of the loch, and simultaneously sent acoustic waves. According to BBC News the scientists had made sonar contact with an unidentified object of unusual size.[citation needed] The researchers returned, re-scanning the area. Analysis of the echosounder images seemed to indicate debris at the bottom of the loch, although there was motion in three of the pictures. Adrian Shine speculated, based on size, that they might be seals which had entered the loch.[100]

Sonar expert Darrell Lowrance, founder of Lowrance Electronics, donated a number of echosounder units used in the operation. After examining a sonar return indicating a large, moving object at a depth of 180 metres (590 ft) near Urquhart Bay, Lowrance said: “There’s something here that we don’t understand, and there’s something here that’s larger than a fish, maybe some species that hasn’t been detected before. I don’t know.”[101]

Searching for the Loch Ness Monster (2003)

In 2003, the BBC sponsored a search of the loch using 600 sonar beams and satellite tracking. The search had sufficient resolution to identify a small buoy. No animal of substantial size was found and, despite their high hopes, the scientists involved admitted that this proved the Loch Ness Monster was a myth. Searching for the Loch Ness Monster aired on BBC One.[102]

Explanations

A number of explanations have been suggested to account for sightings of the creature. They may be categorised as misidentifications of known animals, misidentifications of inanimate objects or effects, reinterpretations of Scottish folklore, hoaxes, and exotic species of large animals.

Misidentification of known animals

Bird wakes

Wakes have been reported when the loch is calm, with no boats nearby. Bartender David Munro reported a wake he believed was a creature zigzagging, diving, and reappearing; there were reportedly 26 other witnesses from a nearby car park.[93][better source needed] Although some sightings describe a V-shaped wake similar to a boat’s,[97] others report something not conforming to the shape of a boat.[50] Under calm conditions, creatures invisible to the naked eye (such as a group of swimming birds) may leave a V-shaped wake. They can leave the water and land again, leaving a series of wakes like an object breaking the surface (which Dick Raynor cites as a possible explanation of his film).[103]

Eels

A large eel was an early suggestion.[18] Eels are found in Loch Ness, and an unusually-large one would explain many sightings.[104] Dinsdale dismissed the hypotheses, because eels undulate side to side like snakes.[105] Sightings in 1856 of a “sea-serpent” (or kelpie in a freshwater lake near Leurbost in the Outer Hebrides were explained as those of an oversized eel, also believed common in “Highland lakes””[106]

On 2 May 2001, two conger eels were found on the shore of the loch. Since that fish is a marine species, they were considered a hoax.[107]

Elephant

In a 1979 article, California biologist Dennis Power and geographer Donald Johnson claimed that the “surgeon’s photograph” was the top of the head, extended trunk and flared nostrils of a swimming elephant photographed elsewhere and claimed to be from Loch Ness.[41] In 2006, palaeontologist and artist Neil Clark suggested that travelling circuses might have allowed elephants to bathe in the loch; the trunk could be the perceived head and neck, with the head and back the perceived humps. In support of this, Clark provided a painting.[108]

Greenland shark

Angler and television presenter Jeremy Wade investigated the creature in 2013 as part of the series River Monsters, and concluded that it is a Greenland shark. The Greenland shark, which can reach up to 20 feet in length, inhabits the North Atlantic Ocean around Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and possibly Scotland. It is dark in colour, with a small dorsal fin.[109] According to biologist Bruce Wright, the Greenland shark could survive in fresh water (possibly using rivers and lakes to find food) and Loch Ness has an abundance of salmon and other fish.[110][111]

Wels catfish

In July 2015 three news outlets reported that Steve Feltham, after a vigil at the loch which was recognized by the Guinness Book of Records, theorised that the monster is an unusually-large specimen of Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) which may have been released during the late 19th century.[112][113][114]

Resident animals

It is difficult to judge the size of an object in water through a telescope or binoculars with no external reference. Loch Ness has resident otters, and photos of them and deer swimming in the loch which were cited by author Ronald Binns[115] may have been misinterpreted. According to Binns, birds may be mistaken for a “head and neck” sighting.[116]

Seals

During the 1930s, Dutch zoologist Antoon Cornelis Oudemans proposed that the creature might be an unknown form of long-necked pinniped (semi-aquatic mammal, including the seals). In 1892, he concluded that several sightings of sea serpents were probably large, plesiosaur-like pinnipeds and named a hypothetical species of long-necked pinniped Megophias megophias. According to Oudemans, the Loch Ness Monster was a freshwater version of Megophias megophias.[citation needed]

A number of photographs and a video have confirmed the presence of seals in the loch for as long as several months at a time.[117][118] In 1934 the Edward Mountain expedition analysed film taken that year and concluded that the monster was a species of seal; a Daily Mirror headline read, “Loch Ness Riddle Solved – Official”.[119] A long-necked seal was hypothesised by Peter Costello for Nessie and for other reported lake monsters.[120] According to R. T. Gould, “A grey seal has a long and surprisingly extensible neck; it swims with a paddling action; its colour fits the bill; and there is nothing surprising in its being seen on the shore of the loch, or crossing a road.”[19] This explains sightings of lake monsters on land in which the creature reportedly waddled into the loch when startled, consistent with seal behaviour.[120] Seals would account for sonar traces of animate objects. However, it has been argued that all known pinnipeds sunbathe on land during the day.[121]

Misidentifications of inanimate objects or effects

Trees

In 1933, the Daily Mirror published a picture with the caption: “This queerly-shaped tree-trunk, washed ashore at Foyers [on Loch Ness] may, it is thought, be responsible for the reported appearance of a ‘Monster'”.[122] In a 1982 series of articles for New Scientist, Maurice Burton proposed that sightings of Nessie and similar creatures may be fermenting Scots pine logs rising to the surface of the loch. A decomposing log could not initially release gases caused by decay because of its high resin level. Gas pressure would eventually rupture a resin seal at one end of the log, propelling it through the water (sometimes to the surface). According to Burton, the shape of tree logs (with their branch stumps) closely resembles descriptions of the monster.[123][124][125]

Four Scottish lochs, including Loch Morar, Loch Ness and Loch Lomond, are very deep. Only lochs with pine forests on their shores have monster legends; Loch Lomond, with no such forests, does not. Gaseous emissions and surfactants resulting from log decay can cause the foamy wake reported in some sightings, and beached pine logs showing evidence of deep-water fermentation have been found. However, believers say that some lakes have reports of monsters despite an absence of pines; one example is the Irish lough monsters.[126][better source needed]

Seiches and wakes

Loch Ness, because of its long, straight shape, is subject to unusual ripples affecting its surface. A seiche is a large oscillation of a lake, caused by water reverting to its natural level after being blown to one end of the lake (resulting in a standing wave); the Loch Ness oscillation period is 31.5 minutes.[127]

Boat wakes can produce strange effects in the loch. As a wake spreads from a boat passing the centre of the loch, it hits both sides almost simultaneously and deflects back to meet in the middle. The movement produces standing waves larger than the original wake, which may appear humped. Since the boat has passed, the unusual waves are all that can be seen.[128][129]

Optical effects

Wind conditions can give a choppy, matte appearance to the water, with calm patches appearing dark from the shore (reflecting the mountains). In 1979 W. H. Lehn showed that atmospheric refraction could distort the shape and size of objects and animals,[130] and later published a photograph of a mirage of a rock on Lake Winnipeg which resembled a head and neck.[131]

Seismic gas

Italian geologist Luigi Piccardi has proposed geological explanations for ancient legends and myths. Piccardi noted that in the earliest recorded sighting of a creature (the Life of Saint Columba), the creature’s emergence was accompanied “cum ingenti fremitu” (“with loud roaring”). The Loch Ness is along the Great Glen Fault, and this could be a description of an earthquake. Many reports consist only of a large disturbance on the surface of the water; this could be a release of gas through the fault, although it may be mistaken for something swimming below the surface.[132]

According to Ronald Binns, there is probably no one explanation of the monster. A wide range of natural phenomena have been hypothesised, including otters, swimming deer, and unusual waves. Binns wrote that an aspect of human psychology is the ability of the eye to see what it wants, and expects, to see.[11]

Folklore

In 1980 Swedish naturalist and author Bengt Sjögren wrote that present beliefs in lake monsters such as the Loch Ness Monster are associated with kelpie legends. According to Sjögren, accounts of loch monsters have changed over time; originally describing horse-like creatures, they were intended to keep children away from the loch. Sjögren wrote that the kelpie legends have developed into descriptions reflecting a modern awareness of plesiosaurs..[133]

The kelpie as a water horse in Loch Ness was mentioned in an 1879 Scottish newspaper,[134] and inspired Tim Dinsdale‘s Project Water Horse.[135] A study of pre-1933 Highland folklore references to kelpies, water horses and water bulls indicated that Ness was the loch most frequently cited.[136]

Hoaxes

A number of hoax attempts have been made, some of which were successful. Other hoaxes were revealed rather quickly by the perpetrators or exposed after diligent research. A few examples follow.

In August 1933, Italian journalist Francesco Gasparini submitted what he said was the first news article on the Loch Ness Monster. In 1959, he reported sighting a “strange fish” and fabricated eyewitness accounts: “I had the inspiration to get hold of the item about the strange fish. The idea of the monster had never dawned on me, but then I noted that the strange fish would not yield a long article, and I decided to promote the imaginary being to the rank of monster without further ado.”[137]

In the 1930s, big-game hunter Marmaduke Wetherell went to Loch Ness to look for the monster. Wetherell claimed to have found footprints, but when casts of the footprints were sent to scientists for analysis they turned out to be from a hippopotamus; a prankster had used a hippopotamus-foot umbrella stand.[138]

In 1972 a team of zoologists from Yorkshire’s Flamingo Park Zoo, searching for the monster, discovered a large body floating in the water. The corpse, 4.9–5.4 m (16–18 ft) long and weighing as much as 1.5 tonnes, was described by the Press Association as having “a bear’s head and a brown scaly body with clawlike fins.” The creature was placed in a van to be carried away for testing, but police seized the cadaver under an act of parliament prohibiting the removal of “unidentified creatures” from Loch Ness. It was later revealed that Flamingo Park education officer John Shields shaved the whiskers and otherwise disfigured a bull elephant seal which had died the week before and dumped it in Loch Ness to dupe his colleagues.[citation needed] On 2 July 2003, Gerald McSorely a fossil supposedly from the creature when he tripped and fell into the loch. After examination, it was clear that the fossil had been planted.[107]

In 2004 a Five TV documentary team, using cinematic special-effects experts, tried to convince people that there was something in the loch. They constructed an animatronic model of a plesiosaur, calling it “Lucy”. Despite setbacks (including Lucy falling to the bottom of the loch), about 600 sightings were reported where she was placed.[139][140]

In 2005, two students claimed to have found a large tooth embedded in the body of a deer on the loch shore. They publicised the find, setting up a website, but expert analysis soon revealed that the “tooth” was the antler of a muntjac.[141] The tooth was a publicity stunt to promote a horror novel by Steve Alten, The Loch.[107]

In 2007, a video reportedly showing Nessie jumping into the air appeared on YouTube. It was unmasked by eSkeptic as an advertisement for Sony Pictures’ The Water Horse,[142] since the video contained footage from the film.

Exotic large-animal species

Plesiosaur

Lochneska_poboba_museumofnessie

In 1933 it was suggested that the creature “bears a striking resemblance to the supposedly extinct plesiosaur“,[143] a long-necked aquatic reptile which became extinct during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. A popular explanation at the time, the following arguments have been made against it:

  • Plesiosaurs were probably cold-blooded reptiles needing warm tropical waters; the average temperature of Loch Ness is only about 5.5 °C (42 °F).[144] If the plesiosaurs were warm-blooded, they would require a food supply beyond that supplied by Loch Ness.[145]
  • In an October 2006 New Scientist article, “Why the Loch Ness Monster is no plesiosaur”, Leslie Noè of the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge said: “The osteology of the neck makes it absolutely certain that the plesiosaur could not lift its head up swan-like out of the water”.[146]
  • The loch is only about 10,000 years old, dating to the end of the last ice age. Before then, it was frozen for about 20,000 years.[147]
  • If creatures similar to plesiosaurs lived in Loch Ness they would be seen frequently, since they would have to surface several times a day to breathe.[100]

In response to these criticisms, Tim Dinsdale, Peter Scott and Roy Mackal postulate a trapped marine creature which evolved from a plesiosaur directly or by convergent evolution.[148] Robert Rines explained that the “horns” in some sightings as breathing tubes (or nostrils), allowing it to breathe without breaking the surface.

Long-necked giant amphibian

R. T. Gould suggested a long-necked newt;[19][149] Roy Mackal examined the possibility, giving it the highest score (88 percent) on his list of possible candidates.[150]

Invertebrate

In 1968 F. W. (Ted) Holiday proposed that Nessie and other lake monsters, such as Morag, may be a large invertebrate such as a bristleworm; he cited the extinct Tullimonstrum as an example of the shape.[151] According to Holiday, this explains the land sightings and the variable back shape; he likened it to the medieval description of dragons as “worms”. Although this theory was considered by Mackal, he found it less convincing than eels, amphibians or plesiosaurs.[

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interesting aprons I have seen

June 21, 2016

Aprons as I understand are mainly used while cooking.

apron

An apron is an outer protective garment that covers primarily the front of the body. It may be worn for hygienic reasons as well as in order to protect clothes from wear and tear, or else due to a symbolic meaning.

The apron is commonly part of the uniform of several work categories, including waitresses, nurses, and domestic workers. Many homemakers also wear them. It is also worn as a decorative garment by women. Aprons are also worn in many commercial establishments to protect workers clothes from damage, mainly bib aprons, but also others such as blacksmith or farrier aprons.

In addition to cloth, aprons can be made from a variety of materials. Rubber aprons are commonly used by persons working with dangerous chemicals, and lead aprons are commonly worn by persons such as X-ray technicians who work near radiation. Aprons, such as those used by carpenters, may have many pockets to hold tools. Waterproof household aprons, made of oilcloth or PVC are suitable for cooking and washing dishes.

There are other “aprons” such as Airport apron and Blue Apron.

However, the aprons I am writing about here are those used in the kitchen for cooking or washing utensils after cooking and eating meals.

Redapr

I have seen interesting aprons on sale in different countries in Europe. What caught my eye were 2 aprons being sold in Rome. I’ll show them at the end of the blog. First I want to say that these different interesting aprons reflect different tastes of the citizens.

Here is the apron sold in Edinburgh

apron Edinburgh

 

This is the one being sold in Paris

apron Paris

This reflects the attutude of the French and the Scots and their preferences and sensibilities.

However, I find the following aprons being sold in Rome, Italy.

apron Rome 2

and also

apron Rome 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

here are aprons sold in Venice, Italy

apron Venice 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

apron Venice 3

 

 

 

 

 

Pareinma ပရိမၼ, Kyansittha’s က်န္စစ္သား / ကလန္ စစ္သာ birthplace

December 23, 2015

 

Every Myanmar knows about Kyansit min / king Kyansittha, but not everyone knows where he was born.

 

Kyan Sit Min 10352583

Kyansit min / King Kyansitthar က်န္စစ္သား / ကလန္ စစ္သာ

 

King Kyansittha was born in Pareinma ပရိမၼ / Payeimma, Sagaing_far from the capital Bagan. It is located on the northern bank of the Chindwin river not far from where it joins the Ayeyarwaddy.

Pareinma location map 1525618

 

 

Although there are differences regarding the birth date of King Kyansittha as mentioned in various chronicles, it is generally accepted that he was born 21 July 1030 Tuesday, 5th waning of Wagaung 392 ME

There also has been much controversy regarding his ancestry. There has been traditional stories concerning the origin of his name and this too has been debated by those who hold different views.

 

It is mentioned that Pyinsa Kalayni (Burmese: ပဉ္စကလျာဏီ [pjɪ̀ɴsa̰ kəljənì]) was the mother of King Kyansittha of Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). Burmese chronicles give many inconsistent stories about her, her son and her brief husband Anawrahta. Most are regarded as legends.

She was a princess of Wethali Kingdom, who was sent to marry Anawrahta by her father the ruler of Wethali. Wethali / Vesali is in the present-day Rakhine State and was the capital of Rakhine at the time and just north of the present day Mrauk U.

 

However, although it has been written that the name of the princess was Pyinsa Kalayni (Burmese: ပဉ္စကလျာဏီ [pjɪ̀ɴsa̰ kəljənì]) I believe there is an error and that the real name is Pyinsar Kalayarni (Burmese: ပဉ္စာကလျာဏီ because at the time of Anawratha, Vesali no longer was the Rakhine capital but Pyinsar ပဉ္စာ was.

 

The Waytharli ေ၀သာလီ / Vesali era ended AD 794, well before the reign of Anawratha. This was followed by the capital being built at Sambawak by Saw Shwe Lu (Nga Tong Mong) who moved the capital again to the Le Mro river valley and established Pyinsa. There followed a period of the shifting of the capital to Parein, Taung Ngu and Laungkret / ေလာင္းၾကက္ all on the Le Mro river_hence the river came to be known as Le Mro / ေလးျမိဳ႕ (meaning 4 cities in Rakhine language and also in Burmese too although pronounced differently).

 

Wikipedia: On her way to Pagan, she (Pyinsa Kalayni) became intimately involved with Yazataman, the Pagan official charged with guarding her. The official dispersed her retinue of 80_a few at a stop on their way to Bagan. At Pagan, she was married to Anawrahta. Soon after the marriage, Yazataman reportedly pointed out to Anawrahta that she could not be a true royal princess because she lacked a retinue. Anawrahta then banished Pyinsa Kalayni, who was then pregnant, an area near Sagaing _Pareinma. There, she gave birth to Kyansittha and raised him by herself.

The chronicle stories here are filled with many inconsistencies. The chronicles claim that Anawrahta was already king when Pyinsa Kalayni was sent. But Anawrahta did not become king until 1044. Kyansittha was born in 1030. Moreover, it was unlikely that the ruler of Wethali would have sent his daughter to Anawrahta who until 1044 was a prince but not to Sokkate, the king himself. The chronicles also claim that Anawrahta tried to kill off all babies in the year that Kyansittha was born because his astrologers predicted that a newborn would be king. Again, Anawrahta was not the king.

 

There are stories regarding the killing of pregnant women earlier on Anawratha’s orders because of the astrologers (ponnas) first predicted that the future king will be born in the north. ေျမာက္အရပ္မွာ မင္းေလာင္းေပၚမည္။ This is also in contradiction to the tradition that Pyinsa Kalayni was his mother. If it were so, why were other pregnant women killed too? It would be sufficient to order the killing of Pyinsa Kalayarni as her whereabouts would be known to the authorities. Anyway, as has been passed on, the pregnant Pyinsa Kalayarni managed to evade the killers and the future king was born at Pareinma.

There was another episode in which Anawratha asked the astrologers about the future king and on being told that the boy was still alive and attending the monastery school, boys that age were killed on Anawratha’s orders but Kyansittha managed to elude the killers and lived on. It was much later that Anawratha asked the astrologers about the topic again. This time, they said the young man was still alive and also the fact that he would not be successor of Anawratha but only that of the next king. Anawratha was relieved that this future king will do him no harm. He had him searched for and brought to Bagan. As a survivor of multiple purges, he was called Kyansittha_ the soldier (army officer) who remains” / က်န္စစ္သား in Burmese.

 

It has also been mentioned in Wikipedia that_History shows that Anawrahta did not seem to know (or care) about her alleged affair with Yazataman, and believed that Kyansittha was his son. He recalled Kyansittha to Pagan in the mid-1050s, and appointed the 15-year-old Kyansittha a senior commander in his army. Only the royalty could become a senior commander at a young age. However, actually, Kyansittha would be in his mid 20s at the time as he was born in 1030.

The fact that Kyansitthar was the son of Anawrahta is completely a made-up story by later historians. The inscription by Kyansithar himself described that his paternal ancestors decended from sun အာဒၵိစ ေနမ်ိဳး၊ and his maternal ancestors from oake-shit thee ဥသွ်စ္သီးမ်ိဳး. He claimed himself to be reincarnation of Vishnu ဗိႆႏိုး နတ္မင္းႀကီး ၀င္စား သူျဖစ္. If he were the son of Anawrahta, there is no reason to have written like that and hid the truth. So he clearly was a commoner without any royal lineage, but could reunite the country during anarchy period after war between Sawlu and Ngayamankan.

ေရႊစည္းခံု ေက်ာက္စာ စစခ်င္း- ငါသည္ ၿဂီေကၼၾတ (ပ်ဴၿမိဳ ႔ေတာ္) ကိုတည္ေသာ ဗိႆႏိုး နတ္မင္းႀကီး ၀င္စား သူျဖစ္ ေတာ့သည္ လို႔ တြယ္လိုက္ပါတယ္။ ဖခင္ က အာဒၵိစ ေနမ်ိဳး၊ မိခင္ က ဥသွ်စ္သီးမ်ိဳး လို႔ေရး ပါတယ္။ အနိ ရုဒၶ ရဲ ႔သားလို႔ ဒီေက်ာက္စာ မွာလည္း မေတြ႔၊ ဘယ္ေခတ္ၿပိဳင္ ေက်ာက္စာ မွာမွ မေတြ႔ရပါ။

ထိလိုင္မင္ ကို အနိ ရုဒၶ ရဲ ႔သား ဆိုတဲ့ အဆိုကို ပယ္ၿပီး ငတပါးမင္း လို႔ယူရ ပါမယ္။ အမ်ား သူငါ ထဲမွာ အစြမ္း အစ အရွိဆံုး က်န္ေန ရစ္တဲ့ စစ္သား ႀကီး မို႔ က်န္စစ္သား လို႔ေခၚတယ္ ဆိုတဲ့ စကား ဟာလည္း ရီစရာ ေတာင္ေကာင္း ေလာက္ေအာင္ လြဲပါတယ္။ ကလန္ စစ္သာ လို႔ ေက်ာက္စာ မွာ ေတြ႔ ရတာ ေတာ့ရွိတယ္။ ကလန္ ဆိုတာ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရး အရာ ရွိ ရာထူး၊ စစ္သာ ဆိုတာ အမ်ားသံုး ခုေခတ္ စစ္သား မဟုတ္။ စစ္သား လို႔ အဲဒီ ေခတ္က မေခၚ၊ စစ္ သူရဲ လို႔သာ ေခၚပါတယ္။ စစ္သာ က ရိုးရာ အလိုက္ ၿမိဳ ႔နယ္ ေက်းရြာ ကိုအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ ရသူ လို႔ အဓိပၸါယ္ ရတယ္။ ၀မ္းတြင္း ၿမိဳ ႔နယ္၊ ထီးလိွဳင္ ၿမိဳ ႔သူႀကီး၊ ရြာသူႀကီး လို႔ေျပာတာပါ။

 

Pareinma is a village with many pagodas commemorating the early life of Kyansittha there.

Ein Taw Yar pagoda အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ေစတီ

Ein Taw Yar pagoda Pareinma 10409156

The Ein Taw Yar pagoda အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ေစတီ ´

The Ein Taw Yar pagoda အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ေစတီ ´(က်န္စစ္သား မင္းေနခဲ့သည္ ့ အိမ္ေနရာ တြင္ တည္ထားသည္) is built on the site where the boy Kyansittha (his childhood name is not known) and his mother’s house was.

 

Hinn Kharr temple `ဟင္းခါးဂူ ေစတီေတာ္

Hinn Kharr Gu pagoda Pareinma 10419452

Hinn Kharr temple `ဟင္းခါးဂူ ေစတီေတာ္

Another is the Hinn Kharr temple `ဟင္းခါးဂူ ေစတီေတာ္´ (က်န္စစ္သား မယ္ေတာ္ ဟင္းခါး ခ်က္ေသာက္ခဲ့ ေသာ ေနရာ တြင္ တည္ထားသည္) built on the spot where Kyansittha’s mother cooked Hinn Kharr (bitter) soup.

 

Areindamar pagoda `အရိႏၵမာ ေစတီေတာ္´

Ahreindhammar pagoda Pareinma 10413438

Areindamar pagoda `အရိႏၵမာ ေစတီေတာ္´

There is the Areindamar pagoda `အရိႏၵမာ ေစတီေတာ္´ (က်န္စစ္သား လွံကစားရာ ေတာင္ဘက္၌ လွံသြားက်ေရာက္သည့္ ေနရာတြင္ တည္ထားသည္) where the Areindamar lance fell. This episode must have happened during the time when Kyansittha ran into hiding, taking the Areindamar lance with him. It shows that Kyansittha sojourned in Pareinma at least for a while during his first escapade from king’s Anawratha’s wrath although his first exile (1070s – 1077) was mostly at Kaungbyu (likely in the Sagaing District), and where he got married to Thanbula, niece of the head abbot of the local monastery. He was in his early 30s (actually was in his 40s). He lived there for the remainder of Anawrahta’s reign until 1077.

Enormous lion of the Hti Hlaing Shin pagoda ထီးလိွဳင္႐ွင္ ျခ ေသၤ့ ၾကီး

Pareinma sunset lion 10409013

The lion of the Hti Hlaing Shin pagoda ထီးလိွဳင္႐ွင္ ျခ ေသၤ့ ၾကီး

On the bank of the Chindwin river is the enormous lion of the Hti Hlaing Shin pagoda ထီးလိွဳင္႐ွင္ ျခ ေသၤ့ ၾကီး တည္ေနရာ ၊ ၊ ခ်င္းတြင္းျမစ္ ကမ္းနဖူး built by King Kyansittha after he became king. There is only one lion statute ထူးျခားခ်က္ ၊ ၊ တစ္ေကာင္ တည္း႐ွိျခင္း၊ ပါးစပ္ ရာ ဇဝင္ မ်ား အရ ပံုျပင္ဆန္၍ အမ်ား စိတ္ဝင္စား ၾကျခင္း which is peculiar as there are usually 2 lions elsewhere.

 

Hti Hlaing Shin pagoda Pareinma river view

View of the Hti Hlaing Shin pagoda from the river side

 

Pareinma is a nice place with splendid sunset views.

Pareinma sunset 10997003

sunset view of the Chindwin at Pareinma

 

Pareinma sunset 10968251

sunset view of the Chindwin at Pareinma

After King Kyansittha’s death, Pareinma faded into peaceful oblivion until early this year, 2015, when there was a noviciation ceremony of grandiose scale nearby, and the news made national headlines.

 

For the sake of those who cannot read Burmese, I will write about the 5000 novice ceremony, but I advise Burmese reading visitors to read the news extract about it and the news articles in Burmese towards the end of the blog following the post script.

 

The 5000 novices initiating ceremony

The 5000 novices initiating ceremony was held near the Pareinma village, Myaung townshop, Sagaing Region 15 May to 1 June 2015 by the Shwe Than Lwin Company (Sky Net) under the guidance of the Koe Hse Has Sayardaw ကုိးဆယ္ဆအနႏၲေမတၱာရွင္ ဆရာေတာ္, amounting to the total of 50000 lakhs kyats (5000,000,000 Kts / 5 Billion). It is the most elaborate ceremony seen in recent years and 5000 boys of 10 to 16 years age in Sagaing Region and the Pa O, Shan, Kayin, Mon and Naga boys from afar, all of them who have not been initiated previously entered novicehood. It has been arranged since February by an abbot / sayardaw of Magyibote village monastery မက်ည္း ဘုတ္ ရြာေက်ာင္း.

Eveyday, over 10,000 people are being fed in relation to the ceremonies which will last till the end of the May.

 

The main ceremony hall and the dining hall are built on the 3 acre groundnut fields outside Buu Kaing village, along with buildings for the novices, clinic, information centre and toilets.

 

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Opening ceremony 15 May 2015

The opening ceremony was held on 15-May.

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The donors of the Shwe Than Lwin Company (Sky Net)

 

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The would be novices ရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား

The ceremonial procession was led by the elders holding the flowers for Buddha and Pa-riek water pots.

 

Next came the Buddha image vehicle in the shape of a Nagar (dragon) breathing out smoke.

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the Buddha image vehicle in the shape of a Nagar (dragon) breathing out smoke

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Galon ဂဠဳံ, a mythical bird

Then comes the Galon, a mythical bird, followed by elephants, horses, ceremonial bullock carts, and people in Bagan, Ava and Konebaung style attire.

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the first of the 9 elephants with the to be novice ရွင္ေလာင္း

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another of the 9 elephants with the novice to be ဆင္စီးရွင္ေလာင္း

 

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novices to be on 108 horses ျမင္းစီးရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား

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novices to be on 1 of 90 ceremonial bullock carts လွည္းယာဥ္ေၾကာ႔စီးရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား

 

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ceremonial bullock cart with novices to be ႏြား လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့စီး ရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား

 

 

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Bagan era attire

There are many people looking on along the route, amounting to tens of thousands. The famous traditional opera star Mandalay Thein Zaw performed the ceremonial rites.

In the central hall are Chinese style dragons and the statutes of the 7 day animals_Galon, tiger, lion, elephant, 1 tusk elephant (hine ဟိုင္း), guinea pig, rat and nagar (dragon).

The procession route is from the central hall to the Hti Hlaing Shin pagoda at the Pareinma village about 4 miles away and includes 9 elephants, 108 horses, 90 gold and silver carts and over a thousand people.

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the 9 elephants with the to be novices ဆင္စီးရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား

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novices to be on 108 horses ျမင္းစီးရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား

 

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the 90 gold and silver carts with novices to be ႏြား လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့စီး ရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား

 

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1 of the 90 gold and silver carts with a novice to be ႏြား လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့စီး ရွင္ေလာင္း

 

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another of the 90 gold and silver carts with novice to be ႏြား လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့စီး ရွင္ေလာင္း

 

The future novices are feted by the famous traditional actors Mandalay Thein Zaw and Nann Win with the Mandalay Sein Duwa orchestra (saing ah phwet ဆိုင္းအဖြဲ့). Included also are the near extinct 90 ceremonial bullock carts ႏြား လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့မ်ား.

There are music and dance entertainment at nights.

Free food has been offered to all for months.

For the ceremonial day 2559 monks including many famous Sayardaws / monks have been invited.

On the 16-May, donor of the day meal for the 5000 novices and 1000 senior monks, President U Than Sein, Daw Khin Khin Win and family will arrive and present the meal. That day famous singer Daw Yi Yi Thant and other Myanmar traditional singers will perform.

Beginning from 17 May, the novices will be taught Buddhism and meditation for 10 days.

From 20 – 24 May, Sayardaws will preach about the way to Nirvana.

On 28 and 29 May, Pho Chit traditional troupe will entertain the public.

Over 3 billion kyats 30,000 lakhs have been donated for the Koe Hse Hsa social associations in surrounding villages of Myaung township.

On the early morning of 16 May, since 3 a.m., the day of the water pouring donation ceremony, unexpected heavy rains and winds bring about havoc at the ceremony hall and novice halls with water entering the halls and damaging some halls.

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After the rains

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the novice hall

 

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the damage

The water pouring donation ceremony has been postponed to 24 May and the novices returned to where they come from.

 

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the novices returned to where they come from.

 

 

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the novices returned to where they come from.

 

Post script

Last, but not least, I would like to mention my thanks to various persons who helped me to write this article / post. First, to my younger son Linn Zaw Win who encouraged me to resume my posts, by sending me discussions he had online with his friends about my earlier posts. I thought no one cares about my posts but was surprised that they read and like some of my posts. I reviewed my posts on WordPress and found on the first page, the blog Htihlaing Shin ထီးလႈိင္ရွင္ Kyansittha က်န္စစ္သား / ကလန္ စစ္သား posted April 3, 2012. This led to my discussion with LZW about my later knowledge about the location of Hti Hlaing which I did not know at the time. He encouraged me to write a blog regarding Pareinma and Hti Hlaing but although I have intended to extend it to include other places in Kyansittha’s life also, I have shortened the topic to Pareinma only so that I can finish and post earlier and readers will not be burdened by a too long blog.

I have to thank Min Zaw Htun, a friend in my company who was born in the Buu Kaing village, near Pareinma and later moved to Myingyan. He told me about Parienma after we discussed the 5000 novices donation ႐ွင္၅၀၀၀ ေထာင္အလွူ held outside his village during the hot season ေႏြ of 2015.

I searched for more data than I had read about on the internet and found 2 sites, the Pareinma – ပရိမၼ.FB and the King Kyan Sis Thar FB sites which gave me a lot of information about Pareinma that I had not known, in addition to the Wikipedia (where everyone has to turn to in order to get facts) and the travel sites.

My special thanks to King Kyan Sis Thar FB site which shared my Htihlaing Shin ထီးလႈိင္ရွင္ Kyansittha က်န္စစ္သား / ကလန္ စစ္သား blog and also to the ၿမိတ္ခရိုင္ စာေရးဆရာ မ်ား အသင္း FB site who shared my photo of Myeik taken on the memorable cruise trip to Kawthaung, Ranong and Myeik with the m.v. Thanlwin. They liked my blog and photo and thought it worth sharing so more have seen the shared blog and photo (with caption_short note, which I took care to write on most of my posted photos although few seem to care about them, only taking in having a look at the photos).

I first intended to use this postscript as an epilogue, but have saved this for the end of my blog and so, only the news about the 5000 novices initiation ceremony in Myanmar follows.

 

 

 

 

 

ရွင္အပါး ငါးေထာင္အလွဴ

 

ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီမွ ျပဳလုပ္ေသာ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴပြဲ

ျပည္ေထာင္စုသမၼတ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံေတာ္အစုိးရအဖြဲ႕၏ ပါရမီကုသုိလ္ ပ့ံပုိးကူညီေဆာင္ရြက္လွဴ ဒါန္းမႈျဖင့္

ရန္ကုန္တုိင္းေဒသႀကီး သံဃနာယကအဖြဲ႕ ဥကၠ႒ ဆရာေတာ္ ဘဒၵႏၲဣဒၶိဗလ အဂၢမဟာ သဒၵမၼ ေဇာတိကဓဇ၊ ေဇယ်ာလူမႈထူးခြၽန္ ပထမအဆင့္၊ “ကုိးဆယ္ဆအနႏၲေမတၱာရွင္ ဆရာေတာ္မွ ဦးစီးဦးေဆာင္

စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအစုိးရအဖြဲ႕၊ ၀န္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ဦးသာေအး က ဦးေဆာင္ေကာ္မတီဖြဲ႕စည္းၿပီး၊

ေရႊသံလြင္ ကုမၸဏီမိသားစုတုိ႔မွ မတည္လွဴဒါန္း

သာသနာ့ဒါယကာ သာ သနာ့ဒါယိကာမအျဖစ္ ေရႊသံလြင္ မိသားစုကုမၸဏီမွ ရွင္အပါး ငါး ေထာင္ရွင္ျပဳအလွဴပြဲႀကီးကို ေမ လ ၁၅ ရက္မွ ဇြန္လ ၁ ရက္အထိ က်င္းပလ်က္ရွိသည္။

ယင္းအလွဴအတန္းပြဲႀကီးကုိ စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္း၀န္ႀကီးခ်ုဳပ္ ဦးသာေအး၊ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီ( Sky Net )တို႔က
သိန္းေပါင္း ငါးေသာင္းအကုန္အက်ခံ၍ က်င္းပေသာ ရွင္ ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴႀကီးျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

 

ျမန္မာျပည္အရပ္ရပ္မွ တိုင္း ရင္းသားေပါင္း စုံ ရွင္သာမေဏေလာင္း လ်ာ ငါးေထာင္ေက်ာ္တို႔အား ရွစ္ ပါးပရိကၡရာစုံလင္ စြာျဖင့္ ပဗၺဇၨအေမြ ရွင္သာမေဏျပဳေပးျခင္း အလႉ ေတာ္မဂၤလာ

စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအတြင္းရွိ ရွင္မျပဳရေသးသည့္ ကေလးငယ္မ်ားအား ရွင္ျပဳေပးသည့္ အလွဴေတာ္မဂၤလာပြဲ

စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအတြင္းရွိ ရွင္မျပဳရေသးသည့္ တုိင္းရင္းသားေပါင္းစုံ ရွင္သာမေဏ ေလာင္းလ်ာ ၅၀၀၀ တုိ႔အား သာသနာ့ေဘာင္အတြင္းသုိ႔ သြတ္သြင္းျခင္း မဂၤလာ

စစ္ကိုင္းတုိင္းအတြင္း ရွင္မျပဳရေသး တဲ့ ကေလးငယ္ေတြ သာမက ပအို႔ဝ္၊ ရွမ္း၊ ကရင္၊ မြန္၊ နာဂ စတဲ့ တုိင္းရင္းသားကေလးငယ္ ေတြ ပါဝင္ခဲ့တယ္။

 

ယင္းအလႉပြဲတြင္ သာမေဏ မ်ား ႀကီးၾကပ္တာဝန္ယူထားေသာ မက်ည္း ဘုတ္ ရြာေက်ာင္းမွ ဆရာ ေတာ္တစ္ပါးက ”ေဖေဖာ္ဝါရီ လ ေလာက္ က တည္းက စီစဥ္ေနတာ ပါ။ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္က ေက်ာင္းတိုက္ အသီးသီးက ဆရာေတာ္ေတြကလဲ ဒီမွာလာၿပီး စီစဥ္ေပးၾက တယ္။ တစ္ခါမွ ရွင္မျပဳ ဖူးေသး တဲ့ အသက္ ၁၀ ႏွစ္ကေန ၁၆ ႏွစ္အတြင္း ကေလး ငယ္ေတြ ကို ေက်းရြာ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရး မႉးေတြကတစ္ဆင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏျပဳ ဖို႔ စာရင္းေပး ခိုင္းရပါတယ္။ ေန႔စဥ္ ပရိသတ္ ေသာင္းခ်ီကို စတုဒိသာ ေကၽြးေနတာပါ။ အလႉက ဒီလကုန္ ေလာက္ထိ က်င္းပသြားမွာပါ”ဟု အလႉပြဲစီစဥ္မႈမ်ားကို မိန႔္ၾကားသည္။

 

အလႉေတာ္မဂၤလာမ႑ပ္ႏွင့္ စတုဒိသာေကၽြးေမြးသည့္ ေျမေနရာ မွာ ဘူးကိုင္း စံျပေက်းရြာ အေနာက္ ေျမာက္ဘက္ ေျမပဲစိုက္ကြင္းမ်ားရွိ သုံးဧကခန႔္က်ယ္ဝန္းေသာ ေနရာ၌ တည္ရွိၿပီး ေရႊတိဂုံပုံတူ ေစတီေတာ္၊ အလႉဗဟိုမ႑ပ္၊ ရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား ထားရာေနရာ၊ က်န္းမာေရးဌာ နႏွင့္ ျပန္ၾကားေရး ဌာနမ်ား၊ သန႔္စင္ခန္း မ်ား တည္ေဆာက္ထားသည္။

 

စစ္ကုိင္းခ႐ုိင္၊ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕ နယ္၊ ဘူးကုိင္းစံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ ျပဳလုပ္သည့္ ရွင္အပါး ငါးေထာင္အလွဴ ဖြင့္ပြဲအခမ္းအနားကုိ ယေန႔ ေမလ ၁၅ ရက္နံနက္က ျပဳလုပ္က်င္းပခဲ့သည္။

အလႉေတာ္မဂၤလာ မုခ္ဦးဖြင့္ ပြဲကို ဆရာေတာ္ႏွင့္တကြ စစ္ကိုင္း တိုင္းေဒ သႀကီး လႊတ္ေတာ္ဥကၠ႒၊ အေနာက္ေျမာက္တိုင္းစစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္ တိုင္းမႉး ၊ ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီမိသားစု ဝင္မ်ားတို႔က စက္ခလုတ္ႏွိပ္၍ ဖဲႀကိဳး ျဖတ္ ဖြင့္ေပးခဲ့ၾကသည္။

 

ညပိုင်းဆိုရင်လဲ ရိုးရာ အကတွေနဲ့ ဖျော်ဖြေကြတယ်။

 

အလှူ လှည့်ရာမှာ ရှေ့ဆုံးကဘုရားပန်း ကိုင်၊ ပရိတ်အိုးတွေရွက်တဲ့လူကြီး တွေပေါ့။ နောက်ပြီးဘုရားပင့်လာ တဲ့ယာဉ်က နဂါးပုံစံပါ၊ ပါးစပ်က လဲ အငွေ့တွေထုတ်တယ်။ နောက်က ဂဠုန်ပုံပါ။ အဲဒီနော က်မှ ဆင်တွေ၊ မြင်းတွေ၊ နွားလှည်းတွေ၊ ပုဂံ၊ အင်း ဝ၊ ကုန်းဘောင် စတဲ့ ဝတ်စားဆင် ယင်မှုတွေနဲ့ လူပရိသတ်တွေလိုက် လာတယ်။ မဏ္ဍပ်ထဲမှာလဲ တရုတ် နဂါးလိုပုံ စံတွေထားတယ်။ နေ့နံ အလိုက် ရုပ်ပုံတွေရော ချိတ်ထား တယ်။ အဲဒီလိုအလှူပွဲကြီးမျိုး မတွေ့ဖူးသေးဘူး။ လမ်းကနေထွက် ကြည့်ကြတဲ့လူတွေကလဲ သောင်းချီ ရှိတယ်။ ဇာတ်မင်းသားကြီး မန္တလေး သိန်းဇော်ရဲ့ ဘိသိက်သွန်းတာကို ရော ကြည့်ချင်လို့ပါ”ဟု မြောင်မြို့ နယ် ကျားအိုကျေးရွာမှ လာရောက် ကြည့်ရှုသူ အမျိုးသမီးတစ်ဦးက ပြောသည်။

 

ရွင္ေလာင္း လွည့္ရာ လမ္း ေၾကာင္း မွာ ဘူးကိုင္းရြာ ကိုးဆယ္ဆ အနႏၲေမတၱာ အလႉမဂၤလာ ဗဟိုမ႑ပ္ ႏွင့္ ေလးမိုင္ခန႔္ကြာေဝးေသာ ပုဂံ ေခတ္ က်န္ စစ္သား မင္းႀကီး ေမြးဖြား ရာ၊ ပရိမၼေက်းရြာ၊ ထီးလွိုင္ရွင္ေစ တီ ေတာ္ျမတ္ႀကီးအထိ ဆင္ရတနာကိုး စီး၊ ျမင္းရတနာ ၁၀၈စီး၊ ေရႊလွည္း ေငြလွည္း အစီး ၉ဝအပါအဝင္ လူ ပရိသတ္ေထာင္ေက်ာ္ျဖင့္ လွည့္လည္ ခဲ့ၾကသည္။

ရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ားကို မႏၲေလးၿမိဳ႕ စိန္ဒူးဝါးဆုိင္းအဖြဲ႕ႏွင့္အတူ မင္းသားမႏၲေလးသိန္းေဇာ္၊ နန္းဝင္းတုိ႔က ဘိသိက္ သြန္းေလာင္းေပးျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။

အညာေဒသတြင္ ေပ်ာက္ ကြယ္လုနီးပါးျဖစ္ေနသည့္ ႏြား လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့မ်ားကို အစီး ၉၀ ထည့္သြင္းအသံုးျပဳခဲ့ရာ  လွည္း ယဥ္ အမ်ားဆံုးျဖင့္ ျပဳလုပ္သည့္  ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေဒသခံမ်ားက ေျပာၾကားသည္။

ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲတြင္ နဂါး႐ုပ္ႏွင့္ ဂဠဳန္႐ုပ္မ်ားကို အသံုးျပဳခဲ့၍ ယၾတာေခ်သည့္အေနျဖင့္အသံုးျပဳျခင္း ျဖစ္ႏုိင္ေၾကာင္း ေဒသခံမ်ားက ခန္႔မွန္းေနၾကသည္။

‘‘ရွင္ငါးေထာင္ အလွဴလွည့္ ပြဲမွာ ေတာင္သူေတြ စိတ္ဝင္စား မႈအမ်ားဆံုးကေတာ့ ႏြားလွည္း ယဥ္ေၾကာ့ အစီး ၉၀ တန္းစီ ေမာင္းတာကိုပဲ။ လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့က အညာေဒသမွာ ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္လုဆဲဆဲ၊ အခုလို ႏြားလွည္းယဥ္ေတြ အမ်ားႀကီးတန္းစီ ေမာင္းတာ တစ္ခါမွမႀကံဳဖူးဘူး။ ဆင္ေတြ၊ ျမင္းေတြ၊ ႏြားလွည္းယဥ္ေတြနဲ႔ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ အစည္ကားဆံုးလို႔ ေျပာလို႔ရတယ္။ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲမွာ နဂါး႐ုပ္ေတြ၊ ဂဠဳန္႐ုပ္ေတြ၊ ဆင္ေတြ၊ ျမင္းေတြ၊ ႏြားလွည္းယဥ္ေတြက ေဗဒင္ယၾတာေခ်တယ္လို႔လည္း ေျပာေနၾကတယ္’’ဟု ရွင္ငါးေထာင္အလွဴလွည့္ပြဲသို႔ သြားေရာက္ၾကည့္႐ႈခဲ့ေသာ ေခ်ာင္းဦးၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ေဒသခံေတာင္သူတစ္ဦးကေျပာသည္။

ႏြားလွည္း ယဥ္ေတြကိုေတာ့ စစ္ကိုင္းၿမိဳ႕က ငွားရမ္းခဲ့တာပါ။ ဆင္ကိုေတာ့ သစ္ေတာဦးစီးဌာနက ျဖစ္ပါ တယ္။ ျမင္းကိုေတာ့ အနယ္နယ္ အရပ္ရပ္က ငွားရမ္းခဲ့တယ္’’ဟု စစ္ကိုင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအစုိးရ အဖြဲ႕ စည္ပင္သာယာေရးဝန္ႀကီး ဦးတင့္လိႈင္ျမင့္က ေျပာၾကား သည္။

 

ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ ျဖတ္သန္း သြားရာ လမ္းတစ္ေလၽွာက္ရွိ အုတ္ ႏွဲဘုတ္ ရြာမွ အသက္ ၈၀ အရြယ္ ေဒၚခ်ိဳက ”တစ္သက္နဲ႔တစ္ကိုယ္ ဒီလိုႀကီးက်ယ္တဲ့ အလႉပြဲႀကီး မ်ိဳး မျမင္ဖူးလို႔ သာဓုေခၚခ်င္လို႔ လာ ၾကည့္တာပါ။ ဆရာေတာ္ က ေျမာင္ နယ္ လက္ပံရြာမွာေမြးေပမယ့္ ဘူး ကိုင္းမွာ သာမေဏဝတ္ ခဲ့ေတာ့ ေက်း ဇူးဆပ္ပြဲျပဳလုပ္တာထင္ပါရဲ့။ အရင္ ကလဲ ရွင္အပါးတစ္ရာ လုပ္ခဲ့ဖူး တယ္။ ရြာနီးခ်ဳပ္စပ္ကိုလဲ စတုဒိသာ ထမင္းေကၽြးေနတာ လခ်ီေနၿပီ။ အလႉက မလုပ္ခင္ကတည္းက လူ အမ်ားစိတ္ဝင္စားေန တဲ့ပြဲပါ”ဟု ေျပာ သည္။

 

 

ရှင်အပါးငါးထောင် အလှူပွဲ တွင် နိုင်ငံတော်ဩဝါဒါစရိယ ဆရာ တော်ကြီးများ၊ နိုင်ငံတော် သံဃမဟာ နာယက၊ နိုင်ငံတော် ဗဟိုသံဃာ့ ဝန် ဆောင်ဆရာတော်ကြီးများ၊ တိပိဋက ဓရ၊ တိပိဋကကောဝိ ဒဆရာတော်များ၊ ဂိုဏ်းပေါင်းစုံ သံဃနာယကအဖွဲ့ဝင် ဆရာတော်ကြီး များ အမှူးပြုသော ပင့်သံဃာ ၂၅၅၉ ပါးတို့အားလည်း ပင့်လျှောက်ထားပြီး နေ့ဆွမ်း၊သင်္ကန်း အစရှိသော လှူဖွယ်တို့ကို ဆက်ကပ် လှူဒါန်းမည်ဖြစ်သည်။

 

မေ ၁၆ ရက်၌လည်း ရှင်သာ မဏေအပါးငါးထောင်နှင့် ကြီးကြပ် ဆရာတော် အပါး ၁၀၀၀ တို့အား နေ့ဆွမ်းအလှူရှင် နိုင်ငံတော်သမ္မတ ဦးသိန်းစိန်နှင့် ဇနီး ဒေါ်ခင်ခင်ဝင်း မိသားစုတို့ လာရောက်၍ နေ့ဆွမ်း ဆက်ကပ်လှူဒါန်းမည်ဖြစ်ကြောင်း စုံစမ်းသိရှိရသည်။ မေ ၁၇ ရက် မှစ၍ ရှင်သာမဏေ အပါး ငါး ထောင်ကျော်တို့အား ဆရာတော် ဘဒ္ဒန္တဣဒ္ဓိဗလနှင့် ကိုးဘွဲ့ရ ဆရာ တော် အရှင်အာစာရာ လင်္ကာရတို့ က ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာယဉ်ကျေးလိမ္မာသင် တန်းပို့ချခြင်းနှင့် တရားရှုမှတ်နည်း များကို ၁၀ ရက်တိုင်တိုင် နေ့၊ သင်ကြားပေး သွားမည်ဖြစ်ကြောင်း သိရ သည်။

ယင်းနေ့တွင် နိုင်ငံကျော်တေး သံရှင် ဒေါ်ရီရီသန့်နှင့် မြန်မာမှုတေး သံရှင်များက သီဆိုဧည့်ခံဖျော်ဖြေ ပြီး နိုင်ငံကျော် ဓမ္မကထိက ဆရာ တော်များက မေ ၂၀ ရက်မှ ၂၄ ရက် အထိ ငါးရက်တိုင် တိုင် နိဗ္ဗာန်ရောက် ကြောင်း တရားတော်များ ဟောကြား မည်ဖြစ်သည်။

ထို့ပြင် မေ ၂၈ ရက်နှင့် ၂၉ ရက် ညပိုင်းတွင် မြို့ရွှေမန်းသားဖိုးချစ်ဇာတ် အဖွဲ့မှ ဧည့်ခံကပြသွားမည်ဖြစ် ကြောင်းသိရသည်။ ရန်ကုန်တိုင်းဒေ သကြီး သံဃနာ ယကအဖွဲ့ဥက္ကဋ္ဌ ဆရာတော် ဘဒ္ဒန္တ ဣဒ္ဓိဗလသည် မြောင်မြို့နယ်အတွင်း ရှိ တဲသာ၊ ဘူးကိုင်း၊ သီရိဇေယျာ၊ အုတ်နှဲဘုတ်၊ ကျားအို၊ ရွှေပန်း၊ လက် ပံ၊ ရွှေယင်းမာ၊ ပရိမ္မ စသောကျေး ရွာများ၌ ကိုးဆယ်ဆ အနန္တမေတ္ တာ ပရဟိတလူမှုရေး အသင်းများကို ထူ ထောင်ပေးထားပြီး အဆိုပါလူမှု အသင်းများထံသို့ ငွေကျပ်သိန်းပေါင်း သုံးသောင်းကျော် ထောက်ပံ့လှူဒါန်း ထားပြီဖြစ်ကြောင်း ဘူးကိုင်း ရွာလူမှု ကူညီရေး အသင်းအဖွဲ့ဝင် ကိုထွန်း မင်းလတ်ကပြောသည်။

 

 

 

 

အလွဴေရစက္ခ် အခမ္းအနားက်င္းပရန္ စီစဥ္ထားသည့္ ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔ နံနက္ပိုင္းတြငမိုးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းျခင္း၊ ေလျပင္းတုိက္ခတ္ ျခင္းတို႔ေၾကာင့္ ရွင္ငါးေထာင္ အလွဴပြဲက်င္းပလ်က္ရွိသည့္ ဗဟိုမ႑ပ္အပါအဝင္ ရွင္သာမေဏ မ်ား သီတင္းသံုးသည့္  မ႑ပ္မ်ား တြင္ မိုးေရမ်ား ဝင္ေရာက္ကာ  မ႑ပ္အခ်ိဳ႕ ယိုင္လဲခဲ့သည္။

 

ရာသီဥတုကလည္း မုိးရြာတာပဲရွိတာပါ။ ေလျပင္း လုံး၀မတုိက္ပါဘူး။ ဘာပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ပါ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ ပြဲကေတာ့ ေအာင္ေအာင္ျမင္ျမင္ က်င္းပႏုိင္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ကူညီ၀ုိင္း၀န္းေပးသူ အားလုံးကုိ ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါတယ္”ဟု စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီး အစုိးရအဖြဲ႕မွ အတြင္းေရးမွဴး ဦးစုိးစုိးဇင္က ေျပာၾကားသည္။

 

“မိုးက မနက္အေစာပိုင္းမွာ သည္းသည္းမည္းမည္းကို ရြာတာ။ အခ်ိဳ႕မ႑ပ္ေတြမွာ မိုးကာရွိေပမယ့္ အခ်ိဳ႕မ႑ပ္ေတြက ထန္းလက္ေတြနဲ႔ မိုးထားေတာ့ မိုးမလုံဘူး။ ကိုရင္ေတြကလည္း ငါးေထာင္ဆိုေတာ့ မိုးရြာတဲ့အခ်ိန္ ေနရာေရႊ႕ဖို႔ အခက္အခဲျဖစ္ေတာ့ မ႑ပ္ေတြ ေဆာက္ထားတဲ့ ကြင္းျပင္က်ယ္ႀကီးထဲမွာ အထုပ္ေတြဆြဲၿပီး ဟိုေျပးဒီေျပးနဲ႔ေပါ့” ဟုအဆိုပါအလွဴပြဲသို႔ ေရာက္ရွိေနသည့္ ဌာနဆိုင္ရာ ဝန္ထမ္းတစ္ဦးက ဆိုသည္

 

‘‘မနက္ ၃ နာရီဝန္းက်င္က တည္းက ေလေတြလည္း တုိက္ မုိးေတြလည္း သည္းေနခဲ့တာ။ မနက္မိုးလင္းေတာ့ ရွင္ေလာင္း ေတြေနတဲ့ မ႑ပ္အခ်ိဳ႕က လဲေန တယ္။ မ႑ပ္ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား ေရေတြ ဝင္ေနတာ။ ရွင္ေလာင္း ေတြကိုလည္း ေရလြတ္ရာ ေက်ာက္ ရစ္စာသင္ေက်ာင္းကို ယာယီေျပာင္းေရႊ႕ထားတယ္။ ရွင္သာမေဏေတြ ထိခိုက္မႈမရွိပါဘူး’’ဟု ေက်ာက္ရစ္ေက်းရြာ ေဒသခံတစ္ဦးက ေျပာသည္

“မုိးက မနက္ ၂ နာရီေက်ာ္ေလာက္မွာ ရြာတာ။ ေရလည္းမ်ားတယ္။ မုိးက တျခားေဒသေတြမွာ နည္းနည္းရြာၿပီးေတာ့ ဒီအလွဴ လုပ္တဲ့ ေဒသဘက္မွာ အရမ္းမ်ားေတာ့ မ႑ပ္ေတြထဲမွာ ေရေတြ၀င္ၿပီး နစ္ကုန္တယ္။ တခ်ဳိ႕မ႑ပ္ေတြဆုိ ၿပိဳက်သြားတယ္”ဟု ေဒသခံ တစ္ဦးက ဆုိသည္။

ရာသီဥတုဒဏ္ေၾကာင့္ မဟာမ႑ပ္တစ္ခုနဲ႔ ရွင္သာမေဏ မ႑ပ္ေလးခုေလာက္ ယုိင္နဲ႔သြားပါတယ္။ ႀကီးႀကီးမားမား ပ်က္စီးဆုံး႐ႈံးတာမ်ဳိး မရွိပါဘူး။

 

ယင္းကဲ့သုိ႔ မုိးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ေငြက်ပ္ သိန္းေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ ဆုံးရႈံးမႈရွိႏုိင္ေၾကာင္း သုံးသပ္မႈမ်ားလည္း ရွိေနၾကသည္။

 

‘‘ဒီေန႔မနက္ မုိးေတြ အရမ္း သည္း၊ ေလေတြတုိက္လို႔ အလွဴ ေရစက္ခ်မယ့္ရက္ကို ေမလ ၂၄ ရက္ေန႔ ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕လိုက္တာပါ။ ေစာေစာက ဒီေန႔အခမ္းအနားမွာ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္သမၼတႀကီး ကိုယ္တုိင္ တက္ေရာက္ဖို႔ စီစဥ္ထားတာ။ ရွင္ေလာင္းေတြက မေန႔ကတည္းက ရွင္သာမေဏအျဖစ္ ဝတ္ၿပီးၿပီျဖစ္ တဲ့အတြက္ အလွဴပြဲက ေရစက္ခ် ဖို႔ပဲ က်န္ေတာ့တယ္’’ဟု စစ္ကိုင္း တုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအစိုးရအဖြဲ႕ တာ ဝန္ရွိသူတစ္ဦးက ေျပာသည္။

 

ျပည္ေထာင္စုသမၼတ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕၏ ပံ့ပိုးမႈျဖင့္ က်င္းပေသာ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္မွ သာမေဏငါးေထာင္ ရွင္ျပဳအလွဴပြဲသို႔ ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ သမၼတဦးသိန္းစိန္ တက္ေရာက္ရန္ စီစဥ္ခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း ယင္းေန႔နံနက္ အေစာပိုင္းက မိုးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းၿပီး မ႑ပ္မ်ားအတြင္း ေရဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ေသာေၾကာင့္ သမၼတခရီးစဥ္ ပ်က္ျပယ္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း အလွဴပြဲတြင္ တာဝန္က်ေနသည့္ အစိုးရဝန္ထမ္းမ်ားႏွင့္ အလွဴပြဲသို႔ ေရာက္ရွိေနသူမ်ားထံမွ သိရသည္

 

ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔က ေရစက္ခ်ရန္ စီစဥ္ထားခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း မိုးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းခဲ့ေသာေၾကာင့္ ေမလ၂၄ ရက္ ေန႔မွသာ ေရစက္ခ်ေတာ့မည္ဟု စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသႀကီး အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕ဝင္ ဝန္ႀကီးတစ္ဦးက ေျပာၾကားသည္။
“ရက္ေရႊ႕လိုက္တာ ဟုတ္ပါတယ္။ ေနရာကေတာ့ ဘူးကိုင္းစံျပေက်းရြာ အနီးမွာပဲ ျပန္လုပ္မွာပါ”ဟု သူကဆိုသည္။

 

ေမ ၁၆ ရက္ နံနက္အေစာပုိင္းက ရြာသြန္းခဲ့သည့္ မုိးေၾကာင့္ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ ေက်ာ္အား အလွဴမ႑ပ္မ်ားအတြင္း၌ ေရမ်ား၀င္ေရာက္ေနျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ဘူးကုိင္းစံျပေက်းရြာအနီးရွိ ေက်ာက္ရစ္စံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ ဆြမ္းေလာင္းပြဲအား ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ရေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

 

ရွင္သာမေဏမ်ား သီတင္းသံုးသည့္ ယာယီစံေက်ာင္းမ်ား ျပိဳၾကမွဳျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏ မ်ား မိမိေနရပ္မ်ားသို့ အသီးသီးျပန္လည္ထြက္ခြာခဲ့ၾကေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

 

ယင္းပြဲသို႔ တက္ေရာက္လာသည့္ သာမေဏ အမ်ားစုကို ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔ နံနက္ပိုင္းက မိမိရပ္ရြာမ်ားသို႔ ျပန္နိုင္ရန္ ကားမ်ား စီစဥ္ေပးေနသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရေၾကာင္း၊ ပရိသတ္မ်ားေသာေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏေလာင္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ၎တို႔ မိသားစုဝင္မ်ား လူစုကြဲသည္မ်ားလည္း ရွိေၾကာင္း အလွဴပြဲတြင္ ဓာတ္ပုံရိုက္ကူးေနသည့္ မုံရြာၿမိဳ႕ခံ ဓာတ္ပုံဆရာတစ္ဦးက ေျပာၾကားသည္။ “ေက်ာက္ရစ္ရြာက ထြက္တာနဲ႔ လမ္းေတြသြားလို႔ မရေတာ့ဘူး။ ရႊံ႕ေတြဗြက္ေတြနဲ႔ ကားေတြဆိုတာလည္း ဆင္းတြန္းေနရတယ္” ဟု သူကဆိုသည္။

 

 

 

 

 

 

ရွင္ငါးေထာင္အလွဴပြဲ
==============

ေမလ ၁၅ ရက္ေန့ ႏွင့္ ၁၆ ရက္ေန့မ်ားတြင္ စစ္ကုိင္းခ႐ုိင္၊ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕ နယ္၊ ဘူးကုိင္းစံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ ျပဳလုပ္မည့္ ရွင္ငါးေထာင္အလွဴ ပြဲမတိုင္မွီ ယေန့ ေမလ ၁၄ ရက္ေန့ တြင္ ရဟန္း၊ ရွင္သာမေဏ မ်ားေလာင္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ျပင္ဆင္ ေနမွဳမ်ားကိုေတြ့ရစဥ္။

 

 

 

 

ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ဘူးကိုင္းစံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ အတုမရွိမဟာကုသိုလ္ေတာ္ ရွင္ငါးေထာင္ အလႉ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ စည္ကားသိုက္ၿမိဳက္စြာက်င္းပ

http://dailydemocracytoday.com/2014-03-04-06-50-07/item/875-2015-05-16-03-06-04

https://www.facebook.com/democracytodaynewspaper/posts/980134588672721


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နိုင္ငံေတာ္အစိုုးရ၏ ပါရမီကုသိုလ္အျဖစ္ စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသႀကီးအစိုးရ အဖြဲ႕က ဦးေဆာင္ ကာ ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီက မတည္လႉဒါန္းျခင္းျဖစ္
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ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕၊ ေမ ၁၅-ရန္ကုန္တိုင္း ေဒသႀကီး သံဃနာယကအဖြဲ႕ဥကၠ႒ ဆရာေတာ္ အဂၢမဟာသဒၶမၼေဇာတိ ကဓဇ ဘဒၵႏၲဣဒၶိဗလ (ေဇယ်ာလူမႈ ထူးခၽြန္ ပထမဆုရ) ဦးေဆာင္ေသာ စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသႀကီး ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕ နယ္ ဘူးကိုင္းစံျပေက်းရြာ ပထမအ ႀကိမ္ အတုမရွိ မဟာကုသိုလ္ေတာ္ ျဖစ္သည့္ ရွင္သာမေဏမျပဳရေသး ေသာ ျမန္မာျပည္အရပ္ရပ္မွ တိုင္း ရင္းသားေပါင္း စုံ ရွင္သာမေဏေလာင္း လ်ာ ငါးေထာင္ေက်ာ္တို႔အား ရွစ္ ပါးပရိကၡရာစုံလင္ စြာျဖင့္ ပဗၺဇၨအေမြ ရွင္သာမေဏျပဳေပးျခင္း အလႉ ေတာ္မဂၤလာ၏ ရွင္ေလာင္း လွည့္ပြဲ ကို ေမ ၁၅ ရက္ နံနက္ပိုင္းက ျမန္မာ့ ရိုးရာဓေလ့ႏွင့္ အညီ စည္ကားသိုက္ ၿမိဳက္စြာက်င္းပခဲ့ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

အဆိုပါရွင္ျပဳပြဲကို ျပည္ေထာင္ စုသမၼတ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံေတာ္ အစိုးရ အဖြဲ႕က ပါရမီကုသိုလ္ပံ့ပိုးေဆာင္ ရြက္လႉဒါန္းၿပီး စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသ ႀကီးအစိုးရ အဖြဲ႕ ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးသာ ေအးက ဦးေဆာင္ေကာ္မတီဖြဲ႕စည္း ကာ ရန္ကုန္ၿမိဳ႕ ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီ မိသားစုမွ မတည္လႉဒါန္း ခဲ့ျခင္းျဖစ္ သည္။

ယင္းအလႉပြဲတြင္ သာမေဏ မ်ား ႀကီးၾကပ္တာဝန္ယူထားေသာ မက်ည္း ဘုတ္ ရြာေက်ာင္းမွ ဆရာ ေတာ္တစ္ပါးက ”ေဖေဖာ္ဝါရီ လ ေလာက္ က တည္းက စီစဥ္ေနတာ ပါ။ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္က ေက်ာင္းတိုက္ အသီးသီးက ဆရာေတာ္ေတြကလဲ ဒီမွာလာၿပီး စီစဥ္ေပးၾက တယ္။ တစ္ခါမွ ရွင္မျပဳ ဖူးေသး တဲ့ အသက္ ၁၀ ႏွစ္ကေန ၁၆ ႏွစ္အတြင္း ကေလး ငယ္ေတြ ကို ေက်းရြာ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရး မႉးေတြကတစ္ဆင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏျပဳ ဖို႔ စာရင္းေပး ခိုင္းရပါတယ္။ ေန႔စဥ္ ပရိသတ္ ေသာင္းခ်ီကို စတုဒိသာ ေကၽြးေနတာပါ။ အလႉက ဒီလကုန္ ေလာက္ထိ က်င္းပသြားမွာပါ”ဟု အလႉပြဲစီစဥ္မႈမ်ားကို မိန႔္ၾကားသည္။

အလႉေတာ္မဂၤလာမ႑ပ္ႏွင့္ စတုဒိသာေကၽြးေမြးသည့္ ေျမေနရာ မွာ ဘူးကိုင္း စံျပေက်းရြာ အေနာက္ ေျမာက္ဘက္ ေျမပဲစိုက္ကြင္းမ်ားရွိ သုံးဧကခန႔္က်ယ္ဝန္းေသာ ေနရာ၌ တည္ရွိၿပီး ေရႊတိဂုံပုံတူ ေစတီေတာ္၊ အလႉဗဟိုမ႑ပ္၊ ရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ား ထားရာေနရာ၊ က်န္းမာေရးဌာ နႏွင့္ ျပန္ၾကားေရး ဌာနမ်ား၊ သန႔္စင္ခန္း မ်ား တည္ေဆာက္ထားသည္။

အလႉေတာ္မဂၤလာ မုခ္ဦးဖြင့္ ပြဲကို ဆရာေတာ္ႏွင့္တကြ စစ္ကိုင္း တိုင္းေဒ သႀကီး လႊတ္ေတာ္ဥကၠ႒၊ အေနာက္ေျမာက္တိုင္းစစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္ တိုင္းမႉး ၊ ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီမိသားစု ဝင္မ်ားတို႔က စက္ခလုတ္ႏွိပ္၍ ဖဲႀကိဳး ျဖတ္ ဖြင့္ေပးခဲ့ၾကသည္။ အလႉေတာ္ မဂၤလာ၏ ရွင္ေလာင္း လွည့္ရာ လမ္း ေၾကာင္း မွာ ဘူးကိုင္းရြာ ကိုးဆယ္ဆ အနႏၲေမတၱာ အလႉမဂၤလာ ဗဟိုမ႑ပ္ ႏွင့္ ေလးမိုင္ခန႔္ကြာေဝးေသာ ပုဂံ ေခတ္ က်န္ စစ္သား မင္းႀကီး ေမြးဖြား ရာ၊ ပရိမၼေက်းရြာ၊ ထီးလွိုင္ရွင္ေစ တီ ေတာ္ျမတ္ႀကီးအထိ ဆင္ရတနာကိုး စီး၊ ျမင္းရတနာ ၁၀၈စီး၊ ေရႊလွည္း ေငြလွည္း အစီး ၉ဝအပါအဝင္ လူ ပရိသတ္ေထာင္ေက်ာ္ျဖင့္ လွည့္လည္ ခဲ့ၾကသည္။

ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ ျဖတ္သန္း သြားရာ လမ္းတစ္ေလၽွာက္ရွိ အုတ္ ႏွဲဘုတ္ ရြာမွ အသက္ ၈၀ အရြယ္ ေဒၚခ်ိဳက ”တစ္သက္နဲ႔တစ္ကိုယ္ ဒီလိုႀကီးက်ယ္တဲ့ အလႉပြဲႀကီး မ်ိဳး မျမင္ဖူးလို႔ သာဓုေခၚခ်င္လို႔ လာ ၾကည့္တာပါ။ ဆရာေတာ္ က ေျမာင္ နယ္ လက္ပံရြာမွာေမြးေပမယ့္ ဘူး ကိုင္းမွာ သာမေဏဝတ္ ခဲ့ေတာ့ ေက်း ဇူးဆပ္ပြဲျပဳလုပ္တာထင္ပါရဲ့။ အရင္ ကလဲ ရွင္အပါးတစ္ရာ လုပ္ခဲ့ဖူး တယ္။ ရြာနီးခ်ဳပ္စပ္ကိုလဲ စတုဒိသာ ထမင္းေကၽြးေနတာ လခ်ီေနၿပီ။ အလႉက မလုပ္ခင္ကတည္းက လူ အမ်ားစိတ္ဝင္စားေန တဲ့ပြဲပါ”ဟု ေျပာ သည္။

”အလှူကို တခြားရွာတွေကလဲ ကားတွေနဲ့ လာကြည့်ကြတာ။ လမ်း ကရွာတွေကလဲ အလှူလှည့်လိုက်တဲ့ သူတွေကို ကိုယ်တတ်နိုင်တဲ့ အစား အသောက်တွေနဲ့ ဒါနပြုဧည့်ခံကျွေး မွေးကြတယ်။ တိုင်းရင်း သားပေါင်းစုံ ဆိုတော့ ပအိုဝ်းတိုင်းရင်းသားလေး တွေကလဲ သူတို့မောင် ရင်လောင်း လေးတွေကို သူတို့ရိုးရာပုံစံဆင်ပေး ကြတယ်။ ညပိုင်းဆိုရင်လဲ ရိုးရာ အကတွေနဲ့ ဖျော်ဖြေကြတယ်။ အလှူ လှည့်ရာမှာ ရှေ့ဆုံးကဘုရားပန်း ကိုင်၊ ပရိတ်အိုးတွေရွက်တဲ့လူကြီး တွေပေါ့။ နောက်ပြီးဘုရားပင့်လာ တဲ့ယာဉ်က နဂါးပုံစံပါ၊ ပါးစပ်က လဲ အငွေ့တွေထုတ်တယ်။ နောက်က ဂဠုန်ပုံပါ။ အဲဒီနော က်မှ ဆင်တွေ၊ မြင်းတွေ၊ နွားလှည်းတွေ၊ ပုဂံ၊ အင်း ဝ၊ ကုန်းဘောင် စတဲ့ ဝတ်စားဆင် ယင်မှုတွေနဲ့ လူပရိသတ်တွေလိုက် လာတယ်။ မဏ္ဍပ်ထဲမှာလဲ တရုတ် နဂါးလိုပုံ စံတွေထားတယ်။ နေ့နံ အလိုက် ရုပ်ပုံတွေရော ချိတ်ထား တယ်။ အဲဒီလိုအလှူပွဲကြီးမျိုး မတွေ့ဖူးသေးဘူး။ လမ်းကနေထွက် ကြည့်ကြတဲ့လူတွေကလဲ သောင်းချီ ရှိတယ်။ ဇာတ်မင်းသားကြီး မန္တလေး သိန်းဇော်ရဲ့ ဘိသိက်သွန်းတာကို ရော ကြည့်ချင်လို့ပါ”ဟု မြောင်မြို့ နယ် ကျားအိုကျေးရွာမှ လာရောက် ကြည့်ရှုသူ အမျိုးသမီးတစ်ဦးက ပြောသည်။

ရှင်ငါးထောင်အလှူတော်မင်္ဂ လာပွဲအတွက် မတည်အလှူရှင်ဖြစ် သူ ရွှေသံလွင်မိသားစု၏ မိခင်ကြီး သီဟသုဓမ္မသိင်္ဂီ၊ သီရိသုဓမ္မသိင်္ဂီ၊ အဂ္ဂမဟာ သီရိသုဓမ္မသိင်္ဂီ ဒေါ်နီနီ က ဒီနေ့လို အလှူမျိုး လှူခွင့်ကြုံ၊ လှူခွင့်ရလို့ ပြောမပြတတ်အောင် အန်တီကြည်နူးပီတိဖြစ်မိတယ်။ အဲဒီ လိုလှူဒါန်းရတဲ့အကျိုးကြောင့် တစ် နိုင်ငံလုံး၊ တစ်ကမ္ဘာလုံး အေးချမ်း ကြပါစေလို့ ဆုတောင်း ပေးပါတယ်။ အားလုံးကို အလှူအမျှပေးဝေ ပါတယ်။ ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ မြန်မာ့ရိုးရာကို နောင် လာနောက်သားတွေ ထိန်းသိမ်းစေ ချင်တယ်။ ဗုဒ္ဓဘုရားကိုလဲ ကြည်ညို စေ ချင်တယ်။ ဆရာတော်ကြီး က အမိန့်ရှိလို့လဲ ခုလိုလှူဒါန်းဖြစ်တာ ပါ။ ရှင်မပြုရသေးတဲ့ တိုင်းရင်းသား တွေကို ရှင်လောင်းဝတ်စုံလေးနဲ့ မြင်ရတာ ပီတိဖြစ်မိပါတယ်ဟု အလှူ ပွဲအတွက် ကြည်နူးမှုအား ပြောပြ သည်။

ရှင်အပါးငါးထောင် အလှူပွဲ တွင် နိုင်ငံတော်ဩဝါဒါစရိယ ဆရာ တော်ကြီးများ၊ နိုင်ငံတော် သံဃမဟာ နာယက၊ နိုင်ငံတော် ဗဟိုသံဃာ့ ဝန် ဆောင်ဆရာတော်ကြီးများ၊ တိပိဋက ဓရ၊ တိပိဋကကောဝိ ဒဆရာတော်များ၊ ဂိုဏ်းပေါင်းစုံ သံဃနာယကအဖွဲ့ဝင် ဆရာတော်ကြီး များ အမှူးပြုသော ပင့်သံဃာ ၂၅၅၉ ပါးတို့အားလည်း ပင့်လျှောက်ထားပြီး နေ့ဆွမ်း၊သင်္ကန်း အစရှိသော လှူဖွယ်တို့ကို ဆက်ကပ် လှူဒါန်းမည်ဖြစ်သည်။

မေ ၁၆ ရက်၌လည်း ရှင်သာ မဏေအပါးငါးထောင်နှင့် ကြီးကြပ် ဆရာတော် အပါး ၁၀၀၀ တို့အား နေ့ဆွမ်းအလှူရှင် နိုင်ငံတော်သမ္မတ ဦးသိန်းစိန်နှင့် ဇနီး ဒေါ်ခင်ခင်ဝင်း မိသားစုတို့ လာရောက်၍ နေ့ဆွမ်း ဆက်ကပ်လှူဒါန်းမည်ဖြစ်ကြောင်း စုံစမ်းသိရှိရသည်။ မေ ၁၇ ရက် မှစ၍ ရှင်သာမဏေ အပါး ငါး ထောင်ကျော်တို့အား ဆရာတော် ဘဒ္ဒန္တဣဒ္ဓိဗလနှင့် ကိုးဘွဲ့ရ ဆရာ တော် အရှင်အာစာရာ လင်္ကာရတို့ က ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာယဉ်ကျေးလိမ္မာသင် တန်းပို့ချခြင်းနှင့် တရားရှုမှတ်နည်း များကို ၁၀ ရက်တိုင်တိုင် နေ့၊ သင်ကြားပေး သွားမည်ဖြစ်ကြောင်း သိရ သည်။

ယင်းနေ့တွင် နိုင်ငံကျော်တေး သံရှင် ဒေါ်ရီရီသန့်နှင့် မြန်မာမှုတေး သံရှင်များက သီဆိုဧည့်ခံဖျော်ဖြေ ပြီး နိုင်ငံကျော် ဓမ္မကထိက ဆရာ တော်များက မေ ၂၀ ရက်မှ ၂၄ ရက် အထိ ငါးရက်တိုင် တိုင် နိဗ္ဗာန်ရောက် ကြောင်း တရားတော်များ ဟောကြား မည်ဖြစ်သည်။

ထို့ပြင် မေ ၂၈ ရက်နှင့် ၂၉ ရက် ညပိုင်းတွင် မြို့ရွှေမန်းသားဖိုးချစ်ဇာတ် အဖွဲ့မှ ဧည့်ခံကပြသွားမည်ဖြစ် ကြောင်းသိရသည်။ ရန်ကုန်တိုင်းဒေ သကြီး သံဃနာ ယကအဖွဲ့ဥက္ကဋ္ဌ ဆရာတော် ဘဒ္ဒန္တ ဣဒ္ဓိဗလသည် မြောင်မြို့နယ်အတွင်း ရှိ တဲသာ၊ ဘူးကိုင်း၊ သီရိဇေယျာ၊ အုတ်နှဲဘုတ်၊ ကျားအို၊ ရွှေပန်း၊ လက် ပံ၊ ရွှေယင်းမာ၊ ပရိမ္မ စသောကျေး ရွာများ၌ ကိုးဆယ်ဆ အနန္တမေတ္ တာ ပရဟိတလူမှုရေး အသင်းများကို ထူ ထောင်ပေးထားပြီး အဆိုပါလူမှု အသင်းများထံသို့ ငွေကျပ်သိန်းပေါင်း သုံးသောင်းကျော် ထောက်ပံ့လှူဒါန်း ထားပြီဖြစ်ကြောင်း ဘူးကိုင်း ရွာလူမှု ကူညီရေး အသင်းအဖွဲ့ဝင် ကိုထွန်း မင်းလတ်ကပြောသည်။

KTS
#Democracytoday

 

 

 

သတင္းျမင္ကြင္း အျပည့္အစံုသို႔ =>http://goo.gl/K4dHEo

KTS
‪#‎Democracytoday

 

စစ္ကိုင္းတုိင္းဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္၏ ရွင္အပါးငါးေထာင္ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲတြင္ ဆင္၊ ျမင္း၊ ႏြား ႏွစ္ရာေက်ာ္ အသံုးျပဳ

7daydaily.com/story/37272

 

By

မ်ိဳးမင္းဦး

On  

Sat, 2015-05-16 06:30

Location

မုံရြာ

Issue No.

No.735 Saturday, May 16, 2015

စစ္ကိုင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီး ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးသာေအးဦးေဆာင္ လွဴဒါန္းသည့္  ရွင္အပါးငါးေထာင္ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္လည္ပြဲတြင္ ဆင္ကိုးေကာင္၊ ျမင္း ၁၀၈ ေကာင္အျပင္ အညာေဒသတြင္ ေပ်ာက္ ကြယ္လုနီးပါးျဖစ္ေနသည့္ ႏြား လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့မ်ားကို အစီး ၉၀ ထည့္သြင္းအသံုးျပဳခဲ့ရာ  လွည္း ယဥ္ အမ်ားဆံုးျဖင့္ ျပဳလုပ္သည့္  ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေဒသခံမ်ားက ေျပာၾကားသည္။

အဆိုပါ ရွင္အပါးငါးေထာင္ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္လည္ပြဲကို ေမလ၁၅ ရက္က ဆင္ကိုးေကာင္၊ ျမင္း၁၀၈ ေကာင္၊ ႏြားလွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့ ၉၀ စီတုိ႔ျဖင့္ စည္ကားသိုက္ၿမိဳက္စြာက်င္းပခဲ့ၿပီး ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲတြင္ နဂါး႐ုပ္ႏွင့္ ဂဠဳန္႐ုပ္မ်ားကို အသံုးျပဳခဲ့၍ ယၾတာေခ်သည့္အေနျဖင့္အသံုးျပဳျခင္း ျဖစ္ႏုိင္ေၾကာင္း ေဒသခံမ်ားက ခန္႔မွန္းေနၾကသည္။

‘‘ရွင္ငါးေထာင္ အလွဴလွည့္ ပြဲမွာ ေတာင္သူေတြ စိတ္ဝင္စား မႈအမ်ားဆံုးကေတာ့ ႏြားလွည္း ယဥ္ေၾကာ့ အစီး ၉၀ တန္းစီ ေမာင္းတာကိုပဲ။ လွည္းယဥ္ေၾကာ့က အညာေဒသမွာ ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္လုဆဲဆဲ၊ အခုလို ႏြားလွည္းယဥ္ေတြ အမ်ားႀကီးတန္းစီ ေမာင္းတာ တစ္ခါမွမႀကံဳဖူးဘူး။ ဆင္ေတြ၊ ျမင္းေတြ၊ ႏြားလွည္းယဥ္ေတြနဲ႔ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ အစည္ကားဆံုးလို႔ ေျပာလို႔ရတယ္။ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲမွာ နဂါး႐ုပ္ေတြ၊ ဂဠဳန္႐ုပ္ေတြ၊ ဆင္ေတြ၊ ျမင္းေတြ၊ ႏြားလွည္းယဥ္ေတြက ေဗဒင္ယၾတာေခ်တယ္လို႔လည္း ေျပာေနၾကတယ္’’ဟု ရွင္ငါးေထာင္အလွဴလွည့္ပြဲသို႔ သြားေရာက္ၾကည့္႐ႈခဲ့ေသာ ေခ်ာင္းဦးၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ေဒသခံေတာင္သူတစ္ဦးကေျပာသည္။

အဆုိပါရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ ကို ဘူးကိုင္းရွိ ဗဟိုမ႑ပ္မွ က်န္စစ္သားမင္း ေမြးဖြားေသာ ပရိမၼေက်းရြာရွိ ထီးလိႈင္ရွင္ေစတီေတာ္ႀကီးသို႔ လွည့္လည္ခဲ့ျခင္းျဖစ္ၿပီး ရွင္ေလာင္းမ်ားကို မႏၲေလးၿမိဳ႕ စိန္ဒူးဝါးဆုိင္းအဖြဲ႕ႏွင့္အတူ မင္းသားမႏၲေလးသိန္းေဇာ္၊ နန္းဝင္းတုိ႔က ဘိသိက္ သြန္းေလာင္းေပးျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။

‘‘ဒီေန႔အလွဴလွည့္ပြဲမွာ စစ္ကိုင္းတုိင္းအတြင္း ရွင္မျပဳရေသး တဲ့ ကေလးငယ္ေတြ သာမက ပအို႔ဝ္၊ ရွမ္း၊ ကရင္၊ မြန္၊ နာဂ စတဲ့ တုိင္းရင္းသားကေလးငယ္ ေတြ ပါဝင္ခဲ့တယ္။ ႏြားလွည္း ယဥ္ေတြကိုေတာ့ စစ္ကိုင္းၿမိဳ႕က ငွားရမ္းခဲ့တာပါ။ ဆင္ကိုေတာ့ သစ္ေတာဦးစီးဌာနက ျဖစ္ပါ တယ္။ ျမင္းကိုေတာ့ အနယ္နယ္ အရပ္ရပ္က ငွားရမ္းခဲ့တယ္’’ဟု စစ္ကိုင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအစုိးရ အဖြဲ႕ စည္ပင္သာယာေရးဝန္ႀကီး ဦးတင့္လိႈင္ျမင့္က ေျပာၾကား သည္။

ရွင္သာမေဏေလာင္းမ်ား အား သာမေဏအျဖစ္ ကူးေျပာင္း မည့္ ရွင္ငါးေထာင္အလွဴပြဲအခမ္း အနားကို ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္တြင္ က်င္းပမည္ျဖစ္ၿပီး အဆုိပါအခမ္း အနားသို႔ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္သမၼတအပါ အဝင္ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္အစုိးရအဖြဲ႕ တာဝန္ရွိသူမ်ားတက္ေရာက္ဖြယ္ ရွိေၾကာင္း အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕႐ံုးမွ သတင္းရရွိသည္။

 

 

 

 

 

သမၼတဦးသိန္စိန္တက္ေရာက္မည့္ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴပြဲ မုိးနတ္မင္း ဖ်က္
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သမၼတဦးသိန္းစိန္တက္ေရာက္မည့္ စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီး ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္၊ ဘူးကုိင္းေက်းရြာမွ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴပြဲကို မုိးသည္းထန္စြာရြာသြန္းမႈေၾကာင့္ ရပ္နားလုိက္ရေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

အဆုိပါ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ပြဲ အလွဴအ၀င္ေန႔ ျဖစ္သည့္ ေမလ (၁၅) တြင္ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲ က်င္းပခဲ့ၿပီး ယင္းေန႔ညမွာပင္္ မုိးသည္းထန္စြာရြာသြန္းခဲ့သကဲ့သုိ႔ မုိးသည္ အလွဴၾကီးေန႔ ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ နံနက္ ၄ နာရီအခ်ိန္တြင္လည္း မုိးရြာသြန္းခဲ့သည္ဟု ေဒသခံတဦးကေျပာသည္။

၄င္းက” မုိးရြာေတာ့ ေရေတြက ေျခသလုံးေလာက္ျဖစ္ေနတယ္။ မ႑ပ္တုိင္ေတြယုိင္တာ ေတြရိွတယ္။ တခ်ဳိ႕မ႑ပ္ေတြ ျပားကုန္တယ္ေရေတြေတာ္ေတာ္၀င္တယ္ေလ။ အခင္းေကာ္ေဇာေတြလည္းစုိကုန္တယ္။ ပြဲကေတာ့ နားထားလုိက္ရၿပီ။ ကုိရင္ေတြလည္း ျပန္ၾကြသြားပါျပီ။” ဟု ေျပာသည္။

ယင္းအလွဴအတန္းပြဲႀကီးကုိ စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္း၀န္ႀကီးခ်ုဳပ္ ဦးသာေအး၊ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီ( Sky Net )တို႔က
သိန္းေပါင္း ငါးေသာင္းအကုန္အက်ခံ၍ က်င္းပေသာ ရွင္ ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴႀကီးျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

News Watch(ေစာင့္ၾကည့္သတင္းဂ်ာနယ္)
https://www.facebook.com/NewsWatchJournal

 

အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕ပံပိုးက်င္းပသည့္ ရွင္ျပဳပြဲ မိုးသည္းသျဖင့္ သမၼတတက္မည့္ အစီအစဥ္ပ်က္

http://www.thevoicemyanmar.com/index.php/news/item/6956-asy

 

မုံရြာ၊ ေမ ၁၆

ျပည္ေထာင္စုသမၼတ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕၏ ပံ့ပိုးမႈျဖင့္ က်င္းပေသာ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္မွ သာမေဏငါးေထာင္ ရွင္ျပဳအလွဴပြဲသို႔ ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ သမၼတဦးသိန္းစိန္ တက္ေရာက္ရန္ စီစဥ္ခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း ယင္းေန႔နံနက္ အေစာပိုင္းက မိုးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းၿပီး မ႑ပ္မ်ားအတြင္း ေရဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ေသာေၾကာင့္ သမၼတခရီးစဥ္ ပ်က္ျပယ္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း အလွဴပြဲတြင္ တာဝန္က်ေနသည့္ အစိုးရဝန္ထမ္းမ်ားႏွင့္ အလွဴပြဲသို႔ ေရာက္ရွိေနသူမ်ားထံမွ သိရသည္။

“မိုးက မနက္အေစာပိုင္းမွာ သည္းသည္းမည္းမည္းကို ရြာတာ။ အခ်ိဳ႕မ႑ပ္ေတြမွာ မိုးကာရွိေပမယ့္ အခ်ိဳ႕မ႑ပ္ေတြက ထန္းလက္ေတြနဲ႔ မိုးထားေတာ့ မိုးမလုံဘူး။ ကိုရင္ေတြကလည္း ငါးေထာင္ဆိုေတာ့ မိုးရြာတဲ့အခ်ိန္ ေနရာေရႊ႕ဖို႔ အခက္အခဲျဖစ္ေတာ့ မ႑ပ္ေတြ ေဆာက္ထားတဲ့ ကြင္းျပင္က်ယ္ႀကီးထဲမွာ အထုပ္ေတြဆြဲၿပီး ဟိုေျပးဒီေျပးနဲ႔ေပါ့” ဟုအဆိုပါအလွဴပြဲသို႔ ေရာက္ရွိေနသည့္ ဌာနဆိုင္ရာ ဝန္ထမ္းတစ္ဦးက ဆိုသည္။

ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔က ေရစက္ခ်ရန္ စီစဥ္ထားခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း မိုးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းခဲ့ေသာေၾကာင့္ ေမလ၂၄ ရက္ ေန႔မွသာ ေရစက္ခ်ေတာ့မည္ဟု စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသႀကီး အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕ဝင္ ဝန္ႀကီးတစ္ဦးက ေျပာၾကားသည္။
“ရက္ေရႊ႕လိုက္တာ ဟုတ္ပါတယ္။ ေနရာကေတာ့ ဘူးကိုင္းစံျပေက်းရြာ အနီးမွာပဲ ျပန္လုပ္မွာပါ”ဟု သူကဆိုသည္။

ယင္းပြဲသို႔ တက္ေရာက္လာသည့္ သာမေဏ အမ်ားစုကို ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔ နံနက္ပိုင္းက မိမိရပ္ရြာမ်ားသို႔ ျပန္နိုင္ရန္ ကားမ်ား စီစဥ္ေပးေနသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရေၾကာင္း၊ ပရိသတ္မ်ားေသာေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏေလာင္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ၎တို႔ မိသားစုဝင္မ်ား လူစုကြဲသည္မ်ားလည္း ရွိေၾကာင္း အလွဴပြဲတြင္ ဓာတ္ပုံရိုက္ကူးေနသည့္ မုံရြာၿမိဳ႕ခံ ဓာတ္ပုံဆရာတစ္ဦးက ေျပာၾကားသည္။ “ေက်ာက္ရစ္ရြာက ထြက္တာနဲ႔ လမ္းေတြသြားလို႔ မရေတာ့ဘူး။ ရႊံ႕ေတြဗြက္ေတြနဲ႔ ကားေတြဆိုတာလည္း ဆင္းတြန္းေနရတယ္” ဟု သူကဆိုသည္။

ရွင္ငါးေထာင္ေက်ာ္ အလွဴေတာ္ပြဲကို ေမလ ၁၅ ရက္ေန႔က စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသႀကီး ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ဘူးကိုင္းစံျပေက်းရြာ မုခ္ဦးဖြင့္ပြဲႏွင့္အတူ က်င္းပခဲ့ရာ ယင္းေန႔တြင္ ဆင္ကိုးေကာင္၊ ျမင္း ၁၀၈ ေကာင္ႏွင့္ ႏြားလွည္းေပါင္း ၉၀ ျဖင့္ ခုနစ္မိုင္ခန႔္ ေဝးကြာသည့္ခရီးကို ရွင္ေလာင္း လွည့္လည္ခဲ့သည္။

အဆိုပါ ရွင္ျပဳပြဲကို စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသႀကီး အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕ ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးသာေအးက ဦးေဆာင္ေကာ္မတီ ဖြဲ႕စည္းကာ ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီ မိသားစုက မတည္လွဴဒါန္းၿပီး ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕က ပံ့ပိုးေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့ျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။

 

 

 

သမၼတဦးသိန္းစိန္ တက္ေရာက္ရန္ စီစဥ္ထားသည့္ ေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီမွ ျပဳလုပ္ေသာ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴပြဲ မုိးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းမႈေၾကာင့္ မ႑ပ္မ်ားၿပိဳက်ပ်က္စီးၿပီး သမၼတခရီးစဥ္ ပ်က္ျပယ္ –

 

စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီး စစ္ကုိင္းခ႐ုိင္ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ဘူးကုိင္းစံျပေက်းရြာေရႊသံလြင္ကုမၸဏီမွ ျပဳလုပ္ေသာ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴပြဲတြင္ ေမ ၁၆ ရက္ နံနက္ပုိင္း အေစာပုိင္းအခ်ိန္က အဆုိပါ အလွဴျပဳလုပ္ေနသည့္ေဒသ၌ မိုးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ အလွဴမ႑ပ္မ်ား ၿပိဳက်ပ်က္စီးမႈမ်ား ျဖစ္ေပၚခဲ့သည့္အျပင္ အလွဴေတာ္မဂၤလာ ေရစက္ခ်ပြဲသုိ႔ တက္ေရာက္မည့္ သမၼတဦးသိန္းစိန္၏ ခရီးစဥ္လည္း ပ်က္ျပယ္သြားခဲ့ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴ ေတာ္မဂၤလာပြဲသုိ႔ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္သမၼတ လာေရာက္ရန္ စီစဥ္ထားခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း ယင္းေန႔ နံနက္ပုိင္းတြင္ မုိးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ အစီအစဥ္ပ်က္ျပယ္သြားခဲ့ၿပီး ရန္ကုန္ၿမိဳ႕သုိ႔ ထြက္ခြာသြားေၾကာင္း  သိရသည္။

 

ျပည္ေထာင္စုအစုိးရအဖြဲ႕မွ ဦးေဆာင္ကာ ျပဳလုပ္ေနသည့္ စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအတြင္းရွိ ရွင္မျပဳရေသးသည့္ ကေလးငယ္မ်ားအား ရွင္ျပဳေပးသည့္ အလွဴေတာ္မဂၤလာပြဲအား ေမ ၁၅ ရက္က စတင္က်င္းပခဲ့ၿပီး တုိင္းရင္းသားေပါင္းစုံ ကေလးငယ္စုစုေပါင္း ၅၀၀၀ ေက်ာ္အား ရွင္သာမေဏေဘာင္အတြင္းသုိ႔ အဆုိပါေန႔တြင္ သြတ္သြင္းေပးခဲ့ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။ ယင္းေနာက္ ေမ ၁၆ ရက္ နံနက္ ၂ နာရီအခ်ိန္ခန္႔၌ မုိးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းခဲ့မႈေၾကာင့္ ေဆာက္လုပ္ထားသည့္ အလွဴေတာ္မဂၤလာမ႑ပ္မ်ားအတြင္းသုိ႔ ေရ၀င္နစ္ျမဳပ္ျခင္း၊ မ႑ပ္အခ်ဳိ႕ ၿပိဳက်ပ်က္စီးမႈမ်ားျဖစ္ေပၚခဲ့ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။ ယင္းသုိ႔ မုိးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ အလွဴေတာ္မဂၤလာ ေရစက္ခ်မဂၤလာအခမ္းအနားသုိ႔ တက္ေရာက္မည့္ သမၼတဦးသိန္းစိန္၏ ခရီးစဥ္ပါ ပ်က္ျပယ္သြားခဲ့ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။ ေမ ၁၆ ရက္တြင္ ျပဳလုပ္ရန္စီစဥ္ထားသည့္ ေရစက္ခ်မဂၤလာ အခမ္းအနားအား ေမ ၂၄ ရက္သုိ႔ ေျပာင္းေရႊ ခဲ့ရေၾကာင္းလည္း သိရသည္။

 

“အလွဴပြဲက မုိးရြာေပမယ့္ အထေျမာက္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ ေက်ာ္ကုိလည္း သာသနာ့ေဘာင္အတြင္း သြတ္သြင္းေပးၿပီးခဲ့ၿပီေလ။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ အလွဴရွင္ေတြအေနနဲ႔ ဒီအလွဴနဲ႔ပတ္သက္ၿပီးေတာ့ ၾကံ့ခုိင္မႈရွိရဲ႕လားဆုိတဲ့ သေဘာေပါ့။ အလွဴေတာ္မဂၤလာေရစက္ခ်ပြဲကုိေတာ့ ေမ ၂၄ ရက္မွာ ဒီေနရာမွာပဲ ျပန္လုပ္သြားမယ္”ဟု ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴပြဲ က်င္းပရာ၌ ဦးေဆာင္ဆရာေတာ္ျဖစ္သည့္ ရန္ကုန္တုိင္းေဒသႀကီး သံဃနာယကအဖြဲ႕ဥကၠ႒ ဆရာေတာ္ ဘဒၵႏၲဣဒၶိဗလက မိန္႔ၾကားသည္။

 

“ကြၽန္ေတာ္တုိ႔ မေန႔က ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ ေက်ာ္ကုိ ရွင္သာမေဏဘ၀ကုိ ေအာင္ျမင္စြာနဲ႔ သြတ္သြင္းေပးႏုိင္ခဲ့ၿပီးပါၿပီ။ ဒီေန႔မွာေတာ့ ေရစက္ခ်ဖုိ႔ စီစဥ္ထားတယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့ ရာသီဥတုအေျခအေနအရ ေရစက္ခ်မဂၤလာအခမ္းအနားကုိ ယာယီရပ္တန္႔သြားတဲ့ သေဘာပါ။

ရာသီဥတု ျပန္လည္ေကာင္းမြန္သြားၿပီဆုိရင္ ေရစက္ခ် မဟာမဂၤလာအခမ္းအနားကုိ ျပန္လည္က်င္းပသြားမွာပါ။ ရာသီဥတုဒဏ္ေၾကာင့္ မဟာမ႑ပ္တစ္ခုနဲ႔ ရွင္သာမေဏ မ႑ပ္ေလးခုေလာက္ ယုိင္နဲ႔သြားပါတယ္။ ႀကီးႀကီးမားမား ပ်က္စီးဆုံး႐ႈံးတာမ်ဳိး မရွိပါဘူး။

ရာသီဥတုကလည္း မုိးရြာတာပဲရွိတာပါ။ ေလျပင္း လုံး၀မတုိက္ပါဘူး။ ဘာပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ပါ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ ပြဲကေတာ့ ေအာင္ေအာင္ျမင္ျမင္ က်င္းပႏုိင္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ကူညီ၀ုိင္း၀န္းေပးသူ အားလုံးကုိ ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါတယ္”ဟု စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီး အစုိးရအဖြဲ႕မွ အတြင္းေရးမွဴး ဦးစုိးစုိးဇင္က ေျပာၾကားသည္။

 

ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴပြဲ၌ မုိးသည္းထန္စြာရြာသြန္းခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ယခင္က က်င္းပရန္ စီစဥ္ထားသည့္ အစီအစဥ္မ်ားအား ယာယီရပ္နားထားလုိက္ေၾကာင္း ယင္းက ဆက္လက္ေျပာၾကားသည္။ ယင္းကဲ့သုိ႔ မုိးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ေငြက်ပ္ သိန္းေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ ဆုံးရႈံးမႈရွိႏုိင္ေၾကာင္း သုံးသပ္မႈမ်ားလည္း ရွိေနၾကသည္။

 

“မုိးက မနက္ ၂ နာရီေက်ာ္ေလာက္မွာ ရြာတာ။ ေရလည္းမ်ားတယ္။ မုိးက တျခားေဒသေတြမွာ နည္းနည္းရြာၿပီးေတာ့ ဒီအလွဴ လုပ္တဲ့ ေဒသဘက္မွာ အရမ္းမ်ားေတာ့ မ႑ပ္ေတြထဲမွာ ေရေတြ၀င္ၿပီး နစ္ကုန္တယ္။ တခ်ဳိ႕မ႑ပ္ေတြဆုိ ၿပိဳက်သြားတယ္”ဟု ေဒသခံ တစ္ဦးက ဆုိသည္။

 

ေမ ၁၆ ရက္ နံနက္အေစာပုိင္းက ရြာသြန္းခဲ့သည့္ မုိးေၾကာင့္ ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ ေက်ာ္အား အလွဴမ႑ပ္မ်ားအတြင္း၌ ေရမ်ား၀င္ေရာက္ေနျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ဘူးကုိင္းစံျပေက်းရြာအနီးရွိ ေက်ာက္ရစ္စံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ ဆြမ္းေလာင္းပြဲအား ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ရေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

 

ရွင္အပါး ၅၀၀၀ အလွဴပြဲအား ျပည္ေထာင္စုသမၼတ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံေတာ္အစုိးရအဖြဲ႕၏ ပါရမီကုသုိလ္ ပ့ံပုိးကူညီေဆာင္ရြက္လွဴ ဒါန္းမႈျဖင့္ စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီး၊ စစ္ကုိင္းခ႐ုိင္ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ဘူးကုိင္းစံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ ရန္ကုန္တုိင္းေဒသႀကီး သံဃနာယကအဖြဲ႕ ဥကၠ႒ ဆရာေတာ္ ဘဒၵႏၲဣဒၶိဗလအဂၢမဟာ သဒၵမၼ ေဇာတိကဓဇ၊ ေဇယ်ာလူမႈထူးခြၽန္ ပထမအဆင့္၊ “ကုိးဆယ္ဆအနႏၲေမတၱာရွင္ ဆရာေတာ္” မွ ဦးစီးဦးေဆာင္၍ စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအစုိးရအဖြဲ႕၊ ၀န္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ဦးသာေအး က ဦးေဆာင္ေကာ္မတီဖြဲ႕စည္းၿပီး၊ ေရႊသံလြင္ ကုမၸဏီမိသားစုတုိ႔မွ မတည္လွဴဒါန္းကာ စစ္ကုိင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအတြင္းရွိ ရွင္မျပဳရေသးသည့္ တုိင္းရင္းသားေပါင္းစုံ ရွင္သာမေဏ ေလာင္းလ်ာ ၅၀၀၀ တုိ႔အား သာသနာ့ေဘာင္အတြင္းသုိ႔ သြတ္သြင္းျခင္း မဂၤလာျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေၾကာ္ျငာထားခ်က္မ်ားအရ သိရသည္။

 

Writer:

ေဌးလွေအာင္၊ စိုးမိုးထြန္း

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ရွင္ငါးေထာင္အလွဴပြဲ မိုးသည္းထန္စြာရြာသြန္းမွဳေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏမ်ား မိမိေနရပ္မ်ားသို့ ျပန္လည္ထြက္ခြာ

စစ္ကိုင္း၊ ေမ ၁၆

ယေန့ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန့ မနက္ ၄ နာရီအခ်ိန္ စစ္ကုိင္းခ႐ုိင္၊ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕ နယ္၊ ဘူးကုိင္း စံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ မိုးသည္းထန္စြာရြာသြန္းမွဳေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏမ်ား သီတင္းသံုးသည့္ ယာယီစံေက်ာင္းမ်ား ျပိဳၾကမွဳျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏ မ်ား မိမိေနရပ္မ်ားသို့ အသီးသီးျပန္လည္ထြက္ခြာခဲ့ၾကေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

 

ရွင္ငါးေထာင္အလွဴပြဲ မိုးသည္းထန္စြာရြာသြန္းမွဳေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏမ်ား မိမိေနရပ္မ်ားသို့ ျပန္လည္ထြက္ခြာ

ယေန့ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန့ မနက္ ၄ နာရီအခ်ိန္ စစ္ကုိင္းခ႐ုိင္၊ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕ နယ္၊ ဘူးကုိင္းစံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ မိုးသည္းထန္စြာရြာသြန္းမွဳေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏမ်ား သီတင္းသံုးသည့္ ယာယီစံေက်ာင္းမ်ား ျပိဳၾကမွဳျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ရွင္သာမေဏ မ်ား မိမိေနရပ္မ်ားသို့ အသီးသီးျပန္လည္ထြက္ခြာခဲ့ၾကေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။
Images by Hkun Lat

Popular Myanmar News Journal

 

သမၼတတက္ေရာက္မည့္ ရွင္အပါးငါးေထာင္ ရွင္ျပဳအလႉေအာင္ပြဲ မုိးသက္ေလျပင္းက်သျဖင့္ ရက္ေရႊ႕ဆုိင္း

http://7daydaily.com/story/37409

 

By

မ်ိဳးမင္းဦး

On  

Sun, 2015-05-17 06:30

Location

မံုရြာ

Issue No.

No.736 Sunday, May 17, 2015

ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္သမၼတ ဦးသိန္း စိန္တက္ေရာက္ရန္ စီစဥ္ထား သည့္ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ဘူးကိုင္းစံျပ ေက်းရြာ ရွင္အပါး ငါးေထာင္ ရွင္ျပဳ အလွဴေရစက္ခ်ေအာင္ပြဲ အခမ္း အနားကို မုိးသက္ေလျပင္း မ်ားက်ေရာက္မႈေၾကာင့္ ေမလ  ၂၄ ရက္သို႔ ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕လိုက္ရ ေၾကာင္း သတင္းရရွိသည္။

စစ္ကုိင္းခ႐ိုင္ ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ဘူးကိုင္းစံျပေက်းရြာတြင္ ရွင္ အပါး ငါးေထာင္ရွင္ျပဳအလွဴ ေရစက္ခ် ေအာင္ပြဲအခမ္းအနား ကို မူလက ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္၌ က်င္းပရန္ စီစဥ္ထားေသာ္လည္း ယင္းေန႔ နံနက္တြင္ မုိးသက္ေလ ျပင္းက်ေရာက္မႈေၾကာင့္ ရက္ေရႊ႕ ဆိုင္းခဲ့ရေၾကာင္း က်င္းပေရး ေကာ္မတီမွ သိရသည္။

‘‘ဒီေန႔မနက္ မုိးေတြ အရမ္း သည္း၊ ေလေတြတုိက္လို႔ အလွဴ ေရစက္ခ်မယ့္ရက္ကို ေမလ ၂၄ ရက္ေန႔ ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕လိုက္တာပါ။ ေစာေစာက ဒီေန႔အခမ္းအနားမွာ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္သမၼတႀကီး ကိုယ္တုိင္ တက္ေရာက္ဖို႔ စီစဥ္ထားတာ။ ရွင္ေလာင္းေတြက မေန႔ကတည္းက ရွင္သာမေဏအျဖစ္ ဝတ္ၿပီးၿပီျဖစ္ တဲ့အတြက္ အလွဴပြဲက ေရစက္ခ် ဖို႔ပဲ က်န္ေတာ့တယ္’’ဟု စစ္ကိုင္း တုိင္းေဒသႀကီးအစိုးရအဖြဲ႕ တာ ဝန္ရွိသူတစ္ဦးက ေျပာသည္။

ေျမာင္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ဘူးကိုင္းစံျပ ေက်းရြာ၌ ရန္ကုန္တုိင္းေဒသႀကီး သံဃနာယကအဖြဲ႕ ဥကၠ႒ ဆရာ ေတာ္ ဘဒၵႏၲကၠဒၶိဗလ(အဂၢမဟာ သဒၶမၼ ေဇာတိကဓဇ၊ ေဇယ်ာလူမႈ ထူးခြၽန္ပထမအဆင့္)ကိုးဆယ္ဆ အနႏၲေမတၱာရွင္ ဆရာေတာ္ ဦး ေဆာင္၍ စစ္ကိုင္းတုိင္းေဒသႀကီး အစိုးရအဖြဲ႕ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးသာ ေအးက ဦးေဆာင္ေကာ္မတီ ဖြဲ႕ စည္းကာ သာသနာ့ဒါယကာ သာ သနာ့ဒါယိကာမအျဖစ္ ေရႊသံလြင္ မိသားစုကုမၸဏီမွ ရွင္အပါး ငါး ေထာင္ရွင္ျပဳအလွဴပြဲႀကီးကို ေမ လ ၁၅ ရက္မွ ဇြန္လ ၁ ရက္အထိ က်င္းပလ်က္ရွိသည္။

အလွဴေရစက္ခ် အခမ္းအနားက်င္းပရန္ စီစဥ္ထားသည့္ ေမလ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔ နံနက္ပိုင္းတြငမိုးသည္းထန္စြာ ရြာသြန္းျခင္း၊ ေလျပင္းတုိက္ခတ္ ျခင္းတို႔ေၾကာင့္ ရွင္ငါးေထာင္ အလွဴပြဲက်င္းပလ်က္ရွိသည့္ ဗဟိုမ႑ပ္အပါအဝင္ ရွင္သာမေဏ မ်ား သီတင္းသံုးသည့္  မ႑ပ္မ်ား တြင္ မိုးေရမ်ား ဝင္ေရာက္ကာ  မ႑ပ္အခ်ိဳ႕ ယိုင္လဲခဲ့သည္။

‘‘မနက္ ၃ နာရီဝန္းက်င္က တည္းက ေလေတြလည္း တုိက္ မုိးေတြလည္း သည္းေနခဲ့တာ။ မနက္မိုးလင္းေတာ့ ရွင္ေလာင္း ေတြေနတဲ့ မ႑ပ္အခ်ိဳ႕က လဲေန တယ္။ မ႑ပ္ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား ေရေတြ ဝင္ေနတာ။ ရွင္ေလာင္း ေတြကိုလည္း ေရလြတ္ရာ ေက်ာက္ ရစ္စာသင္ေက်ာင္းကို ယာယီေျပာင္းေရႊ႕ထားတယ္။ ရွင္သာမေဏေတြ ထိခိုက္မႈမရွိပါဘူး’’ဟု ေက်ာက္ရစ္ေက်းရြာ ေဒသခံတစ္ဦးက ေျပာသည္။

ထိုအလွဴ၏ ရွင္ေလာင္းလွည့္ပြဲတြင္ ဆင္ ၉ ေကာင္၊ ျမင္း ၁၀၈ ေကာင္၊ ႏြားလွည္းယဥ္ ၉၀ စီးျဖင့္ လွည့္လည္ခဲ့သည္။

 

References

 

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

King Kyan Sis Thar FB

https://hiriautatpa.wordpress.com/2008/08/18/thats-our-bamar-21/

various news sites from which I obtained the news and photos

Pareinma – ပရိမၼ.FB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A visit to the Thagara Pyu ancient city, Laung Lon, Dawei, Tenerisserim, Myanmar

May 6, 2013

I have watched the Thagara Pyu ancient city ruins on Lwin Moe Kha Yee Twar Nay Thi လြင္မိုး ခရီးသြားေနသည္ and other TV programs and have wanted to visit it. I got the opportunity to visit it during my recent visit to Dawei.

Dawei is situated on the Thanintharyi, on the southern part of Myanmar

Dawei is situated on the Thanintharyi, on the southern part of Myanmar

Traditionally, the Pyu has been believed to have built a series of city states from Tagaung to Sriksetra, some of which existed contemporily. The Pyu cities included Halin, Maingmaw, Beinnaka and Beikthano_all in the central part of Myanmar.

Pyu cities, the First Myanmar empire

Pyu cities, the First Myanmar empire

Pyu city states (Burmese: ပ်ဴျမိဳ႕ျပႏိုင္ငံမ်ား) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BC to c. mid-11th century in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar). The city-states—five major walled cities and several smaller towns have been excavated—were all located in the three main irrigated regions of Upper Burma: the Mu valley, the Kyaukse plains and Minbu region, around the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers.

However, the Pyu built the First Myanmar nation which included the Thanintharyi in the south.  Although the details of the Pyu nation has not been recorded in Myanmar chronicles, the Chinese had recorded it.

The Tang Chinese records report 18 Pyu states (nine of which were walled cities), covering 298 districts

The New T’ang History listed thirty-two important settlements or tribes subject to the Pyu, eighteen dependencies, and eight or nine garrison towns. None of these have been definitively identified, although one such stockade may have been located near Myingan, near the Chindwin-Ayeyarwaddy confluence.

However, the name of the capital was not given.

Sri Ksetra, which is first mentioned in Chinese sources of the fourth century A.D., occupied most of the Irra-waddy River valley and in the south included the Mon cities. Sri Ksetra maintained extensive commercial and cultural relations not only with India and China, but also with Oc Eo a Funan city on the coast of present day Vietnam to the east and the Dhanyawaddy on the Bay of Bengal on the west and is at the junction of the trade routes.

In 832, according to the Chinese chronicles of the T’ang Dynasty, the troops of Nan Chao overran and leveled the Pyu capital; the surviving Pyu became slaves. The Pyu, a people of the Tibeto-Burmese group, subsequently were assimilated by the Burmese; they are last mentioned between the 11th and 13th centuries as one of the peoples inhabiting the Pagan state.

The Thargara ancient Pyu city map

The Thargara ancient Pyu city map

Thagara is one of the Pyu cities and is situated near Dawei, Thanintharyi, in Launglon township, Myanmar. It was founded in the year 113 M.E. / 751 A.D. There were Pyu finger marked bricks and laterite artifacts indicating that the Pyu first built the city.

Finger marked Pyu brick found at Thagara ancient city

Finger marked Pyu brick found at Thagara ancient city

The laterite artifacts also attested to the later Mon laterite culture.

Laterite artifact found at the Thagara ancient city ruins

Laterite artifact found at the Thagara ancient city ruins

It was on 16-April 2013, the last day of Thingyan (Myanmar New Year Water Festival) သၾကၤန္အတက္ေန႔ that I went to Thagara which is at the Myohaung ျမိဳ႕ေဟာင္း (Old city)village. We went there on motorcycles and water was splashed on us all along the way. In Dawei, the children begin the Water festival 3 days before Thingyan and everyone still plays water on the day after Thingyan on the Myanmar New Year’s day ႏွစ္ဆန္း တစ္ရက္ေန႔

Our classmate friend Dr. Kyaw Min of Dawei who made our visit to the Thargara ancient Pyu city possible. He, like us was drenched by the Thingyan water

Our classmate friend Dr. Kyaw Min of Dawei who made our visit to the Thargara ancient Pyu city possible. He, like us was drenched by the Thingyan water

Our friend Dr. Kyaw Min of Dawei took us there. First, he called along someone who knows the area. On the way, a couple who knows about the Thagara ancient city was called along to show us. Others had not been to Thargara.

Dr. Kyaw Min, the couple who showed us around, Pyone, and others of our group

Dr. Kyaw Min, the couple who showed us around, Pyone, and others of our group

We first reached the outskirts of the Thagara historical park where posts have been newly installed.

Myohaung archeological park boundary post

Myohaung archeological park boundary post

Then we were shown the ancient burial site but there is not much to see.

The ancient burial site.

The ancient burial site.

Old stupa near the ancient burial site

Old stupa near the ancient burial site

There was an old ruined pagoda / stupa near the burial site.

By the 4th century, most of the Pyu had become predominantly Buddhist and as Thagara was built in 751 A.D, this pagoda might have been in existence since that time. According to the excavated texts, as well as the Chinese records, the predominant religion of the Pyu was Theravada Buddhism.

The local couple who showed us around the Thagara ancient city ruins.

The local couple who showed us around the Thagara ancient city ruins.

We were then taken to the outer city wall remains.

Outer city wall remains.

Outer city wall remains.

It is not high nowadays and as the road has been built through the wall the cut section is clearly seen.

Further ahead we stopped at the inner city wall.

The inner city wall

The inner city wall

There was a large group of people celebrating the Thingyan Water festival nearby. A lady there went ahead to call the local staff of the Archeology Department to show us around.

Map of Protected and Preserved Zone at Thagara Ancient City

Map of Protected and Preserved Zone at Thagara Ancient City

We stopped for a while at the office of the Archeology Department.

Then we went to the palace site.

DSC02508 r

The palace site lies among the village houses and the area has been cleared.

The palace site နန္းေတာ္ရာကုန္း

The palace site နန္းေတာ္ရာကုန္း

Even the local couple do not know the exact location of the palace site. We were taken there by the villager staff of the Archeology Department who explained to us the details.

The Myohaung villager staff of the Archeology who showed us the Palace site and explained us the details

The Myohaung villager staff of the Archeology who showed us the Palace site and explained us the details

There is a Palace pagoda nearby. It was built in 113 M.E. (Myanmar Era) / 751 A.D. However, it has been renovated as the place has been continuously inhabited and the pagoda used by the locals all the time.

Palace pagoda နန္းဦးဘုရား

Palace pagoda နန္းဦးဘုရား

We were then taken to the foreshore ေဖာင္ေတာ္ဦး

This place is where boats arrive at the Thagara ancient city.

The foreshore  ေဖာင္ေတာ္ဦး

The foreshore ေဖာင္ေတာ္ဦး

The Pyu built their cities at a distance from the rivers, but as water transport is important, they are located along the streams.

The Thagara Pyu city is not a large settlement and is a small city of about 1 mile in diameter. It seems to be one of the “thirty-two important settlements or tribes subject to the Pyu, eighteen dependencies, and eight or nine garrison towns” mentioned by the New T’ang History. It is far from the capital Sriksetra which is situated near Pyay in central Myanmar.

I thank my friend Dr. Kyaw Min and his people who showed us around the historical Thagara city. Without their help, I would not have reached it and be able to inform others through this record.

The Yodaya ယိုးဒယား (Ayutthaya) Thai king’s tomb at the Linzin လင္းဇင္းကုန္း (Lang Xang) Laos hill

May 4, 2013

tomb of former Siamese King Uthumphon r

The tomb of former Ayutthaya king Utumpon at Linzin hill, Taungtaman shore, Amarapura, near Mandalay, Myanmar

There have been news about the excavation of the Yodaya ယိုးဒယား (Ayutthaya) king’s tomb at the Linzin လင္းဇင္း (Lang Xang) hill at Mandalay (Taungtaman, Amarapura). It has been confirmed that it is the tomb of Ayutthaya king Utumpon. This led me to know more about the Linzin campaigns of the Konebaung era in 1763 and 1765 and also about the interesting life of king Utumpon.

First of all I wondered why the place is called Linzin (Lang Xang / Laos) hill and not Yodaya (Ayutthaya) hill.

While king Naungdawgyi was laying siege to the Toungoo, the vassal king loyal of Lan Na at Chiang Mai was overthrown.

After Toungoo was captured, Naungdawgyi then sent an 8000-strong army to Chiang Mai. The Burmese army captured Chiang Mai in early 1763

1763 – The Burmese invade Chiang Mai and the principality of Luang Prabang (now part of Laos) is captured.

It has also been mentioned that_

As a first step toward a war with the Siamese, Hsinbyushin decided to secure the northern and eastern flanks of Siam. In January 1765, a 20,000-strong Burmese army led by Ne Myo Thihapate based in Chiang Mai invaded the Laotian states. The Kingdom of Vientiane agreed to become Burmese vassal without a fight. Luang Prabang resisted but Thihapate’s forces easily captured the city in March 1765, giving the Burmese complete control of Siam’s entire northern border.

It must have been during these 2 wars with Lang Xang in 1763 and 1765 that captives from Lang Xang were taken back and settled near the Taungtaman lake, not far from Ava, and the place has been called Linzin hill since the time (Amarapura was not yet built at the time).

Burmese forces reached the outskirts of Ayutthaya on 20 January 1766. The Burmese then began what turned out to be a grueling 14-month siege. The Burmese forces finally breached the city’s defenses on 7 April 1767, and sacked the entire city. The Siamese royalty and artisans were carried back.

Hsinbyushin built a village near Mandalay for Uthumphon and his Siamese people—who then became the Yodia people. In accordance with Burmese chronicles, Uthumphon, as a monk, died in 1796 in the village. His is believed to be entombed in a chedi at the Linzin Hill graveyard on the edge of Taungthaman Lake in Mandalay Region‘s Amarapura Township.

Ex-king Utumpon (2 months rule 1758) was among those taken back to Ava and settled near present day Mandalay. However, the last Ayutthaya king Ekathat (1758–1767) was not among those captured and taken back.

During the 1767 siege of Ayutthaya_

King Ekathat and his family secretly fled from the capital. The nobles then agreed to surrender. On April 7, 1767, Ayutthaya fell.

Siamese chronicles said Ekkathat died upon having been in starvation for more than ten days while concealing himself at Ban Chik Wood (Thai: ป่าบ้านจิก), adjacent to Wat Sangkhawat (Thai: วัดสังฆาวาส). His dead body was discovered by the monk. It was buried at a mound named “Khok Phra Men” (Thai: โคกพระเมรุ), in front of a Siamese revered temple called “Phra Wihan Phra Mongkhonlabophit” (Thai: พระวิหารพระมงคลบพิตร).

King Utumpon was king of Ayutthaya for only 2 months after the death of his father king Borommakot.

One year before his death, Borommakot decided to skip Ekkathat and appointted Ekkathat’s younger brother, Uthumphon, as the Front Palace.

In 1758, Borommakot died. Uthumphon was then crowned, and Ekkathat entered in priesthood to signify his surrender. However, two months after that, Ekkathat returned and claimed for the throne.

1758, AugKing Utumpon abdicates the throne and retires at Wat Pradu. He is succeeded by Prince Ekatat who assumes the title Boromaraja V

1760, Apr – King Alaungsaya lays siege on Ayutthaya. Siamese King Ekatat who senses that he is not up to the task of leading the defense of the city invites his younger brother, the former King Utumpon to rule temporarily in his behalf.

Only five days into the siege, however, the Burmese king suddenly fell ill and the Burmese withdrew.. (The Siamese sources say he was wounded by a cannon shell explosion while he was inspecting the cannon corps at the front.).

1762 – With the Burmese danger contained, Utumpon retires again and returns to his monastery, leaving the fate of Siam in the hands of his older brother, King Ekatat

The Burmese, however, came back in 1767 under the commission of Hsinbyushin and led by Neimyo Thihapate. Though he was strongly urged to take role in leading Siamese armies, Uthumphon chose to stay in the monk status. Ayutthaya finally fell. Uthumphon was captured by the Burmese forces and was brought to Burma along with a large number of Ayutthaya’s people.

Uthumphon was grounded near Ava, along with other Ayutthaya ex-nobles, where he was forced by the Burmese to give them knowledge about the history and court customs of Ayutthaya—preserved in the Ayutthayan affidavit. Hsinbyushin built a village near Mandalay for Uthumphon and his Siamese people—who then became the Yodia people. In accordance with Burmese chronicles, Uthumphon, as a monk, died in 1796 in the village. His is believed to be entombed in a chedi at the Linzin Hill graveyard on the edge of Taungthaman Lake in Mandalay Region‘s Amarapura Township.

ထိုင္းဘုရင္ အုတ္ဂူ အစစ္အမွန္ဟု အတည္ျပဳ

http://abbsoluteright.blogspot.com/2013/03/blog-post_8607.html

fromby ကိုကို😀

ရန္ပိုင္

မႏၲေလးတိုင္း အမရပူရၿမိဳ႕ ေတာင္သမန္အင္းေစာင္း လင္းဇင္းကုန္း သုသာန္ရွိ ထုိင္းဘုရင္ေဟာင္း ဥတြန္ပုံ Utumpon ၏ အုတ္ဂူမွာ အစစ္ အမွန္ဟု အတည္ျပဳႏုိင္ၿပီျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း တူးေဖာ္ရာတြင္ေတြ႔ရွိရသည့္ အေထာက္အထားမ်ားကုိ ကုိးကား၍ ထုိင္းသမုိင္း ပညာရွင္မ်ားက ေျပာဆုိသည္။

အုတ္ဂူကုိ တူးေဖာ္စစ္ေဆးရာတြင္ အေရွ႕ေျမာက္ဘက္ အရန္ ေစတီတုိင္အတြင္းမွ အ႐ိုးမ်ားထည့္ထားသည့္ မွန္စီေရႊခ် သပိတ္ တလုံး ႏွင့္ ပန္းခ်ီေရးဆြဲထားသည့္ မွန္ခ်ပ္မ်ားေတြ႔ရျခင္း၊ ထုိင္း ရာဇအႏြယ္၀င္မ်ား၏ ထုံးတမ္းဓေလ့ႏွင့္အညီ ျမႇဳပ္ႏွံထားျခင္းမ်ားကုိ ေတြ႔ရသည့္အတြက္ မွန္ကန္သည္ဟု ယူဆျခင္းျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။
ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံမွ သမုိင္းႏွင့္ ေရွးေဟာင္းသုေတသနအဖြဲ႔ ဒုတိယေခါင္းေဆာင္ မစၥတာ မစ္ကီဟတ္က“အ႐ိုးေတြသပိတ္ထဲမွာ ထည့္ထား တယ္ ဆုိကတည္းက ဘုန္းႀကီး၀တ္နဲ႔ ပ်ံလြန္ေတာ္မူသြားတဲ့မင္းႀကီး ဥတြန္ပုံ ဆုိတာ ၉၉ ရာခုိင္ႏႈန္း ေသခ်ာသြားၿပီ”ဟု ဧရာ၀တီ ကုိ ေျပာသည္။

အဆုိပါ မွန္စီေရႊခ် ေျမသပိတ္သည္ အက်ယ္ ၈ . ၅ လက္မ၊ အျမင့္ ၅ . ၅ လက္မရွိၿပီး ႏႈတ္ခမ္းနားတြင္ ေရႊခ်ထားေၾကာင္း၊ သပိတ္ အဖုံး လက္ကုိင္မွာ ၾကာဖူးပုံသ႑ာန္ ျပဳလုပ္ထားၿပီး သုိ႔ေသာ္ ေက်ာက္စာ ကမၸည္းျဖင့္ မွတ္တမ္းတင္ ေရးထုိးထားျခင္းမရွိဟု သိရ သည္။

ဤအုတ္ဂူသည္ ေက်ာက္ဘြားေဒါက္မဒူူ၀ါး Dok Madua —”Dok Duea” (ดอกเดื่อ) and “Uthmphon” (อุทุมพร) are under the same meaning, “fig” ဘြဲ႔ခံံ ထုိင္းဘုရင္ေဟာင္း မင္းသားႀကီး ဥတြန္ပုံ ၏ အုတ္ဂူ အစစ္အမွန္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း မၾကာ မီ ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံ ဘန္ေကာက္ ၿမိဳ႕၌ သတင္းစာရွင္းလင္းပြဲ ျပဳလုပ္မည္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း မစၥတာ မစ္ကီဟတ္က ေျပာသည္။

Thai Cultural Village to Be Built in Burma

By YAN PAI / THE IRRAWADDY| Friday, May 3, 2013 |

http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/33591

A Thai cultural village is set to be built near the Burmese city of Mandalay, reflecting the ancient Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya in a joint project Burma and neighboring Thailand.

Thailand’s Siam Society is reportedly seeking permission from local authorities in Mandalay to build the village at the edge of Taungthaman Lake in Amarapura Township, in a bid to preserve the culture of Thai people living in Mandalay in the 18th century.

The Siam Society, under the Thai royal patronage, was founded in 1904 in cooperation with Thai and foreign scholars to promote knowledge of Thailand and its surrounding region.

The push to build the cultural village follows the discovery last month that the former Siamese King Uthumphon—better known in Thai history as King Dok Madua, or “fig flower”—and other royal family members were buried at a prominent graveyard near the lake.

“A lot of Thai people arrived in Burma as prisoners of war and asylum seekers,” said Mickey Heart, a historian and deputy chief the excavation team that uncovered Uthumphon’s tomb.

He added that a large number of Thai people from Thailand’s Tak Province later migrated to Burma because of internal disputes in Ayutthaya Kingdom and were allowed to settle in Mandalay’s Yahai Quarter.

According to Burmese history records, King Hsinbyushin, the third king of Burma’s Konbaung Dynasty, invaded the ancient Thai capital of Ayutthaya in 1767 and brought as many subjects as he could, including Uthumphon, back to his own capital, Ava.

Residential areas and markets were named after Thai people settling around Mandalay and Ava at the time, and even today, the region boasts elements of Thai culture in certain religious practices, cuisines, and arts and crafts.

“A hybrid culture, the combination of Burmese and Thai, emerged following the death of those who were brought from Ayutthaya,” said Heart. “The smell of that culture can be felt around Mandalay these days.”

Meanwhile, since the excavation of the former Siamese king’s tomb, Thai media has recommended the burial place as a tourist attraction for Thai travelers.

Although Thai historians initially disagreed over whether to excavate the tomb, the project was initiated by the Siam Society following a report by The Irrawaddy in July last year that the burial place would be destroyed by local authorities in Mandalay to make way for a new urban development project.

 

 

 

King Utumpon

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uthumphon

Uthumphon
อุทุมพร

King of Ayutthaya

King of Siam

Reign

1758

Predecessor

Borommakot

Successor

Ekkathat

House

Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty

Father

King Borommakot

Mother

Krom Luang Phiphit Montri

Born

Unknown

Died

1796
Mandalay, Konbaung Kingdom

Somdet Phrachao U-thumphon (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าอุทุมพร)[1] or Phra Bat Somdet Phra Chao Uthomphon Mahaphon Phinit (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระอุทุมพรมหาพรพินิต) was the 32nd and penultimate monarch of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, ruling in 1758 for about two months. Facing various throne claimants, Uthumphon was finally forced to abdicate and enter monkhood. His preference of being a monk rather than keep the throne, earned him the epithet “Khun Luang Ha Wat”[1] (Thai: ขุนหลวงหาวัด), or “the king who prefers the temple”.

Prince Dok Duea or Prince Uthumphon—”Dok Duea” (ดอกเดื่อ) and “Uthmphon” (อุทุมพร) are under the same meaning, “fig”—was a son of Borommakot. In 1746, his elder brother, Prince Thammathibet who had been appointed as the Front Palace, was beaten to death for his affair with one of Borommakot’s concubines. Borommakot didn’t appoint the new Front Palace as Kromma Khun Anurak Montri or Ekkathat, the next in succession line, was proved to be incompetent. In 1757, Borommakot finally decided to skip Anurak Montri altogether and made Uthumphon the Front Palace—becoming Kromma Khun Phon Phinit.

In 1758, upon the passing of Borommakot, Uthumphon was crowned. However, he faced oppositions from his three half-brothers, namely, Kromma Muen Chit Sunthon, Kromma Muen Sunthon Thep, and Kromma Muen Sep Phakdi. Uthumphon then reconciled with his half-brothers and took the throne peacefully.

Ekkathat, who had become a monk, decided to made himself a king only two months after Uthumphon’s coronation. The three half-brothers resented and fought Ekkathat, and they were executed by Ekkathat. Uthumporn then gave up his throne to his brother and leave for the temple outside Ayutthaya so as to become a monk.

1758, AugKing Utumpon abdicates the throne and retires at Wat Pradu. He is succeeded by Prince Ekatat who assumes the title Boromaraja V

In 1760, Alaungpaya of Burma led his armies invading Ayutthaya. Uthumphon was asked to leave monkhood to fight against the Burmese. However, Alongpaya died during the campaigns and the invasion suspended. Uthumphon, once again, returned to monkhood.

1760, Apr – King Alaungsaya lays siege on Ayutthaya. Siamese King Ekatat who senses that he is not up to the task of leading the defense of the city invites his younger brother, the former King Utumpon to rule temporarily in his behalf

1762 – With the Burmese danger contained, Utumpon retires again and returns to his monastery, leaving the fate of Siam in the hands of his older brother, King Ekatat

1766, Feb – The Burmese begin their siege of Ayutthaya. King Ekatat again offers his brother Utumpon to lead the defence of the city but this time Utumpon declines.

1767, Apr 7 – After 14 months of siege, Ayutthaya falls and King Ekatat flees.

Uthumphon was captured by the Burmese forces and was brought to Burma along with a large number of Ayutthaya’s people.

Uthumphon was grounded near Ava, along with other Ayutthaya ex-nobles, where he was forced by the Burmese to give them knowledge about the history and court customs of Ayutthaya—preserved in the Ayutthayan affidavit. Hsinbyushin built a village near Mandalay for Uthumphon and his Siamese people—who then became the Yodia people. In accordance with Burmese chronicles, Uthumphon, as a monk, died in 1796 in the village. His is believed to be entombed in a chedi at the Linzin Hill graveyard on the edge of Taungthaman Lake in Mandalay Region‘s Amarapura Township

 

ps

I have begun my blog about Yodaya king’s tomb in Linzin kone (hill) several months ago when it was not mentioned as to which Ayutthayan king it was. I could not complete it at the time, and only completed it this morning. It has now come out in an entirely different form as it has been confirmed as being king Utumpon’s tomb during the interval. I’m glad I did not finish it earlier, as the draft was vague and even included king Bayintnaung’s wars into Linzin as I was not aware at the time of the 2 Linzin wars during Hsinbyushin’s era.

My main interest in history and archeology is pre-history and the Pyu. I had been to Dawei last month and visited the Thargara Pyu (and later Mon) city in Laung Lon township, not far from Dawei. I will write a blog about my visit to the Thargara city, but, it will be more of a travelogue as I find little facts.

 

 

Nanmadaw Me Nu နန္းမေတာ္ မယ္ႏု, Sagaing Min စစ္ကိုင္းမင္း / ဘၾကီးေတာ္ Bagyitaw, and the First Anglo Burmese War

March 18, 2013

I began this blog as about Nanmadaw Me Nu နန္းမေတာ္ မယ္ႏု alone, a queen who was not of royal birth but became chief queen of the Bagyitaw / Sagaing king စစ္ကိုင္းမင္း. She and her brother Lord of Salin Maung O စလင္းစားေမာင္အို were the true powers in the court of Ava during the later years of the reign of the Sagaing king. However, as the First Anglo Burmese War and the life of the Sagaing Min cannot be left out and just a short mention about them would make it incomplete, I have included more about them and also about the crown prince Tharawaddy သာယာ၀တီမင္းသား who later revolted and dethroned his elder brother the king Sagaing and ascended the throne himself_ in order that readers will not have to refer elsewhere to understand the complex situation in Myanmar at the time.

I wish to thank Maung Kyaw Shin ေမာင္ေက်ာ္ရွင္း (the late U Kyaw Shin), who’s book Withayta NaeMyae ၀ိေသသနယ္ေျမ inspired me to begin this blog and from which I obtained much data to begin with, and also to various sources on the internet, especially the Wikipedia and the Encyclopedia Britannica which I enriched my blog. However, I find differences between Maung Kyawt Shin (who had researched extensively from Myanmar sources and the others on the internet_ the year an episode occured and whether Prince Tharawaddy was or not a crown prince, for example_ I put my faith on Maung Kyawt Shin as he quoted from the original Myanmar sources whereas, in my view, the internet versions are written by non-Burmese, from second hand sources_ translated or verbal data of modern Burmese historians.

Nanmadaw Me Nu  နန္းမေတာ္ မယ္ႏု; 18 June 1783 (၁၁၄၆ 1784/85) – 12 May 1840 (၁၂၀၂ 1840/41)  was one of the few strong Queens in Myanmar history and she was the main character in Myanmar government of the time and the First Anglo Burmese War. She was born a commoner but rose to fame or notoriety. Nanmataw Me Nu was mother of Queen (Hsinbyumashin ဆင္ျဖဴမရွင္ မိဖုရား) of King Mindon မင္းတုန္းမင္း who herself was mother of Burma’s last queen Supayalat စုဖုရားလတ္. The female lineage of Nanmataw Me Nu, Hsinphyumashin and Supayalat in the male dominnated Burmese monarchy is a very intersting one regarding the end of Independence and the monarchy.

She was the chief queen of King Bagyidaw ဘၾကီးေတာ္မင္း / Sagaing Min စစ္ကိုင္းမင္း of Konbaung dynasty of Burma from 1819 to 1837. Married to Prince of Sagaing (as king Bagyidaw / Sagaing Min was then) in 1801, Me Nu became Chief queen (when Bagyidaw ascended the throne on 5 June 1819), with the title Namadaw Mibaya Khaunggyi (Chief Queen of the Royal Palace) and also known as Taung Nann San Miphayargyi ေတာင္နန္းစံမိဖုရားၾကီး (Queen of the South palace_south palace is the palace of chief queens).

Born (သကၠရာဖ္ ၁၁၄၆ 1784/85) at Phalankhone village ဖလံခံုရြာ 5 miles northwest of present day town of Khin Oo ခင္ဦး, she was named Shin Min Nu ရွင္မင္းႏု and she was great grand daughter of the hero Bala Thaman ဗလသမန္း who was posted to the Phalankhone village fort ဖလံခံုရြာ တပ္စခန္း during the reign of king Maharajadipadi မဟာရာဇာဓိပတိမင္း of Nyaungyan dynasty ေညာင္ရမ္းေခာတ္ to guard against the danger of Manipuris မဏိပူရ ကသည္း

The third daughter of Bala Thaman was Thakhin Mun သခင္မြန္. Her son was Htaung Thinn Hmu Thiha Kyawswar ေထာင္သင္းမွူး သီဟေက်ာ္စြာ.  (name U Hlote ဦးလႈပ္). Shin Min Nu was born of Thiha Kyawswar U Hlote and his wife Daw Nge ေဒၚငယ္

King Bodawpaya ဘိုးေတာ္ ဘုရား / Badon Min  ပဒံုမင္း also known as Bodaw U Waing ဘိုးေတာ္ ဦး၀ိုင္း made his eldest son Thado Minsaw crown prince on သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၄၅ ခု၊ ဒုတိယ၀ါဆို လဆန္း ၁၂ ရက္ေန႔ 1783 Jun / Jul with the title of Thiri Maha Dhammar Bizaya Thiha Thura သီရိမဟာဓမၼာဘိဇယသီဟသူရ  and gave him the Depeyin  cavalry ဒီပဲရင္းျမင္းစု.

The Phalankhone village squire ywar sarr Thway Thauk MyinSi ရြာစားေသြးေသာက္ျမင္းစီး (cavalry  trooper) Thiha Kyawswar U Hlote of the Depeyin cavalry was transferred from Phalankhone village to serve at the Amarapura Naypyitaw အမရပူရ ေနျပည္ေတာ္ capital. He went there with his wife, son, daughter, uncle, aunt etc. Before the two months is up after reaching the Amarapura Naypyitaw, on the day of သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၄၆ ခု၊ ၀ါဆို လျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၅ ရက္၊ အဂၤါေန႔ နံနက္ပိုင္း 1784 Jun / Jul, Shin Min Nu was born of U Hlote’s wife Daw Nge.

When Shin Min Nu was about 7 – 8 years age, she learned the basic teachings of သင္ပုန္းၾကီး၊ မဂၤလသုတ္၊ အတြင္းေအာင္ျခင္း၊ အျပင္ေအာင္ျခင္း၊ ရတနာေရႊခ်ိဳင့္၊ နမကၠာရ၊ ေလာကနီတိ၊ ပရိတ္ၾကီး၊ ဆုမၼစာ၊ ဇာတ္ေတာ္ၾကီး ဆယ္ဘြဲ႔ စေသာ အေျခခံ စာမ်ား  from her younger brother Maung O ေမာင္အို as girls were not allowed to attend the monastery schools which were the only schools at the time.

When she was 12 years age and her father became Htaung Thinn Hmu she was selected to become a maid at the South Palace. Sagaing prince Maung Shwe Zin (Maung Maung Sein), born 23 July 1784, fell in love with the South Palace maid Mae Nu. However, marriage between them was impossible. Badon Min / King Badon bethroted his grandson Sagaing prince to Hsinphyushinmae princess ဆင္ျဖဴရွင္မယ္ မင္းသမီး

King Bagyidaw (Burmese: ဘၾကီးေတာ္; also known as Sagaing Min စစ္ကိုင္းမင္း ; 23 July 1784 – 15 October 1846) was the seventh king of Konbaung dynasty of Burma from 1819 until his abdication in 1837. He was born 23 July 1784 and his parents were king  Bodawpaya and Min Kye, Princess of Taungdwin. Prince of Sagaing, as he was commonly known in his day, was selected as crown prince by his grandfather King Bodawpaya in 1808, and became king in 1819 after Bodawpaya’s death. Bagyidaw moved the capital from Amarapura back to Ava in 1823.

In 1812, his first wife Princess Hsinbyume died of childbirth in Mingun. He took on five more wives as crown prince (of the eventual number of 23 queens). His third and later chief queen was Nanmadaw Me Nu

 

On 9 February 1803, the 18-year-old prince married 14-year-old Princess Hsinbyume, a granddaughter of Bodawpaya

On သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၇၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္၊ တန္ခူးလဆန္း ၁၄ ရက္ေန႔  April 1808, the crown prince Thado Minsaw died at age 45. His son and grandson of King Bodawpaya, the Sagaing prince became the crown prince Nine days later. The prince was also allowed to inherit his father’s fiefs of Dabayin / Depeyin and Shwedaung.

His elevation to crown prince also brought his royal servants, including Maung Yit (later Gen. Maha Bandula) of Dabayin and Maung Sa (later Lord of Myawaddy) of Sagaing to prominence. Myawaddy became his longtime adviser and personal secretary (atwinwn) until his abdication in 1837. He promoted Maung Yit to governor of Ahlon-Monywa.

At သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၇၄ ခု၊ သိတင္းကြ်တ္လျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၇ ရက္ေန႔ 1812 October, Hsinphyushinmae princess died seven days after the birth of her first son who would later be known as Setkyar Min Thar စၾကာမင္းသား / Nyaungyan prince ေညာင္ရမ္းမင္းသား  Before long, Shin Min Nu became the crown princess and for this she faced severe criticism and opposition by the royalty.

Nanmataw Me Nu while being a crown princess had a daughter who died soon after birth and a son, Prince of Palaing, who died young at age of six (some say_ ten).

On 5 June 1819, Sagaing ascended the throne after the death of the king Badon. Shin Min Nu became the Taung Nann San Agga Mahaythi Miphayagaunggyi ေတာင္နန္းစံ အဂၢမေဟသီ မိဖုရားေခါင္ၾကီး (Chief Queen of the south palace) and came to be known as Nanmataw Me Nu နန္းမေတာ္ မယ္ႏု

King Badon had 61 daughters, 106 grand daughters. His son, the first crown prince Thado Minsaw had 26 daughters. There were many daughters of other kings, princes, princesses, Sawbwas / Saophas, Lords, Governors more suitable to become Taung Nann San Agga Mahaythi. Therefore Shin Min Nu was disliked and critized by the court.

However, King Sagaing and Nanmataw Me Nu were inseparable. Nanmataw Me Nu sat beside the king on the throne during ceremonies and the palanquin of the queen went beside that of the king on their outings. Thus they were referred to as the Two Royals / Shin Hna-parr ရွင္ႏွစ္ပါး rather than the King and Queen ရွင္ဘုရင္ႏွင့္ မိဖုရား as was the court etiquette previously.

Prince of Sagaing was fond of shows, theater, elephant catching and boat racing and so was his younger brother Prince Tharrawaddy. When his elder brother Bagyidaw ascended the throne in 1819, Tharrawaddy was appointed crown prince.

On သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၈၃ ခု၊ တန္ေဆာင္မုန္းလျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၁၃ ရက္ေန႔ 1821 November, Nanmataw Me Nu gave birth to a daughter. She was later well known as Hsinphyumashin Me Thae ဆင္ျဖဴမရွင္ မိသဲ, Queen (Hsinbyumashin ဆင္ျဖဴမရွင္ မိဖုရား) of King Mindon မင္းတုန္းမင္း and mother of Burma’s last queen Supayalat စုဖုရားလတ္. The princess was given Sagaing, Depeyin, Momeik, Pakhangyi, Sint Kuu, Ingapu, Myehte, Padaung and Kyankhin towns in addition to many jewelry.

– bodawpaya’s grandson, king bagyidaw moved the court back to ava in november 1821 (http://www.wordaz.com/bagyidaw.html)

 

Both brothers Sagaing king and prince Tharrawaddy like to live peacefully and Bagyidaw was an ineffectual king. This led to Nanmataw Me Nu and her brother Maung O, Lord of Salin စလင္းစား to take control of governing the country. However, they are not qualified for such a role and they gave their relatives from Depeyin important posts of ေျမာက္ဘက္၀န္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ Prime minister of the North, ေျမာက္ဘက္ျမင္း၀န္ Horse retainer of the North and ေတာင္ဘက္္ျမင္း၀န္ Horse retainer of the South. They offered the titles of ရာဇာဓိရာဇဂုရု Razadi Raza Guru and ရာဇဂုရု Raza Guru to the monks of their Phalankhone village and the villages of WaThe ၀သဲ, YwaThitKyee ရြာသစ္ၾကီး and TuMauung တူေမာင္း around it. In this way Nanmataw Me Nu and her brother Lord of Salin’s power grew slowly and the power of Sagaing king and prince Tharrawaddy waned.

_ Maung O is Shin Min Nu’s half brother, born of Thiha Kyawswar U Hlote’s first marriage. He became Lord of Salin in ၁၁၈၁ ႏွစ္ 1819 A.D. soon after Sagaing ascended the throne. He was awarded the titles of Thadoe Minhla Kyawhtin သတိုးမင္းလွက်ာ္ထင္ first and secondly Thadoe Dhammayarzar သတိုးဓမၼရာဇာ. During the First Anglo Burmese war he defended as Bohmu ဗိုလ္မႈး with over 100 armed men from Salin.

 

 

Bagyidaw inherited the largest Burmese empire, second only to King Bayinnaung‘s, but also one that shared ill-defined borders with British India. The British, disturbed by the Burmese control of Manipur and Assam which threatened their own influence on the eastern borders of British India, supported rebellions in the region

The first to test Bagyidaw’s rule was the Raja of Manipur, who was put on the Manipuri throne only six years earlier by the Burmese. Raja Marjit Singh failed to attend Bagyidaw’s coronation ceremony, or send an embassy bearing tributes, as all vassal kings had an obligation to do. In October 1819, Bagyidaw sent an expeditionary force of 25000 soldiers and 3000 cavalry led by his favorite general Maha Bandula to reclaim Manipur.[12] Bandula reconquered Manipur but the raja escaped to neighboring Cachar, which was ruled by his brother Chourjit Singh.[13] The Singh brothers continued to raid Manipur using their bases from Cachar and Jaintia, which had been declared as British protectorates.

In the years leading to the war, the king had been forced to suppress British supported rebellions in his grandfather’s western acquisitions (Arakan, Manipur and Assam), but unable to stem cross border raids from British territories and protectorates.

His ill-advised decision to allow the Burmese army to pursue the rebels along the vaguely defined borders led to the war.

The instabilities spread to Assam in 1821, when the Ahom king of Assam, Chandrakanta Singha tried to shake off Burmese influence. He hired mercenaries from Bengal and began to strengthen the army. He also began to construct fortification to prevent further Burmese invasion.[14] Bagyidaw again turned to Bandula. It took Bandula’s 20,000 strong army about a year a half, until July 1822, to finish off the Assamese army. Bagyidaw now scrapped the six century old Assamese monarchy and made Assam a province under a military governor-general. This differs with the Assamese versions of history where it is written that Bagyidaw installed Jogeshwar Singha, a brother of Hemo Aideo, the Ahom princess who was married to Bodawpaya as the new Ahom king of Assam and a military governor-general was appointed to look after the administration.[15][16] The defeated Assamese king fled to British territory of Bengal. The British ignored Burmese demands to surrender the fugitive king, and instead sent reinforcement units to frontier forts.[17] Despite their success in the open battlefield, the Burmese continued to have trouble with cross border raids by rebels from British protectorates of Cachar and Jaintia into Manipur and Assam, and those from British Bengal into Arakan.

At Bagyidaw’s court, the war party which included Gen. Bandula, Queen Me Nu and her brother, the lord of Salin made the case to Bagyidaw that a decisive victory could allow Ava to consolidate its gains in its new western empire in Arakan, Manipur, Assam, Cachar and Jaintia, as well as take over eastern Bengal.[18] In January 1824, Bandula allowed one of his top lieutenants Maha Uzana into Cachar and Jaintia to chase away the rebels. The British sent in their own force to meet the Burmese in Cachar, resulting in the first clashes between the two. The war formally broke out on 5 March 1824, following border clashes in Arakan.

During သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၈၅ ခု 1823 Apr – 24 Apr there was dispute between the English and Burmese regarding the possession of the Shinmaphyu island at the mouth of the Nat / Naf river. This leads to the First Anglo Burmese War.

Nanmadaw Me Nu selected Maha Bandoola as Commander in Chief of the Burmese Army. Maha Bandoola is close to the royals and had vowed to die if he cannot win for the country and king. Prince Tharawaddy did was not enthusiastic about the Anglo Burmese war. However, king Sagaing relied on his younger brother.

Bagyidaw’s reign saw the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826), which marked the beginning of the decline of the Konbaung dynasty. It is also the longest and most expensive war in British Indian history ended decisively in British favor, and the Burmese had to accept British terms without discussion. Bagyidaw was forced to cede all of his grandfather’s western acquisitions, and Tenasserim to the British, and pay a large indemnity of one million pounds sterling, leaving the country crippled for years.

First Anglo-Burmese War

In the beginning of the war, battle hardened Burmese forces, who were more familiar with the terrain which represented “a formidable obstacle to the march of a European force”, were able to push back better armed British forces made up of European and Indian soldiers. By May, Uzana’s forces had overrun Cachar and Jaintia, and Lord of Myawaddy‘s forces had defeated the British inside Bengal, causing a great panic in Calcutta.

1824. In May, Burmese forces led by U Sa, Lord Myawaddy (about 4,000) fought their way into Bengal, and defeated British troops at the Battle of Ramu, 10 miles east of Cox’s Bazar on 17 May 1824. Sa’s column then joined Bandula’s column on the march to defeat British forces at Gadawpalin, and went on to capture Cox’s Bazar. The Burmese success caused extreme panic in Chittagong and in Calcutta. Across the eastern Bengal, the European inhabitants formed themselves into militia forces. And a large portion of the crews of East India Company’s ships were landed to assist in the defence of Calcutta.

But Bandula, not wanting to overstretch, stopped U Sa from proceeding to Chittagong. Had Bandula marched on to Chittagong, which unbeknown to him was lightly held, he could have taken it and the way to Calcutta would have been open.(The Burmese, because of the disparity in arms, could not have won the war in any case. But had they been able to threaten Calcutta, the Burmese could have obtained more favourable terms in the peace negotiations later on.)

Instead of fighting in harsh terrain, the British took the fight to the Burmese mainland. On 11 May 1824 သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၈၆ခု၊ ကဆုန္လဆန္း ၁၄ ရက္ေန႔, a British naval force of over 10,000 men, led by Archibald Campbell entered the port city of Yangon, taking the Burmese by surprise.

Sagaing Min sent the ministers Thadoe Mingyi Maha Minkhaung သတိုးမင္းၾကီးမဟာမင္းေခါင္ and Thadoe Maha Thaynarpati သတိုးမဟာေသနာပတိ with over 10,000 armed personnel to retake Yangon but failed. Then Sagaing Min sent his brother the crown prince, prince Tharawaddy as commander ဗိုလ္မွဴး with fully armed army from Naypyitaw (Ava) to Danuphyu ဓႏုျဖဴ on ၁၁၈၆ခု၊ ၀ါဆို္လဆန္း ၁၅ ရက္ေန႔ June 1984. He also ordered the Toungoo prince ေတာင္ငူမင္းသား to march to Toungoo with a full army.

Sagaing Min gave his brother prince Tharawaddy the following orders:

To attack and take all English အဂၤလိပ္ ကုလား who have entered and are in Yangon. Ministers Thadoe Mingyi Maha Minkhaung and Thadoe Maha Thaynarpati have been given the posts of commanding officer ဗိုလ္မွဴး and general ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ with the forces along the river to do this but had not done with utmost diligence and it is still undone.

Tharawady prince Maha Thiri Thiha Thura Dhamma Raja  မဟာသီရိသီဟသူရဓမၼရာဇာ was made commanding officer ဗိုလ္မွဴး and general ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ given an armed force and ordered to march to, take Yangon and present after establishing a command structure. In accordance with the order, Tharawady prince’s army departed Ava ၁၁၈၆ခု၊ ၀ါဆို္လဆန္း ၁၅ ရက္ေန႔ June 1984 for Dhanuphyu and stationed there.

Tharawady prince did not want to march to lower Myanmar ေအာက္ျပည္ေအာက္ရြာ to wage war but had to obey the king’s orders.  Tharawady prince was not in good terms with Nanmataw Me Nu and her brother for some time and was dissatisfied with his elder brother the king.

Tharawady prince at first stationed his army at Dhanuphyu. Later he moved his command to Tharawaddy and commanded from there. He sent Thadoe Mingyi Maha Minkhaung သတိုးမင္းၾကီးမဟာမင္းေခါင္, minister ၀န္ၾကီး Thadoe Maha Thaynarpati သတိုးမဟာေသနာပတိ,  Sarrtaw-wun စားေတာ္္၀န္ Minhla Khaung မင္းလွေခါင္,  Lord of Zwe Thapon ဇြဲသူပုန္ျမိဳ႕စား Maha Zeya မဟာေဇယ် in 3 routes to attack the English in Yangon but failed.

King Sagaing then recalled Maha Bandoola from Dhanyawaddy ဓည၀တီ and on ၁၁၈၆ခု၊ တန္ေဆာင္မုန္းလဆန္း ၅ ရက္ေန႔ November 1824 sent via Hantharwaddy ဟံသာ၀တီေၾကာင္း to take Yangon. Maha Bandoola could not take Yangon and retreated to Dhanuphyu and fell there from cannon fire during heated battle while he was walking on the rampart to encourage his troops while commanding them.

Without Maha Bandoola, Myanmar forces were in disarray. Prince Tharawaddy who was in overall command did not collect the defeated forces nor lead the attacks. He lived playfully, taking / taw kauk ေတာ္ေကာက္ beautiful girls where-ever he got to. He retreated to Minbu giving illness as excuse. He was interested in armstice only.

It has been written in American missionary ေမာ္လကြန္း Mawlakun’s book “2 years in Ava” that _ Tharawaddy prince leads the opposition in the palace. During the war with the English, the commander in chief did not lead his army in battle. This differes with the founder of the dynasty king AlaungMintayar အေလာင္းမင္းတရား who leads the army in battle.

The basic cause is the bad relations between Prince Tharawaddy and Nanmataw Me Nu.

Bagyidaw ordered Bandula and most of the troops back home to meet the enemy at Yangon. In December 1824, Bandula’s 30,000 strong force tried to retake Yangon but was soundly defeated by the much better armed British forces. The British immediately went on an offensive on all fronts. By April 1825, the British had driven out the Burmese forces from Arakan, Assam, Manipur, Tenasserim, and the Irrawaddy delta where Gen. Bandula died in action. After Bandula’s death, the Burmese fought on but their last-ditch effort to retake the delta was repulsed in November 1825. In February 1826, with the British army only 50 miles away from Ava, Bagyidaw agreed to British terms.

As per the Treaty of Yandabo, the British demanded and the Burmese agreed to:

  1. Cede to the British Assam, Manipur, Arakan, and Tenasserim coast south of Salween river,
  2. Cease all interference in Cachar and Jaintia,
  3. Pay an indemnity of one million pounds sterling in four installments,
  4. Allow for an exchange of diplomatic representatives between Ava and Calcutta,
  5. Sign a commercial treaty in due course.

The treaty imposed highly severe financial burden to the Burmese kingdom, and effectively left it crippled. The British terms in the negotiations were strongly influenced by the heavy cost in lives and money which the war had entailed. Some 40,000 British and Indians troops had been involved of whom 15,000 had been killed. The cost to the British India’s finances had been almost ruinous, amounting to approximately 13 million pounds sterling. The cost of war contributed to a severe economic crisis in India, which by 1833 had bankrupted the Bengal agency houses and cost the British East India Company its remaining privileges, including the monopoly of trade to China

According to the Treaty of Yantapo the indemnity was to have been given in four installments but there was not enough in the Treasury even for the first installment. Nanmataw Me Nu gave part of her jewelery and cash to complete it. However, the English recorded that Nanmataw lent 20 Lakhs Rupees 2,000,000 Rupees / Kyats for the indenmity.

For the Burmese, the treaty was a total humiliation and a long lasting financial burden. A whole generation of men had been wiped out in battlefield. The world the Burmese knew of conquest and martial pride, built on the back of impressive military success of prior 75 years, had come crashing down. An uninvited British Resident in Ava was a daily reminder of humiliation of defeat. The burden of indemnity would leave the royal treasury bankrupt for years. The indemnity of one million pounds sterling would have been considered a colossal sum even in Europe of that time, and it became frightening when translated to Burmese kyat equivalent of 10 million. The cost of living of the average villager in Upper Burma in 1826 was one kyat per month

During the remaining years of his reign, Bagyidaw attempted to mitigate the harsh terms of the treaty. In 1826 the king negotiated a commercial treaty with the British envoy, John Crawfurd, but refused to establish formal diplomatic relations unless he could deal on an equal basis with the British sovereign, rather than through the East India Company at Calcutta. Bagyidaw failed to persuade the British to give Thanintharyi back to Myanmar, but a deputation that he sent to Calcutta in 1830 successfully reasserted the Myanmar claim to the Kale-Kabaw Valley, which had been occupied by the Manipuris.

Bagyidaw could not come to terms with the loss of the territories, and the British used Tenasserim as bait for the Burmese to pay the installments of indemnity. In 1830, the British agreed to redraw the Manipuri border with Burma, giving back Kabaw Valley to the Burmese. Bagyidaw delivered the balance of the indemnity at great sacrifice in November 1832. But by 1833, it was clear that the British had no intention of returning any of the territories.

After 1831 Bagyidaw became increasingly susceptible to attacks of mental instability.

The king, who used to love theater and boat racing, grew increasingly reclusive, afflicted by bouts of depression. Power devolved to his queen Nanmadaw Me Nu and her brother. Me Nu and her brother became de facto rulers of the country, and they much feared for their tyrannical rule.

In February 1837, Bagyidaw’s crown prince and brother Tharrawaddy rebelled, and two months later in April, Bagyidaw was forced to abdicate. Tharrawaddy executed Me Nu and her brother, and kept his brother under house arrest. Bagyidaw died on 15 October 1846, at age 62. The former king had 23 queens, five sons and five daughters

Tharrawaddy was born Maung Khin to Crown Prince Thado Minsaw (son of King Bodawpaya) and Princess Min Kye on 14 March 1787. When his elder brother Bagyidaw ascended the throne in 1819, Tharrawaddy was appointed Heir Apparent. As crown prince, he fought in the First Anglo-Burmese War. In February 1837, he raised the standard of rebellion after escaping to Shwebo, the ancestral place of the Konbaung kings. Tharrawaddy succeeded in overthrowing Bagyidaw in April and was crowned king. Princess Min Myat Shwe, a granddaughter of Hsinbyushin, whom he married in 1809, was crowned as his chief queen (Nanmadaw Mibaya Hkaungyi).

Prince Tharawady was the third son born of crown prince Thado Minsaw and princess Taungdwin on သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၄၈ ခု၊ တေပါင္းလျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၁၀ ရက္ေန႔ 14 March 1787 during the reign of his grandfather King Bodawpaya ဘိုးေတာ္ ဘုရား / Badon Min  ပဒံုမင္း / Bodaw U Waing ဘိုးေတာ္ ဦး၀ိုင္း.

During Badon Min’s time, he was given the title of Thadoe Minhla Anuruddha သတိုးမင္းလွအႏုရုဒၶါ and the town of Thayet သရက္ျမိဳ႕ . Badon Min bethroted him to his uncle Bagan prince’s daughter and gave him the town of Tharawaddy.

During his elder brother Sagaing king’s reign, he was given the title of Thiri Maha Thudhamma Razar သီရိမဟာသုဓမၼာရာဇာ. Although Sagaing king did not make him crown prince, he was given previleges similar to that of a crown prince. (Maung Kyawt Shin. Wikipedia mentioned that he was a crown prince).

In spite of what Sagaing king bequeathed on him, Tharawaddy was not satisfied with the growing power of Nanmataw Me Nu and her brother Lord of Salin. From the time their power grew, Tharawaddy did not participate in matters of State and began to consolidate his strength.

After the end of the First Anglo Burmese war, the two sides were totally opposed. Sagaing king became unhappy from the matters of state_ loss of territories, the indemnity and the development of antagonism between the queen and Tharawaddy_ and his health deteriorated. Lord Salin and the ministers took over the powers of State. He had been attending the Hluttaw လႊတ္ေတာ္ (parliament) together with the ministers as a prince for some time.

While Lord of Salin and the ministers were performing the State duties, thefts, robberies and other crimes occured frequently within the Naypyitaw ေနျပည္ေတာ္  / Ava. The Lord of Salin and the ministers believed that the bad men of Tharawaddy are to blame for these crimes.

Although Tharawaddy did not have power, he had people of ability around him. Of his sons, Thiri Maha Thudhamma Razar the Taungtwinchaung prince ေတာင္တြင္းေခ်ာင္မင္းသား သီရိမဟာသုဓမၼာရာဇာ, Minye Thihakyaw မင္းရဲသီဟေက်ာ္,  Minye Kyawhtin မင္းရဲေက်ာ္ထင္,  Minye Zeya မင္းရဲေဇယ် were princes of ability.

There were also good people such as Naymyo Letyar Kyawhtin ေနမ်ိဳးလက္်ာေက်ာ္ထင္, Naymyo Thiha Kyawswar ေနမ်ိဳးသီဟေက်ာ္စြာ, Ahtwinwun Naymyo Thiha Sithu အတြင္း၀န္ ေနမ်ိဳးသီဟစည္သူ, Naymyo Bandu Kyaw ေနမ်ိဳးဗႏဳၶေက်ာ္, Naymyo Nayar ေနမ်ိဳးနရာ , Sayaygyi Thiha Kyawhtin Nawratha စေရးၾကီးသီဟေက်ာ္ထင္ေနာ္ရထာ, Bandarsoe Shwetaung Pyanchi ဘ႑ာစိုးေရႊေတာင္ပ်ံခ်ီ , Hseit-ote NgaTotegyi ဆိတ္အုပ္ငတုတ္ၾကီး , NgaShweNi ငေရႊနီ, NgaNaung ငေနာင္, NgaKywet ငၾကြက္ , NgaShweAte ငေရႊအိပ္, NgaShweya ငေရႊရ , Ponna Wunna Zeya Bhyamma ပုဏၰား၀ဏၰေဇယ်ျဗဟၼာ, NgaYe ငေရး  , NgaSo ငစို, NgaAwzar ငၾသဇာ around prince Tharawaddy at the time. He also collected boxers, wrestlers, rowdies and dacoits around him. Tharawaddy was prepared to take State power by force. It has been prophesied that he would be king and he was ready to use force if necessary.

On သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၉၈ ခု၊ တေပါင္းလျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၆ ရက္၊ March 1837, Myo Letwun Mingyi Maha Minhla Minkhaungkyaw ျမိဳ႕လက္၀န္မင္းၾကီး မဟာမင္းလွမင္းေခါင္ေက်ာ္, Htantapin Myosarr Ngwekhunwa Myauk Daweibo ထန္းတပင္ ျမိဳ႕စား ေငြခြန္၀ေျမာက္ဒ၀ယ္ဗိုလ္, Minhla Maha Thihathu မင္းလွမဟာသီဟသူ, Byetaik Thanhsint Thiri Kyawhtin Nawratha ျဗဲတိုက္သံဆင့္ သီရိေက်ာ္ထင္ေနာ္ရထာ with 200 armed personnel went to Tharawaddy prince and Bagan princess compounds to search for and capture Ngasintku Myothugyi NgaYay ငစဥ္႔ကူအံုျမိဳ႕သူၾကီး ငေရး who was believed to be in contact with rebels. Prince Tharawaddy also had armed personnel in readiness guarding his compound. While Shwepyi Hmankinn Thwethaukgyi NgaKho who was with Myauk Daweibo was going around to the rear of the compound, he was attacked and killed by Naymyo Bandu Kyawhtin. There was a lot of commotion and Myo Letwun Mingyi Maha Minhla Minkhaungkyaw turned his horse and escaped to the Palace. Myauk Daweibo was captured by Prince Tharawaddy’s forces.

Prince Tharawaddy knew they had met a big incident and with that in mind, on that very day crossed to the north bank of the Ayeyarwaddy by the Shwe Tone boat ေရႊတံုးေလွေတာ္ of Tharawaddy with his children, maids and fully armed 700 men, marched to  Yadana Theinga Myo ရတနာသိဃၤျမိဳ႕  and rebelled against his elder brother. He was able to collect Lords / MyoSarr ျမိဳ႕စား, Squires / YwaSarr ရြာစား  and troops well experienced in warfare. His followers from the Naypyitaw were also well trained. Nanmataw Me Nu and Salin prince had few well experienced people. Most were old lackey ministers. Experienced ones like Maha Bandoola had given their lives during the war with the British. Prince Tharawaddy’s forces won over all the armies sent from Naypyitaw.  Finally on သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၉၉ ခု၊ ကဆုန္လျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၁၂ ရက္၊ May 1837 Prince Tharawaddy obtained the throne from his brother king Sagaing.

The Lord of Salin , Lord of Pintalae ပင္းတလဲစား , minister Mingyi Maha Thiha Thura ၀န္ၾကီးမင္းၾကီးမဟာသီဟသူရ, HsawMyosarr Ahtwinwun ေဆာျမိဳ႕စားအတြင္း၀န္, WunhtaukMingyi Maha Sithu ၀န္ေထာက္မင္းၾကီး မဟာစည္သူ, Maha Minkhaung Raza မဟာမင္းေခါင္ရာဇာ, MyoLetWun Mingyi ျမိဳ႕လက္၀န္မင္းၾကီး, Maha Minhla Minkhaungkyaw မဟာမင္းလွမင္းေခါင္ေက်ာ္, Kinwun Mingyi Maha Minhla Kyawswa ကင္း၀န္မင္းၾကီး မဟာမင္းလွေက်ာ္စြာ and Kyi Ahtwinwun Mingyi MahaMinhla Thiha Thu က်ီအတြင္း၀န္ မင္းၾကီး မဟာမင္းလွသီဟသူ who were demanded by Prince Tharawaddy were sent to him through Ahnaukphetkyaungchi bohmu son Thadoe Minsaw အေနာက္ဘက္ေၾကာင္းခ်ီဗိုလ္မွဴးသားေတာ္ သတိုးမင္းေစာ and the brothers’ war between Ava and YadanaTheinga ended.

Of the war criminals as Ahnaukphet Kyaungchi Bohmu Minthar အေနာက္ဘက္ေၾကာင္းခ်ီ ဗိုလ္မွဴးမင္းသား presents medicines to uncle Mintayargyi he was allowed to continue his duties. Lord of Hsaw Ahtwinwun Mingyi MahaNandaThingyan ေဆာျမိဳ႕စား အတြင္း၀န္ မင္းၾကီး မဟာနႏၵသၾကၤန္ and WunhtaukMingyi MahaSithu ၀န္ေထာက္မင္းၾကီး မဟာစည္သူ were found not to be in collusion with Lord of Salin and released.

Nanmataw Me Nu’s last voyage

While Prince Tharawaddy was in Yadana TheingaMyo Phalankhone village was burnt down. All who would not obey were killed. NgaKun ငကြန္, Nga Kanpaw ငကံေပၚ, Ngabuu ငဘူး and Tadalabo တဒလဗိုလ္ who were in the service of Lord Salin were executed.

Sagaing king transferred the throne to brother Prince Tharawaddy was let to live at the palace built near the Setkya Thiha pagoda သက္က်သီဟဘုရား.

In သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၂၀၁ ခု၊ တေပါင္းလ၊ May 1840 March during king Tharawaddy’s reign, about 1500 Shan Bamars led by Bo Win Nge ဗိုလ္၀င္းငယ္ called Shwehtar Minthar ေရႊထားမင္းသား BoKhantkyaw ဗိုလ္ခန္႔ေက်ာ္ BoShweMaung ဗိုလ္ေရႊေမာင္ attacked Matayar မတၱရာ and rebelled. After the rebellion was crushed in သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၂၀၂ ခု၊ တန္ခူး April 1840 and the rebels captured they were interrogated Thantawhsint U Shwe Tharr သံေတာ္ဆင့္ဦးေရႊသား testified that the Lord of Salin and the ex-ministers led by the dethroned queen Me Nu advised them secretly. Me Nu admitted to it without hiding anything.

In သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၂၀၂ ခု၊ ကဆုန္လဆန္း ၂ ရက္၊ May 1840 Me Nu was handed over to the executioners to be executed by submerssion. That day Lord of Salin, his wife and two daughters, Ahtwinwun Ngaparyauk အတြင္း၀န္ငပါေရာက္, MyoLatwun Ngayay ျမိဳ႕လတ္၀န္ငေရး, Thantawhsint Ngashwetharr သံေတာ္ဆင့္ငေရႊသား, Pakhan BoNgayantmin ပုခန္းဗိုလ္ ငရန္႔မင္း, Sayaygyi Ngapyo စာေရးၾကီးငပ်ိဳ, Toungoo Myowun Ngabuu ေတာင္ျမိဳ႕၀န္ငဘူး , Ahhsaungmye Ngatunnyo အေဆာင္ျမဲငထြန္ညို were excecuted.

The dethroned queen Me Nu requested for a chance to meet Sayardaw U Bose ဆရာေတာ္ဦးဗုစ္ and got permission. She gave homage to the Sayardaw and informed him that it was her last homage. The Sayardaw looked up from reading and told her “ if you have debt, you will have to repay”_ မိႏု သူေၾကြးရွိလွ်င္ ဆပ္ရေပလိမ့္မည္။.

Me Nu was not afraid of her execution and was not angry against king Tharawaddy who ordered her execution. Me Nu was executed at the northeast corner of the Taung Taman Inn ေတာင္တမန္အင္းMebayetkone bank မယ္ဘယက္ကုန္းကမ္းစ. Me Nu was put in a velvet bag and placed in the water ေရခ်ခံရသည္. (It is Burmese custom not to spill royal blood on the earth. Hence executions of royalties were made by submersion in velvet bags)

 

Good Deeds of Nanmataw Me Nu

 

Maha Aungmye Bonzan Monastery or popularly known as Mai Nu Oak Kyaung မယ္ႏုအုဌ္ေက်ာင္း or the Brick Monastery  donated by Klng Bagyidaw and his chief Queen  Mai Nu was constructed in 1822 A.D. (http://www.myanmar-image.com/mandalay/innwa/image.html). This graceful and beautiful stucco decorated building was also known as ” Oak Kyaung” because of the masonry construction.

There are no records of the good deeds of Me Nu around the Phalankhone village of Ye U township. It has been handed down that Tharawaddy king’s men burned all records of it. Only the bell inscriptions were left undestroyed. According to the bell inscriptions, there were many monasteries, zayats, stupas, bells, Buddha images donated by the relatives of Me Nu_ စလင္းမင္းသားၾကီးေမာင္အိုမိသားစု Lord of Salin Maung O’s family, ဦးရီးေတာ္ဦးကြန္မိသားစု the uncle U Kun’s family, ေတာင္ဘက္ကိုးသင္းျမင္း၀န္မိသားစု Taungbet KoeThin Myin-wun MinhlaMahaMinTin family, Treasurer YeHla Shwetaung Kyawswa family ဘ႑ာစိုး ရဲလွေရႊေတာင္ေက်ာ္စြာမိသားစု.

The Mahamuni pagoda within the Phalankhone village west monastery အေနာက္တိုက္ (current day Thoepoe  monastery သိုးပိုးဘုန္ေတာ္ၾကီးေက်ာင္းတိုက္ is accepted by historians as Me Nu’s donation.

It has been handed over that Me Nu gave money to uncle U Kun ဦးရီးေတာ္ဦးကြန္, North Prime minister Maha Mingyi Kyawhtin မဟာမင္းၾကီးေက်ာ္ထင္ to build a beautiful monastery in South Phalankhone monastery ဖလံခံုေတာင္ေက်ာင္း

In Nyo Mya’s “Konebaung Sharponetaw ညိဳျမေရး ကုန္းေဘာင္ရွာပံုေတာ္” page 257_

On the day Me Nu donated the Me Nu Oke Kyaung to Abbot / Sayartaw U Bose ဆရာေတာ္ဦးဗုစ္ she mentioned, “I have built this brick monastery at the cost of 3 Lakhs 300,000. I have also built a monastery at Phalankhone village at the cost of 1 Lakh 100,000”

Letlan Tawya Kyaung လက္လံေတာရေက်ာင္း a monastery south east of Phalankhone village was also donated by Nanmadaw Me Nu.

In Ava, Amapura, Mingun and Sagaing areas, Me Nu and Sagaing Min together made the following donations:

  1. Donate for entrance of 49 boys to become novices and 55 men to become monks.
  2. သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၈၁ ခု၊ 1819 A.D., just after Sagaing king ascended the throne, donated 777 sets of robes to monks.
  3. Shin Phyu pagoda ရွင္ျဖဴဘုရား and hall with 5 storied tower အာလိန္ငါးဆင့္ခံ လိုဏ္မုခ္တန္ေဆာင္း north of Mingun Pathotawgyi မင္းကြန္းပုထိုးေတာ္ၾကီး
  4. Aungcharzina Shwebontha pagoda ေအာင္ခ်မ္းသာ ေရႊဘံုသာဘုရား and Lawka Chantha pagoda ေလာကခ်မ္းသာဘုရား in Sagaing
  5. Maha Wizayayanthi Sigonetawgyi မဟာ၀ိဇယရံသီစည္းခံုေတာ္ၾကီး and bell ေခါင္းေလာင္းေတာ္ၾကီး at Amarapura
  6. Maha Setkya Thiha Buddha image မဟာသက္က်သီဟရုပ္ပြားေတာ္္ၾကီး (now in Mandalay) Bonkyaung Mahaaungmyay Bonsan Okekyaungtawgyi ဘံုေက်ာင္းမဟာေအာင္ေျမဘံုစံအုတ္ေက်ာင္းေတာ္္ၾကီး and  Mahaaungmyay Bonsan-San Kyaungtawgyi မဟာေအာင္ေျမဘံုစံ ဘံုစံေက်ာင္းေတာ္္ၾကီး at Ava
  7. Maha Way-yan Bontha Tawya Zaytawun Kyaungtawgyi မဟာေ၀ယံဘံုသာ ေတာရေဇတ၀န္ ေက်ာင္းေတာ္္ၾကီး at Mingun.
  8. Maha Setkya Yanthi Kyaukphyu Buddha image  မဟာသက္က်ရံသီ ေက်ာက္ျဖဴ ရုပ္ပြားေတာ္္ၾကီး (now near Taungtaman Inn)
  9. Donor of 4 kinds of materials for Htutkhaung Sayardaw ထြတ္ေခါင္ဆရာေတာ္ and Sayartaw U Bose ဆရာေတာ္ဦးဗုစ္

Note

This part should have been part of my prelude but as I do not want a long prelude and want to introduce my main blog quickly to viewers, I have kept this till the end and present it as a postscript / Note.

I have always been interested in history, but more on ancient history_ the Bagan dynasty, the Pyu and the pre-Pyu stone age, bronze age and early prehistory iron age cultures of Myanmar. I have written much about Pyu and early Rakhine history in my blogs and notes. I also have written about the Bagan era Battle of Ngahsaungchan, other Bagan era Sino Burmese wars and the Myanmar Siamese wars_mainly that of Bayintnaung’s wars, but also a little of the wars of king Alaungphaya and Hsinphyushin (the most militant Burmese king who fought wars on three fronts against China, Siam and the Assam Manipura at the same time). However those wars were fought on more or less equal arms, not against an adversary of much higher grade of weaponary and modern warefare techniques as the British who was already ruling the world. Even then, the early victories of Burmese forces of Maha Bandoola and Myawaddy Mingyi U Sa against the frontline British forces was impressive_” able to push back better armed British forces made up of European and Indian soldiers. By May, Uzana’s forces had overrun Cachar and Jaintia, and Lord of Myawaddy‘s forces had defeated the British inside Bengal at the Battle of Ramu, 10 miles east of Cox’s Bazar on 17 May 1824. Sa’s column then joined Bandula’s column on the march to defeat British forces at Gadawpalin, and went on to capture Cox’s Bazar. The Burmese success caused extreme panic in Chittagong and in Calcutta. But Bandula, not wanting to overstretch, stopped U Sa from proceeding to Chittagong. Had Bandula marched on to Chittagong, which unbeknown to him was lightly held, he could have taken it and the way to Calcutta would have been open.” _ in the words of Western historians.

Myanmar wars have been studied in detail by Myanmar historians and the Myanmar Armed Forces, and much has been written in Burmese for the Myanamar public, but the majority of Myanmars still do not know much about them or about Myanmar history. It is my intention to present Myanmar history to the Myanmar public so that they know more about Myanmar and also to the international community who might care to read my blogs.

shin-pyu narr-tha mingalar ah-hlu ရွင္ျပဳ နားသ မဂၤလာ အလွဴ / noviciating and ear piercing ceremony

March 11, 2013

Recently, I went to the shin-pyu narr-tha mingalar ah-hlu / noviciating and ear piercing ceremony by U Myint Shwe and Daw Mya Nyunt, parents of an engineer working with me here at Mann oil field near Minbu. They live in a village nearby and the shin-pyu narr-tha mingalar ah-hlu is for their grandchildren_ noviciating ceremony of 5 boys and ear piercing ceremony of 6 girls.

Minbu area is part of the Ahnyar in the Dry belt, on the west bank of the Ayeyarwaddy, in the central part of Myanmar where Myanmar culture is not easily changed by other influences.

It is a Myanmar tradition for parents to have their sons enter monkhood at least twice in their lives, the first time as a novice before they attain adulthood, and then soon after becoming an adult. In this way, a son is said to repay his mother’s milk debt incurred during infancy by permitting the parents make a good deed for their merit. Many enter monkhood several times later throughout their lives but that is for their own merit.

Frequently all sons enter monkhood at the same time, and sometimes even the father. The daughters also have ear piercing ceremony at the same time, hence, a combined Shin-pyu Ya-han Khan Narr-tha mingalar ah-hlu / noviciating, monkhood and ear piercing ceremony.

There are also group noviciating ceremonies, group monkhood ceremonies and group noviciating and monkhood ceremonies held by relatives or by a group of people.

In such good deeds, lunch is offered to monks and all who attended_ guests near and far and even the whole village.

ႊA would be novice monk in princely dress in front of the Win Theingi Myanmar traditional orchestra at the noviciating and ear piercing ceremony ceremony

ႊA would be novice monk in princely dress in front of the Win Theingi Myanmar traditional orchestra at the noviciating and ear piercing ceremony ceremony

When I got to the ceremony mandat / canopy, I was surprised to find a Myanmar traditional orchestra / Saing Waing  playing. It is rare nowadays to find such a Saing Waing at ceremonies and even so in villages as they cost a lot. This Win Theingi Myanmar Saing from Magway costs 500,000 Kyats for the two day ceremony.

We were given chairs and we listened to the Win Theingi Myanmar Saing while watching the proceedings. The ear piercing ceremony has been finished earlier and it was the time for meals. The monks were offered Hsoon / monk meal and were still unfinished. Guests too were entertained with mid-day meal / lunch in several places as they come. It is the custom to spread out the meals in several different places as there is not much space for all guests at a single place. There is a main reception area but some guests are entertained in the houses of neighbours as it is too crowded and busy in their house.

U Myint Ngwe and Daw Mya Nyunt who held the noviciating and ear piercing ceremony

U Myint Ngwe and Daw Mya Nyunt who held the noviciating and ear piercing ceremony

 

While we listened to the Saing music U Myint Shwe and Daw Mya Nyunt came and sat near us for a while and then they went off to entertain others but U Myint Shwe come back near us again and again as we were his special guests.

The family was splendidly dressed. The boys and girls who would enter novice and had undergone ear piercing were in traditional royal dresses. The occasion is a very important one in the life of a Myanmar and no expenses were spared and everything was done as much as one could afford.

After some time, we were taken to the house of a neighbor and fed upstairs in the main room. A Myanmar traditional village house is a stilted one and the ground level is open.

There was chicken and fried fish curry, fried dried prawn (I think mixed with dried fish), pe-pin pauk chin and pae-hinn yae (the type used with ah-nyar mohingha) and for dessert, grapes, oranges, kyauk-kyaw, cake and la-phet.

Quicksand, Sinkholes, Blowouts and the Swallowing up of Devatta / Daywatat ေဒ၀ဒတ္ and Cina Manakiva / Zeinzamarna ဇိဥၨမာန by the earth ေျမျမိဳခံရျခင္း

March 5, 2013

Of the Eight Glorious Victories of Buddha ေအာင္ျခင္း ၈ ပါး are (3) the Subduing the fierce elephant, Nalagiri, released by Devadatta, the third Victory တတိယ ေအာင္ျခင္း and (5) Exposing the tricks of the beautiful Cinca Manavika, the fifth Victory ပဥၥမ ေအာင္ျခင္း။

Buddha subduing the drunken fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri sent by Devadatta

Buddha subduing the drunken fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri sent by Devadatta

Cinca Manavika making a false accusation against Buddha

Cinca Manavika making a false accusation against Buddha

Both Devadatta and Cinca Manavika were swallowed up by the earth near the Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း gates for their misdeeds and went down alive to Avici အ၀ီစိ.

Devadatta 2

Devadatta being swallowed by the earth.

Place near Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း where Devadatta was swallowed by the earth

Place near Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း where Devadatta was swallowed by the earth

Place near Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း where Cina Manavika was swallowed by the earth and went alive to Avici အ၀ီစိ.

Place near Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း where Cina Manavika was swallowed by the earth and went alive to Avici အ၀ီစိ.

Devadatta, brother in law and cousin of Buddha, was a misled monk with many followers. He planned to kill Buddha, first by hiring assasins, and when it failed, he himself climbed on the hill near the Vulture’s Rock while Buddha was walking and hurled a a huge stone at Buddha, which, although it missed, struck another rock and a splinter wounded Buddha’s foot. His third attempt, using the fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri after making it drunk with liquor also failed when Buddha‘s loving kindness conquered it.

The Vulture’s Rock / Gigzagote hill ဂဇၨဂုတ္ေတာင္ where Buddha resided and meditated during His stay in Rajgir / Yarzagyo ရာဇျဂိဳလ္

The Vulture’s Rock / Gigzagote hill ဂဇၨဂုတ္ေတာင္ where Buddha resided and meditated during His stay in Rajgir / Yarzagyo ရာဇျဂိဳလ္

Devadatta pushing a stone from the hill near the Vulture’s Rock while Buddha was walking beneath

Devadatta pushing a stone from the hill near the Vulture’s Rock while Buddha was walking beneath

< Devadatta>

Devadatta's third attempt on Buddha, using the fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri after making it drunk with liquor

Devadatta’s third attempt on Buddha, using the fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri after making it drunk with liquor

The hill near the Vulture’s Rock / Gigzagote hill ဂဇၨဂုတ္ေတာင္ from which Devadatta pushed down a stone down on Buddha

The hill near the Vulture’s Rock / Gigzagote hill ဂဇၨဂုတ္ေတာင္ from which Devadatta pushed a stone down on Buddha

Cina Manavika is a paribbajika of some ascetic Order. She was very beautiful and was enlisted by the heretics of this Order in their attempt to discredit Buddha as their gains were getting less. She pretended to pay visits to Buddha at Jetavana and after some time, simulated pregnancy and appeared before Buddha as He was preaching to a large congregation. She falsely accused Him of being the cause of her pregnancy in front of others.

< Cinca Manavika life-of-buddha-46>

Buddha, without refuting, said that only she and He know the truth. Sakka သိၾကားမင္း, king of the devas နတ္, came to the rescue by sendning four of his devas in form of rats to cut the cords of the wooden disc (or cloth in another version) which is used to feign pregnancy. It fell down and her deception was established and she ran away and was swallowed up by the earth nearby.

The swallowing up of people by the earth ေျမျမိဳခံရျခင္း  has been mentioned in Buddhawin and Myanmar folklore and even in present day period such an incident was reported in Thanlyin not so long ago. However, apart from quick sand, which is a naturally occuring phenomenon, the occurences in Buddhawin are said to occur on firm ground as a supernatural phenomenon.

A sinkhole, also known as a sink, snake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline, or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the Earth’s surface caused by karst processes — for example, the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks[1] or suffosion processes[2] in sandstone. Sinkholes may vary in size from 1 to 600 metres (3.3 to 2,000 ft) both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms. Sinkholes may be formed gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide. The different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably.

sinkhole

sinkhole

Natural sinkholes have swallowed down even large buildings but large holes are left in the ground.

Natural sinkholes have swallowed down even large buildings but large holes are left in the ground.

Natural sinkholes have swallowed down even large buildings but large holes are left in the ground.

Formation mechanisms

How Sinkholes work

Sinkholes near the Dead Sea, formed by dissolution of underground salt by incoming freshwater, as a result of a continuing sea level drop.

A special type of sinkhole, formed by rainwater leaking through the pavement and carrying soil into a ruptured sewer pipe.

Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may also form in high and dry places in a certain location.

The mechanisms of formation involve natural processes of erosion[4] or gradual removal of slightly soluble bedrock (such as limestone) by percolating water, the collapse of a cave roof, or a lowering of the water table. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion. Thus, for example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and then carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void.

Also in the oil and gas industry when blowouts occur during drilling, large drilling rigs can be totally swallowed into the earth, even in offshore situations (as with the well documented disappearance of a land rig and even a bigger off shore rig in Myanmar in the not so distant past).

Oil well blowout

Well blowouts can occur during the drilling phase, during well testing, during well completion, during production, or during workover activities.

offshore oil well drilling blowout

offshore oil well drilling blowout

In the modern petroleum industry, uncontrollable wells became known as blowouts and are comparatively rare. There has been significant improvement in technology, well control techniques, and personnel training which has helped to prevent their occurring

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Sakka သိၾကားမင္း, king of the devas နတ္, came to the rescue by sendning four of his devas in form of rats to cut the cords of the wooden disc (or cloth in another version) which is used to feign pregnancy.

Sakka သိၾကားမင္း, king of the devas နတ္, came to the rescue by sendning four of his devas in form of rats to cut the cords of the wooden disc (or cloth in another version) which is used to feign pregnancy.

How Quicksand forms

How Quicksand forms

Quicksand is a colloid hydrogel consisting of fine granular material (such as sand or silt), clay, and water.

Quicksand forms in saturated loose sand when the sand is suddenly agitated. When water in the sand cannot escape, it creates liquefied soil that loses strength and cannot support weight. Quicksand can be formed in standing water or in upwards flowing water (as from an artesian spring). In the case of upwards flowing water, seepage forces oppose the force of gravity and suspend the soil particles.

The saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a sudden change in pressure or shock initiates liquefaction. This causes the sand to form a suspension and lose strength. The cushioning of water gives quicksand, and other liquefied sediments, a spongy, fluidlike texture. Objects in liquefied sand sink to the level at which the weight of the object is equal to the weight of the displaced soil/water mix and the submerged object floats due to its buoyancy.

Liquefaction is a special case of quicksand. In this case, sudden earthquake forces immediately increases the pore pressure of shallow groundwater. The saturated liquefied soil loses strength, causing buildings or other objects on that surface to sink or fall over.

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The Jetavana monastery in Sravasti of Kosala Kingdom

The Jetavana monastery in Sravasti of Kosala Kingdom

The swallowing up of both Devadatta and Cinca Manavika occurred near the Jetavana monastery in Sravasti သာ၀တၱိ of Kosala Kingdom.

P1200017

Modern day Sravasti  သာ၀တၱိ

Sravasti Myanmar monastery သာ၀တၱိ ျမန္မာဘုန္းၾကီးေက်ာင္း

Sravasti Myanmar monastery သာ၀တၱိ ျမန္မာဘုန္းၾကီးေက်ာင္း

Sravasti was visited and recorded by the Chinese Monk pilgrim, Fa Hien after his travels to India and Sri Lanka (A.D. 399-414) in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline (the famous story of Journey to the West by a Tang monk and his four disciples_ Sun Wu Kong et al _was based on Fa Hien’s travels) and he mentioned as follows_ The earth at the same time was rent, and she Chanchamana / Cinca Manavika / Zeinzamana went (down) alive into hell / Avici အ၀ီစိ. (This) also is the place where Devadatta, trying with empoisoned claws to injure Buddha, went down alive into hell. Men subsequently set up marks to distinguish where both these events took place.

Details of the subjects of interest on the topic follows below

  • KOSALA AND SRAVASTI. THE JETAVANA VIHARA AND OTHER MEMORIALS AND LEGENDS OF BUDDHA. SYMPATHY OF THE MONKS WITH THE PILGRIMS by Chinese monk Fa Hien
  • Devadatta, the Buddha’s Enemy
  • Devadatta
  • Cinca Manavika
  • Cinca Manavika falsely accuses the Buddha
  • Quicksand
  • How Quicksand Works
  • Cause of Florida sinkhole tragedy: Human activity or revenge of the karst?
  • Sinkhole
  • Blowout (well drilling)

Record of Buddhist Kingdoms by Chinese Monk, Fa Hien

Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his Travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline

CHAPTER XX

KOSALA AND SRAVASTI. THE JETAVANA VIHARA AND OTHER MEMORIALS AND LEGENDS OF BUDDHA. SYMPATHY OF THE MONKS WITH THE PILGRIMS

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Going on from this to the south, for eight yojanas, (the travellers) came to the city of Sravasti[1] in the kingdom of Kosala,[2] in which the inhabitants were few and far between, amounting in all (only) to a few more than two hundred families; the city where king Prasenajit[3] ruled, and the place of the old vihara of Maha-prajapti;[4] of the well and walls of (the house of) the (Vaisya) head Sudatta;[5] and where the Angulimalya[6] became an Arhat, and his body was (afterwards) burned on his attaining to pari-nirvana. At all these places topes were subsequently erected, which are still existing in the city. The Brahmans, with their contrary doctrine, became full of hatred and envy in their hearts, and wished to destroy them, but there came from the heavens such a storm of crashing thunder and flashing lightning that they were not able in the end to effect their purpose.

As you go out from the city by the south gate, and 1,200 paces from it, the (Vaisya) head Sudatta built a vihara, facing the south; and when the door was open, on each side of it there was a stone pillar, with the figure of a wheel on the top of that on the left, and the figure of an ox on the top of that on the right. On the left and right of the building the ponds of water clear and pure, the thickets of trees always luxuriant, and the numerous flowers of various hues, constituted a lovely scene, the whole forming what is called the Jetavana vihara.[7]

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The Jetavana vihara was originally of seven storeys. The kings and people of the countries around vied with one another in their offerings, hanging up about it silken streamers and canopies, scattering flowers, burning incense, and lighting lamps, so as to make the night as bright as the day. This they did day after day without ceasing. (It happened that) a rat, carrying in its mouth the wick of a lamp, set one of the streamers or canopies on fire, which caught the vihara, and the seven storeys were all consumed. The kings, with their officers and people, were all very sad and distressed, supposing that the sandal-wood image had been burned; but lo! after four or five days, when the door of a small vihara on the east was opened, there was immediately seen the original image. They were all greatly rejoiced, and co-operated in restoring the vihara. When they had succeeded in completing two storeys, they removed the image back to its former place.

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When Fa-hien and Tao-ching first arrived at the Jetavana monastery, and thought how the World-honoured one had formerly resided there for twenty-five years, painful reflections arose in their minds. Born in a border-land, along with their like-minded friends, they had travelled through so many kingdoms; some of those friends had returned (to their own land), and some had (died), proving the impermanence and uncertainty of life; and to-day they saw the place where Buddha had lived now unoccupied by him. They were melancholy through their pain of heart, and the crowd of monks came out, and asked them from what kingdom they were come. “We are come,” they replied, “from the land of Han.” “Strange,” said the monks with a sigh, “that men of a border country should be able to come here in search of our Law!” Then they said to one another, “During all the time that we, preceptors and monks,[11] have succeeded to one another, we have never seen men of Han, followers of our system, arrive here.”

< 5 exposing the tricks of the beautiful Cinca-Manavika>

Outside the east gate of the Jetavana, at a distance of seventy paces to the north, on the west of the road, Buddha held a discussion with the (advocates of the) ninety-six schemes of erroneous doctrine, when the king and his great officers, the householders, and people were all assembled in crowds to hear it. Then a woman belonging to one of the erroneous systems, by name Chanchamana,[15] prompted by the envious hatred in her heart, and having put on (extra) clothes in front of her person, so as to give her the appearance of being with child, falsely accused Buddha before all the assembly of having acted unlawfully (towards her). On this, Sakra, Ruler of Devas, changed himself and some devas into white mice, which bit through the strings about her waist; and when this was done, the (extra) clothes which she wore dropt down on the ground. The earth at the same time was rent, and she went (down) alive into hell.[16] (This) also is the place where Devadatta,[17] trying with empoisoned claws to injure Buddha, went down alive into hell. Men subsequently set up marks to distinguish where both these events took place.

There are also companies of the followers of Devadatta still existing. They regularly make offerings to the three previous Buddhas, but not to Sakyamuni Buddha.

NOTES

[1] In Singhalese, Sewet; here evidently the capital of Kosala. It is placed by Cunningham (Archaeological Survey) on the south bank of the Rapti, about fifty-eight miles north of Ayodya or Oude. There are still the ruins of a great town, the name being Sahet Mahat. It was in this town, or in its neighbourhood, that Sakyamuni spent many years of his life after he became Buddha.

[2] There were two Indian kingdoms of this name, a southern and a northern. This was the northern, a part of the present Oudh.

In Singhalese, Pase-nadi, meaning “leader of the victorious army.” He was one of the earliest converts and chief patrons of Sakyamuni. Eitel calls him (p. 95) one of the originators of Buddhist idolatory, because of the statue which is mentioned in this chapter. See Hardy’s

B., pp. 283, 284, et al.

[4] Explained by “Path of Love,” and “Lord of Life.” Prajapati was aunt and nurse of Sakyamuni, the first woman admitted to the monkhood, and the first superior of the first Buddhistic convent. She is yet to become a Buddha.

[5] Sudatta, meaning “almsgiver,” was the original name of Anatha­pindika (or Pindada), a wealthy householder, or Vaisya head, of Sravasti, famous for his liberality (Hardy, Anepidu). Of his old house, only the well and walls remained at the time of Fa-hien’s visit to Sravasti.

[6] The Angulimalya were a sect or set of Sivaitic fanatics, who made assassination a religious act. The one of them here mentioned had joined them by the force of circumstances. Being converted by Buddha, he became a monk; but when it is said in the text that he “got the Tao,” or doctrine, I think that expression implies more than his conversion, and is equivalent to his becoming an Arhat. His name in Pali is Angulimala. That he did become an Arhat is clear from his autobiographical poem in the “Songs of the Theras.”

[7] Eitel (p. 37) says:–“A noted vihara in the suburbs of Sravasti, erected in a park which Anatha-pindika bought of prince Jeta, the son of Prasenajit. Sakyamuni made this place his favourite residence for many years. Most of the Sutras (authentic and supposititious) date from this spot.”

[11] This is the first time that Fa-hien employs the name Ho-shang {.} {.}, which is now popularly used in China for all Buddhist monks without distinction of rank or office. It is the representative of the Sanskrit term Upadhyaya, “explained,” says Eitel (p. 155) by “a self-taught teacher,” or by “he who knows what is sinful and what is not sinful,” with the note, “In India the vernacular of this term is {.} {.} (? munshee [? Bronze]); in Kustana and Kashgar they say {.} {.} (hwa-shay); and from the latter term are derived the Chinese synonyms, {.} {.} (ho-shay) and {.} {.} (ho-shang).” The Indian term was originally a designation for those who teach only a part of the Vedas, the Vedangas. Adopted by Buddhists of Central Asia, it was made to signify the priests of the older ritual, in distinction from the Lamas. In China it has been used first as a synonym for {.} {.}, monks engaged in popular teaching (teachers of the Law), in distinction from {.} {.}, disciplinists, and {.} {.}, contemplative philosophers (meditationists); then it was used to designate the abbots of monasteries. But it is now popularly applied to all Buddhist monks. In the text there seems to be implied some distinction between the “teachers” and the “ho-shang;”–probably, the Pali Akariya and Upagghaya; see Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, Vinaya Texts, pp. 178, 179.

[15] Eitel (p. 144) calls her Chancha; in Singhalese, Chinchi. See the story about her, M. B., pp. 275-277.

[16] “Earth’s prison,” or “one of Earth’s prisons.” It was the Avichi naraka to which she went, the last of the eight hot prisons, where the culprits die, and are born again in uninterrupted succession (such being the meaning of Avichi), though not without hope of final redemption. E. H. p. 21.

[17] Devadatta was brother of Ananda, and a near relative therefore of Sakyamuni. He was the deadly enemy, however, of the latter. He had become so in an earlier state of existence, and the hatred continued in every successive birth, through which they reappeared in the world. See the accounts of him, and of his various devices against Buddha, and his own destruction at the last, in M. B., pp. 315-321, 326-330; and still better, in the Sacred Books of the East, vol. xx, Vinaya Texts, pp. 233-265. For the particular attempt referred to in the text, see “The Life of the Buddha,” p. 107. When he was engulphed, and the flames were around him, he cried out to Buddha to save him, and we are told that he is expected yet to appear as a Buddha under the name of Devaraja, in a universe called Deva-soppana. E. H., p. 39.

 

Devadatta, the Buddha’s Enemy

http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/2_5lbud.htm

Devadatta was the son of King Suppabuddha and his wife Pamita, who was an aunt of the Buddha. Devadatta’s sister was Yasodhara, making him both a cousin and brother-in-law of the Buddha. Together with Ananda and other Sakyan princes, he entered the order of monks in the early part of the Buddha’s ministry, but was unable to attain any stage of sainthood and so worked hard for the worldly psychic powers.

In his early days, he was a good monk known for his grace and psychic powers. Later he became conceited with worldly gain and fame. As his ill-will and jealousy towards the Buddha increased, he became the greatest personal enemy of the Buddha.

One day in a large assembly, which included kings and princes, Devadatta approached the Buddha and asked him to make him the leader of the Sangha. Since he was not capable and worthy enough, the Buddha turned down this request. Devadatta became very angry as a result and vowed to take revenge on the Buddha.

Although Devadatta was an evil monk, he had many admirers and followers. One of his chief supporters was King Ajatasattu, with whom he discussed his anger and plots for revenge. Together they planned to kill King Ajatasattu’s father and rival, King Bimbisara and Devadatta’s enemy, the Buddha. Ajatasattu succeeded in killing his father, but Devadatta failed to kill the Buddha.

His first attempt to kill the Buddha was to hire a man to kill the Blessed One. The plan was that the man be killed by two other men who would in turn be killed by four other men. Finally the four men would be killed by eight other men. But when the first man came close to the Buddha, he became frightened. He put aside his weapons and took refuge in the Buddha. Eventually all the men who were hired to kill one another became disciples of the Buddha and the cunning plan failed.

Then Devadatta himself tried to kill the Buddha. When the Buddha was walking on the Vultures’ Rock, Devadatta climbed to the peak and hurled a huge stone at the Buddha. On its way down, the rock struck another rock and a splinter flew and wounded the Buddha’s foot, causing blood to flow. The Buddha looked up and seeing Devadatta, he remarked with pity, “Foolish man, you have done many unwholesome deeds for harming the Buddha.”

Devadatta’s third attempt to kill the Blessed One was to make the fierce man-killer elephant, Nalagiri, drunk with liquor. When Nalagiri saw the Buddha coming at a distance, it raised its ears, tail and trunk and charged at him. As the elephant came close, the Buddha radiated his loving-kindness (metta) towards the elephant. So vast and deep was the Buddha’s love that as the elephant reached the Buddha, it stopped, became quiet and stood before the Master. The Buddha then stroked Nalagiri on the trunk and spoke softly. Respectfully, the elephant removed the dust at the master’s feet with its trunk, and scattered the dust over its own head. Then it retreated, with its head facing the Buddha, as far as the stable, and remained fully tamed. Usually elephants are tamed with whips and weapons, but the Blessed One tamed the elephant with the power of his loving-kindness.

Still trying to be the leader of the Sangha, Devadatta tried yet another plan — a deceitful one. With the help of five hundred misled monks, he planned to split the Sangha community.

He requested the Buddha to make it compulsory for monks to follow five extra rules:

(i) Dwell all their lives in the forest
(ii) Live only on alms obtained by begging
(iii) Wear robes made from rags collected from the dust heaps and cemeteries
(iv) Live at the foot of trees
(v) Refrain from eating fish or meat throughout their lives.

Devadatta made this request, knowing full well that the Buddha would refuse it. Devadatta was happy that the Buddha did not approve of the five rules, and he used these issues to gain supporters and followers. Newly ordained monks who did not know the Dharma well left the Buddha and accepted Devadatta as their leader. Eventually, after Venerable Sariputta and Venerable Moggallana had explained the Dharma to them, they went back to the Buddha.

After this, evil days fell on Devadatta. He fell very ill at the failure of his plans, and before his death he sincerely regretted his actions, and wanted to see the Buddha before he died. But the fruits of his evil karma had begun to ripen and prevented him from doing so. He grew desperately ill on the way to see the Buddha, near the gate of Jetavana monastery. But before he died he took refuge in the Buddha.

Although he has to suffer in a woeful state because of his crimes, the holy life he led in the early part of his career ensured that Devadatta would become a Pacceka Buddha named Atthissara in the distant future. As a Pacceka Buddha he would be able to achieve Enlightenment by his own efforts.

Devadatta

http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/bud_lt28.htm

A striking example of this mental attitude is seen in his relation with Devadatta. Devadatta was a cousin of the Buddha who entered the Order and gained supernormal powers of the mundane plane (puthujjana-iddhi). Later, however, he began to harbour thoughts of jealousy and ill will toward his kinsman, the Buddha, and his two chief disciples, Sâriputta and Mahâ Moggallâna, with the ambition of becoming the leader of the Sangha, the Order of Monks.

Devadatta wormed himself into the heart of Ajâtasattu, the young prince, the son of King Bimbisâra. One day when the Blessed One was addressing a gathering at the Veluvana Monastery, where the king, too, was present, Devadatta approached the Buddha, saluted him, and said: “Venerable sir, you are now enfeebled with age. May the Master lead a life of solitude free from worry and care. I will direct the Order.”

The Buddha rejected this overture and Devadatta departed irritated and disconcerted, nursing hatred and malice toward the Blessed One. Then, with the malicious purpose of causing mischief, he went to Prince Ajâtasattu, kindled in him the deadly embers of ambition, and said:

“Young man, you had better kill your father and assume kingship lest you die without becoming the ruler. I shall kill the Blessed One and become the Buddha.”

So when Ajâtasattu murdered his father and ascended the throne Devadatta suborned ruffians to murder the Buddha, but failing in that endeavour, he himself hurled down a rock as the Buddha was climbing up Gijjhakûta Hill in Râjagaha. The rock tumbled down, broke in two, and a splinter slightly wounded the Buddha. Later Devadatta made an intoxicated elephant charge at the Buddha; but the animal prostrated himself at the Master’s feet, overpowered by his loving-kindness. Devadatta now proceeded to cause a schism in the Sangha, but this discord did not last long. Having failed in all his intrigues, Devadatta retired, a disappointed and broken man. Soon afterwards he fell ill, and on his sick-bed, repenting his follies, he desired to see the Buddha. But that was not to be; for he died on the litter while being carried to the Blessed One. Before his death, however, he uttered repentance and sought refuge in the Buddha.

Cinca Manavika, 1 Definition(s)

http://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/cinca-manavika/index.html

A paribbajika of some ascetic Order. When the heretics of this Order found that their gains were grown less owing to the popularity of the Buddha, they enlisted the support of Cinca in their attempts to discredit him. She was very beautiful and full of cunning, and they persuaded her to pretend to pay visits to the Buddha at Jetavana. She let herself be seen going towards the vihara in the evening, spent the night in the heretics quarters near by, and in the morning men saw her returning from the direction of the vihara. When questioned, she said that she had passed the night with the Buddha. After some months she simulated pregnancy by tying a disc of wood round her body and appearing thus before the Buddha, as he preached to a vast congregation, she charged him with irresponsibility and callousness in that he made no provision for her confinement. The Buddha remained silent, but Sakkas throne was heated and he caused a mouse to sever the cords of the wooden disc, which fell to the ground, cutting Cincas toes. She was chased out of the vihara by those present, and as she stepped outside the gate the fires of the lowest hell swallowed her up (DhA.iii.178f; J.iv.187f; ItA.69).

XIII:9 Cinca Manavika falsely accuses the Buddha

http://suttanta.tripod.com/khuddhaka/dhammapada/dha144.html

As the Buddha went on expounding the Dhamma, more and more people came flocking to him, and the ascetics of other faiths found their following to be dwindling. So they decided to ruin the reputation of the Buddha. They instigated Cinca Manavika, a beautiful pupil of theirs, and told her, ‘If you have our interests at heart, please help us and put the Buddha to shame.’ She agreed to their plot.

That same evening, she took some flowers and went in the direction of the Jetavana monastery. When people asked her where she was going, she replied, ‘What is the use of you knowing where I am going?’ Then she would go to the place of the other ascetics near the Jetavana monastery and would come back early in the morning to make it appear as if she had spent the night at the Jetavana monastery. When asked, she would reply, ‘I spent the night with the Buddha at the monastery.’ After three or four months had passed, she wrapped some cloth around her stomach to make herself look pregnant. Then, after nine months, she created the impression of a woman in an advanced stage of pregnancy and she went to the monastery to confront the Buddha.

The Buddha was then expounding the Dhamma to a congregation of bhikkhus and laymen. Seeing him preaching she accused him, ‘O you big Samana! You are clever to preach to others. I am now pregnant by you, yet you do nothing for my confinement. You only know how to enjoy yourself!’ The Buddha stopped preaching for a while and said to her, ‘Sister, only you and I know whether you are speaking the truth or not,’ and she replied, ‘Yes, you are right, how can others know what only you and I have done?’

At that instant, Sakka, king of the devas became aware of the trouble taking place at the Jetavana monastery. So he sent four of his devas in the form of young rats, who got under her clothes and bit off the strings that held the cloth around her belly. Thus, her deception was uncovered, and many from the crowd reprimanded her, ‘O you wicked woman! Liar and cheat! How dare you accuse our noble Teacher!’ Fearing for her safety, she ran from the monastery as fast as she could. However after some distance she met with an unfortunate accident and had to face a miserable and untimely death.

The next day, while the bhikkhus were talking about Cinca Manavika, the Buddha told them ‘Bhikkhus, one who is not afraid to tell lies, and who does not care what happens in the future existences, will not hesitate to do any evil.’

The Buddha then revealed that Cinca Manavika in one of her past existences was born as the chief consort to a King. She fell in love with the King’s son but the Prince did not reciprocate her love. So she conceived an evil plan to harm him. She disfigured her body with her own hands. Then she went to the King and falsely accused that his son had done this to her when she refused his advances.

Without investigating, the King banished him from his kingdom. When the King came to know of the true situation, she was duly punished for her evil deeds.

Quicksand

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the geological feature. For other uses, see Quicksand (disambiguation).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quicksand

Quicksand and warning sign at a gravel quarry.

Quicksand is a colloid hydrogel consisting of fine granular material (such as sand or silt), clay, and water.

Quicksand forms in saturated loose sand when the sand is suddenly agitated. When water in the sand cannot escape, it creates liquefied soil that loses strength and cannot support weight. Quicksand can be formed in standing water or in upwards flowing water (as from an artesian spring). In the case of upwards flowing water, seepage forces oppose the force of gravity and suspend the soil particles.

The saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a sudden change in pressure or shock initiates liquefaction. This causes the sand to form a suspension and lose strength. The cushioning of water gives quicksand, and other liquefied sediments, a spongy, fluidlike texture. Objects in liquefied sand sink to the level at which the weight of the object is equal to the weight of the displaced soil/water mix and the submerged object floats due to its buoyancy.

Liquefaction is a special case of quicksand. In this case, sudden earthquake forces immediately increases the pore pressure of shallow groundwater. The saturated liquefied soil loses strength, causing buildings or other objects on that surface to sink or fall over.

Contents

Properties

Quicksand is a non-Newtonian fluid: when undisturbed, it often appears to be solid (“gel” form), but a minor (less than 1%) change in the stress on the quicksand will cause a sudden decrease in its viscosity (“sol” form). After an initial disturbance — such as a person attempting to walk on it — the water and sand in the quicksand separate and dense regions of sand sediment form; it is because of the formation of these high volume fraction regions that the viscosity of the quicksand seems to decrease suddenly. Someone stepping on it will start to sink. To move within the quicksand, a person or object must apply sufficient pressure on the compacted sand to re-introduce enough water to liquefy it. The forces required to do this are quite large: to remove a foot from quicksand at a speed of .01 m/s would require the same amount of force as “that needed to lift a medium-sized car.”[1]

Because of the higher density of the quicksand, it would be impossible for a human or animal to completely sink in the quicksand, though natural hazards present around the quicksand would lead people to believe that quicksand is dangerous. In actuality the quicksand is harmless on its own, but because it greatly impedes human locomotion, the quicksand would allow harsher elements like solar radiation, dehydration, carnivores, hypothermia or tides to harm a trapped person.[2]

The way to escape is to wiggle the legs as slowly as possible in order to reduce viscosity, to try spreading the arms and legs far apart and lying supine to increase the body’s surface area, which should allow one to float.[3]

Prevalence

Quicksand may be found inland (on riverbanks, near lakes, or in marshes), or near the coast.

In fiction

People falling into (and, unrealistically, being submerged in) quicksand or a similar substance is a trope of adventure fiction, notably movies. According to Slate, this gimmick had its heyday in the 1960s, when almost 3% of all films showed someone sinking in mud, sand, or clay, but it has since fallen out of use. The proliferation of quicksand scenes in movies has given rise to an internet subculture scene dedicated to the topic.[4]

In music

Pete Seeger‘s song “Waist Deep in the Big Muddy” mentions someone drowning after getting stuck in quicksand.

See also

References

  1. ^ Khaldoun, A., E. Eiser, G. H. Wegdam, and Daniel Bonn. 2005. “Rheology: Liquefaction of quicksand under stress.” Nature 437 (29 Sept.): 635. doi:10.1038/437635a
  2. ^ Discovery Channel. MythBusters. Season 2. “Killer Quicksand.” October 20, 2004.
  3. ^ Bakalarfor, Nicholas (September 28, 2005). “Quicksand Science: Why It Traps, How to Escape”. National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/09/0928_050928_quicksand.html. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
  4. ^ Engber, Daniel (23 August 2010). “Terra Infirma: The rise and fall of quicksand.”. Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2264312/. Retrieved 23 August 2010.

How Quicksand Works

by Kevin Bonsor

http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/quicksand.htm

With quicksand, the more you struggle in it the faster you will sink. If you just relax, your body will float in it because your body is less dense than the quicksand.

How many times have you watched a movie where the hero is sucked down into a pit of quicksand, only to be saved at the last minute by grabbing a nearby tree branch and pulling himself out?

If you believed what you saw in movies, you might think that quicksand is a living creature that can suck you down into a bottomless pit, never to be heard from again. But no — the actual properties of quicksand are not quite those portrayed in the movies.

Quicksand is not quite the fearsome force of nature that you sometimes see on the big screen. In fact, the treacherous grit is rarely deeper than a few feet.

It can occur almost anywhere if the right conditions are present. Quicksand is basically just ordinary sand that has been so saturated with water that the friction between sand particles is reduced. The resulting sand is a mushy mixture of sand and water that can no longer support any weight.

If you step into quicksand, it won’t suck you down. However, your movements will cause you to dig yourself deeper into it. In this article, you will learn just how quicksand forms, where it’s found and how you can escape its clutches if you find yourself hip-deep in it.

Next, we’ll find out how the ground shaking beneath your feet can lead to sand slipping beneath your weight. So head to the next page — quick.

What’s Quicksand?

Quicksand is an interesting natural phenomenon — it is actually solid ground that has been liquefied by a saturation of water. The “quick” refers to how easily the sand shifts when in this semiliquid state.

Quicksand is not a unique type of soil; it is usually just sand or another type of grainy soil. Quicksand is nothing more than a soupy mixture of sand and water. It can occur anywhere under the right conditions, according to Denise Dumouchelle, geologist with the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

Quicksand is created when water saturates an area of loose sand and the ordinary sand is agitated. When the water trapped in the batch of sand can’t escape, it creates liquefied soil that can no longer support weight. There are two ways in which sand can become agitated enough to create quicksand:

  • Flowing underground water – The force of the upward water flow opposes the force of gravity, causing the granules of sand to be more buoyant.
  • Earthquakes – The force of the shaking ground can increase the pressure of shallow groundwater, which liquefies sand and silt deposits. The liquefied surface loses strength, causing buildings or other objects on that surface to sink or fall over.

Vibration tends to enhance the quickness, so what is reasonably solid initially may become soft and then quick, according to Dr. Larry Barron of the New South Wales Geological Survey.

The vibration plus the water barrier reduces the friction between the sand particles and causes the sand to behave like a liquid. To understand quicksand, you have to understand the process of liquefaction. When soil liquefies, as with quicksand, it loses strength and behaves like a viscous liquid rather than a solid, according to the Utah Geological Survey. Liquefaction can cause buildings to sink significantly during earthquakes.

While quicksand can occur in almost any location where water is present, there are certain locations where it’s more prevalent. Places where quicksand is most likely to occur include:

  • Riverbanks
  • Beaches
  • Lake shorelines
  • Near underground springs
  • Marshes

The next time you’re at the beach, notice the difference in the sand as you stand on different parts of the beach that have varying levels of moisture. If you stand on the driest part of the beach, the sand holds you up just fine. The friction between the sand particles creates a stable surface to stand on.

If you move closer to the water, you’ll notice that the sand that is moderately wet is even more tightly packed than the dry sand. A moderate amount of water creates the capillary attraction that allows sand particles to clump together. This is what allows you to build sand castles.

But beach sand could easily become quicksand if enough water were thrust up through it. If an excessive amount of water flows through the sand, it forces the sand particles apart. This separation of particles causes the ground to loosen, and any mass on the sand will begin to sink through it. In the next section, you will find out how to save yourself if you happen to fall into a pit of quicksand.

http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/quicksand2.htm

With quicksand, the more you struggle in it the faster you will sink. If you just relax, your body will float in it because your body is less dense than the quicksand.

If you ever find yourself in a pit of quicksand, don’t worry — it’s not going to swallow you whole, and it’s not as hard to escape from as you might think.

The human body has a density of 62.4 pounds per cubic foot (1 g/cm3) and is able to float on water. Quicksand is denser than water — it has a density of about 125 pounds per cubic foot (2 g/cm3) — which means you can float more easily on quicksand than on water. The key is to not panic. Most people who drown in quicksand, or any liquid for that matter, are usually those who panic and begin flailing their arms and legs.

It may be possible to drown in quicksand if you were to fall in over your head and couldn’t get your head back above the surface, although it’s rare for quicksand to be that deep. Most likely, if you fall in, you will float to the surface. However, the sand-to-water ratio of quicksand can vary, causing some quicksand to be less buoyant.

“By the same token, if the quicksand were deep, as in up to your waist, it would be very difficult to extract yourself from a dense slurry, not unlike very wet concrete,” said Rick Wooten, senior geologist for Engineering Geology and Geohazards for the North Carolina Geological Survey. “The weight of the quicksand would certainly make it difficult to move if you were in above your knees.”

The worst thing to do is to thrash around in the sand and move your arms and legs through the mixture. You will only succeed in forcing yourself farther down into the liquid sandpit. The best thing to do is to make slow movements and bring yourself to the surface, then just lie back. You’ll float to a safe level.

“When someone steps in the quicksand, their weight causes them to sink, just as they would if they stepped in a pond,” Dumouchelle said. “If they struggle, they’ll tend to sink. But, if they relax and try to lay on their back, they can usually float and paddle to safety.”

When you try pulling your leg out of quicksand, you are working against a vacuum left behind by the movement, according to The Worst-Case Scenario Survival Handbook. The authors of the book advise you to move as slowly as possible in order to reduce viscosity. Also, try spreading your arms and legs far apart and leaning over to increase your surface area, which should allow you to float.

While quicksand remains the hackneyed convention of bad adventure movies, there’s very little to be afraid of in real life. As long as you keep a cool head in the situation, the worst result will be a shoe full of wet sand.

Cause of Florida sinkhole tragedy: Human activity or revenge of the karst?

One of the most heavily developed states is also one of the most geologically hazardous – two facts that are not mutually exclusive in creating dangerous sinkholes.

By Patrik Jonsson, Staff writer / March 2, 2013

http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2013/0302/Cause-of-Florida-sinkhole-tragedy-Human-activity-or-revenge-of-the-karst?nav=634537-csm_article-mostViewed

ATLANTA

The news of a man being swallowed up by the earth as he slept in his Seffner, Fla., house seemed shocking precisely because it was so unusual: Only three men, two of them well drillers, are known to have ever died from a sudden sinkhole in Florida.

Yet the tragic series of events that began Thursday as a 30-foot hole swallowed Jeff Bush as he slept and continues Saturday as rescue crews tiptoe around an “extremely unstable” house also highlights just how geologically hazardous the Sunshine State is, and how human activities have likely increased the number of sinkholes – essentially geological plumbing breaks as the ceilings of carved-out limestone caverns buckle.

Within a mile of Mr. Bush’s home, which apparently sits atop a 100-foot-wide cavern, are 16 verified sinkholes, compared to over 15,000 known sinkholes throughout the state.

Known as a “karst” landscape, Florida, which was once part of the seafloor, sits on a vast limestone bed cratered with caverns dug out over eons of tidal and chemical weathering. About 10 percent of the earth’s landmass is karst, meaning land shaped by eroding bedrock.

RECOMMENDED: Think you know the US? Take our geography quiz.

“What feels capricious to those above is the toll of an active planet, one of those improbable collisions of a human timescale and a geological one,” writes the Atlantic’s Rebecca Rosen on Friday.

Thursday night’s sinkhole drama did not fit the usual progression of dissolving karst, however. Sinkholes usually collapse in slow motion. Walls crack, strain, and complain as the earth begins to slowly give way under a house. In the vast majority of cases, residents have enough time to gather valuables and evacuate the premises.

“Losing a house to a sinkhole is very common, losing life is uncommon,” says retired University of Florida geologist Tony Randazzo. “Most people will have some warning of the pending doom or catastrophic collapse. But there apparently were no warning signs of what happened at the Bush house. That would be very scary.”

Witnesses said the house jarred suddenly, and then they heard yells from a bedroom. Jeff Bush’s brother, Jeremy Bush, ran to the hole, jumped in and began digging for his brother.

“I heard my brother screaming,” Bush told reporters.  “So I ran back there and tried going inside his room.”

A responding deputy told ABC News what he saw as he entered the panicked premises.

“When I turned in the bedroom the only thing that I saw was a hole, and the hole took the entire bedroom,” Hillsborough County Sheriff’s Deputy Douglas Duvall told a local ABC News affiliate. “You could see the bed frame, the dresser. Everything was sinking.”

Mr. Duvall yelled to Jeremy Bush that the house was still collapsing and to get out of the hole. He reached in and pulled a stunned Mr. Bush out.

Changes in drainage due to construction or agricultural irrigation have been known to activate mass outbreaks of sinkholes, where dozens of sinkholes can suddenly appear next to drainage wells and farm fields. Drought followed by heavy rains can also instigate sinkholes as heavy, water-logged earth presses down on limestone caves suddenly devoid of buoyant water. The two previous deaths attributed to sinkholes both involved professional well drillers whose activities cracked the top of limestone caverns, causing collapse.

“Humans can [destabilize karst landscapes] by drawing down water tables or irrigate too much, increasing the weight of the mass of materials that sits on top of the void,” says Jonathan Martin, a geologist at the University of Florida, in Gainesville. “Humans can modify the environment” enough to cause sinkholes.

It’s not yet clear what caused the Seffner sinkhole, however, but geologists say the area, which is part of the heavily populated I-4 corridor that crosses Florida’s midriff from Tampa to Daytona, is particularly prone to sinkhole collapses.

Sinkholes affect so many properties in Florida that the legislature in 2011 changed the law to make it harder to claim sinkhole damages.

“Over the years the [sinkhole] costs to insurance companies have been increasing at an extraordinary rate, because the legislature prevented companies from charging rates in line with the risk,” says Mr. Randazzo. “It finally reached the point where the insurance companies won the day and got the legislature to change the law, significantly weakening the sinkhole protections in the state of Florida.”

Sinkhole

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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For the War of 1812 battle, see Battle of the Sink Hole. For a hole in a sink, see Drain (plumbing). For a Sinkhole Server or Internet Sinkhole, see DNS_Sinkhole.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinkhole

Bahmah Sinkhole in Oman

The Devil’s Hole sinkhole near Hawthorne, Florida, USA.

A sinkhole, also known as a sink, snake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline, or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the Earth’s surface caused by karst processes — for example, the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks[1] or suffosion processes[2] in sandstone. Sinkholes may vary in size from 1 to 600 metres (3.3 to 2,000 ft) both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms. Sinkholes may be formed gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide. The different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably.[3]

Contents

Formation mechanisms

Sinkholes near the Dead Sea, formed by dissolution of underground salt by incoming freshwater, as a result of a continuing sea level drop.

A special type of sinkhole, formed by rainwater leaking through the pavement and carrying soil into a ruptured sewer pipe.

Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may also form in high and dry places in a certain location.

The mechanisms of formation involve natural processes of erosion[4] or gradual removal of slightly soluble bedrock (such as limestone) by percolating water, the collapse of a cave roof, or a lowering of the water table. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion. Thus, for example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and then carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void.

Occasionally a sinkhole may exhibit a visible opening into a cave below. In the case of exceptionally large sinkholes, such as the Minyé sinkhole in Papua New Guinea or Cedar Sink at Mammoth Cave National Park in Kentucky, a stream or river may be visible across its bottom flowing from one side to the other.

Sinkholes are common where the rock below the land surface is limestone or other carbonate rock, salt beds, or rocks that can naturally be dissolved by circulating ground water. As the rock dissolves, spaces and caverns develop underground. These sinkholes can be dramatic, because the surface land usually stays intact until there is not enough support. Then, a sudden collapse of the land surface can occur.

Sinkholes also form from human activity, such as the rare but still occasional collapse of abandoned mines in places like Louisiana. More commonly, sinkholes occur in urban areas due to water main breaks or sewer collapses when old pipes give way. They can also occur from the overpumping and extraction of groundwater and subsurface fluids. They can also form when natural water-drainage patterns are changed and new water-diversion systems are developed. Some sinkholes form when the land surface is changed, such as when industrial and runoff-storage ponds are created; the substantial weight of the new material can trigger an underground collapse of supporting material, thus causing a sinkhole.

Occurrence

Sinkholes are frequently linked with karst landscapes. In such regions, there may be hundreds or even thousands of sinkholes in a small area so that the surface as seen from the air looks pock-marked, and there are no surface streams because all drainage occurs sub-surface. Examples of karst landscapes dotted with numerous enormous sinkholes are Khammouan Mountains (Laos) and Mamo Plateau (Papua New Guinea).[5] The largest known sinkholes formed in sandstone are Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel in Venezuela.[5]

The most impressive sinkholes form in thick layers of homogenous limestone. Their formation is facilitated by high groundwater flow, often caused by high rainfall; such rainfall causes formation of the giant sinkholes in Nakanaï Mountains, New Britain island in Papua New Guinea.[6] On the contact of limestone and insoluble rock below it, powerful underground rivers may form, creating large underground voids.

In such conditions the largest known sinkholes of the world have formed, like the 662-metre (2,172 ft) deep Xiaozhai tiankeng (Chongqing, China), giant sótanos in Querétaro and San Luis Potosí states in Mexico and others.[5][7][8]

Unusual processes have formed the enormous sinkholes of Sistema Zacatón in Tamaulipas (Mexico), where more than 20 sinkholes and other karst formations have been shaped by volcanically heated, acidic groundwater.[9][10] This has secured not only the formation of the deepest water-filled sinkhole in the world — Zacatón — but also unique processes of travertine sedimentation in upper parts of sinkholes, leading to sealing of these sinkholes with travertine lids.[10]

The state of Florida in the United States is known for having frequent sinkhole collapses, especially in the central part of the state. The Murge area in southern Italy also has numerous sinkholes. Sinkholes can be formed in retention ponds from large amounts of rain.[citation needed]

The Great Blue Hole near Ambergris Caye, Belize.

Sinkholes have been used for centuries as disposal sites for various forms of waste. A consequence of this is the pollution of groundwater resources, with serious health implications in such areas. The Maya civilization sometimes used sinkholes in the Yucatán Peninsula (known as cenotes) as places to deposit precious items and human sacrifices.[citation needed]

When sinkholes are very deep or connected to caves, they may offer challenges for experienced cavers or, when water-filled, divers. Some of the most spectacular are the Zacatón cenote in Mexico (the world’s deepest water-filled sinkhole), the Boesmansgat sinkhole in South Africa, Sarisariñama tepuy in Venezuela, and in the town of Mount Gambier, South Australia. Sinkholes that form in coral reefs and islands that collapse to enormous depths are known as blue holes, and often become popular diving spots.[citation needed]

Image of the entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida going into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater.

The overburden sediments that cover buried cavities in the aquifer systems are delicately balanced by groundwater fluid pressure. The water below ground is actually helping to keep the surface soil in place. Groundwater pumping for urban water supply and for irrigation can produce new sinkholes in sinkhole-prone areas. If pumping results in a lowering of groundwater levels, then underground structural failure, and thus sinkholes, can occur.[citation needed]

Local names of sinkholes

Large and visually unusual sinkholes have been well known to local people since ancient times. Nowadays sinkholes are grouped and named in site-specific or generic names. Some examples of such names are listed below.[11]

  • Cenotes – This refers to the characteristic water-filled sinkholes in the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and some other regions. Many cenotes have formed in limestone deposited in shallow seas created by the Chicxulub meteorite’s impact.
  • Tiankengs – These are extremely large sinkholes which are deeper and wider than 100 m, with mostly vertical walls, most often created by the collapse of underground caverns. This term is proposed by Chinese geologists as many of the largest sinkholes are located in China. The largest tiankeng is the 662 m deep Xiaozhai tiankeng, which is also the largest known sinkhole of the world.
  • Sótanos – This name is given to several giant pits in several states of Mexico. The best known is the 372 m deep Sótano de las Golondrinas – Cave of Swallows.
  • Blue holes – This name was initially given to the deep underwater sinkholes of the Bahamas but is often used for any deep water-filled pits formed in carbonate rocks. The name originates from the deep blue color of water in these sinkholes, which in turn is created by the high lucidity of water and the large depth of sinkholes – only the deep blue color of the visible spectrum can penetrate such depth and return back after reflection. The deepest known undersea sinkhole is Dean’s Blue Hole in the Bahamas.
  • Black holes – This term refers to a group of unique, round, water-filled pits in the Bahamas. These formations seem to be dissolved in carbonate mud from above, by the sea water. The dark color of the water is caused by a layer of phototropic microorganisms concentrated in dense, purple colored layer in 15 – 20 metres depth – this layer “swallows” the light. Metabolism in the layer of microorganisms causes heating of the water – the only known case in the natural world where microorganisms create significant thermal effects. Most impressive is the Black Hole of Andros.[12]
  • Tomo – This term is used in New Zealand karst country to describe pot holes.

Piping pseudokarst

What has been called a “sinkhole” by the popular press formed suddenly in Guatemala in May 2010. Torrential rains from Tropical Storm Agatha and a bad drainage system were blamed for creating the 2010 “sinkhole” that swallowed a three story building and a house.[13] This large vertical hole measured approximately 66 feet (20 m) wide and 100 feet (30 m) deep. A similar hole had formed nearby in February 2007.[14][15]

This large vertical hole, called a “sinkhole” in the popular press, is not a true sinkhole as it did not form via the dissolution of limestone, dolomite, marble, or any other carbonate rock.[16][17] Guatemala City is not underlain by any carbonate rock; instead, thick deposits of volcanic ash, unwelded ash flow tuffs, and other pyroclastic debris underlie all of Guatemala City. Thus, it is impossible for the dissolution of carbonate rock to have formed the large vertical holes that swallowed up parts of Guatemala City in 2007 and 2010.[16]

The large holes that swallowed up parts of Guatemala City in 2007 and 2010 are a spectacular example of “piping pseudokarst”, created by the collapse of large cavities that had developed in the weak, crumbly Quaternary volcanic deposits underlying the city. Although weak and crumbly, these volcanic deposits have enough cohesion to allow them to stand in vertical faces and develop large subterranean voids within them. A process called “soil piping” first created large underground voids as water from leaking water mains flowed through these volcanic deposits and washed fine volcanic materials out of them, then progressively eroded and removed coarser materials. Eventually, these underground voids became large enough that their roofs collapsed to create large holes.[16]

Notable sinkholes

Some of the largest and most impressive sinkholes in the world are:[5]

  • Xiaozhai tiankeng – Chongqing Municipality, China. Double nested sinkhole with vertical walls, 662 m deep.
  • Dashiwei tiankeng – Guangxi, China. 613 m deep, with vertical walls, bottom contains an isolated patch of forest with rare species.
  • Red Lake – Croatia. Approximately 530 m deep pit with nearly vertical walls, contains approximately 280 – 290 m deep lake.
  • Minyé sinkhole – East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. 510 m deep, with vertical walls, crossed by a powerful stream.
  • Sótano del Barro – Querétaro, Mexico. 410 m deep, with nearly vertical walls.
  • Cave of Swallows – San Luis Potosí, Mexico. 372 m deep, round sinkhole with overhanging walls.
  • Sima de las CotorrasChiapas, Mexico. 160 m across, 140 m deep, with thousands of green parakeets and ancient rock paintings.
  • Zacatón – Tamaulipas, Mexico. Deepest water-filled sinkhole in world, 339 m deep. Floating travertine islands.
  • Sima Humboldt – Venezuela. Largest sinkhole in sandstone, 314 m deep, with vertical walls. Unique, isolated forest on bottom.
  • Teiq sinkhole – Oman. One of the largest sinkholes in the world by volume – 90 million cubic metres. Several perennial wadis fall with spectacular waterfalls into this 250 m deep sinkhole.
  • Dean’s Blue Hole – Bahamas. Deepest known sinkhole under the sea, depth 203 m. Popular location for world championships of free diving.
  • Blue Hole – Dahab, Egypt. A round sinkhole or blue hole, 130 m deep. Includes an extraordinary archway leading out to the Red Sea at 60 m, renowned for freediving and scuba attempts, the latter often fatal. Also see Bell’s to Blue Hole drift dive.
  • Great Blue Hole – Belize. Spectacular, round sinkhole, 124 m deep. Unusual features are tilted stalactites in great depth, which mark the former orientation of limestone layers when this sinkhole was above sea level.
  • Kingsley Lake – Florida, USA. 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) in area, 90 ft (27 m) deep and almost perfectly round.
  • Gypsum Sinkhole – Utah, USA. Nearly 50 ft (15 m) in diameter and approximately 200 ft (61 m) deep[citation needed]
  • Harwood HoleAbel Tasman National Park, New Zealand, 183 m deep
  • Bahmah Sinkhole (Bimmah sinkhole) – Wadi Shab and Wadi Tiwi, Oman, approximately 30 m deep[18]
  • Boesmansgat – South African freshwater sinkhole, 280 m deep[citation needed]
  • Lake Kashiba – Zambia. About 3.5 hectares (8.6 acres) in area and about 100 metres (330 ft) deep

See also

References

  1. ^ Lard, L., Paull, C., & Hobson, B. (1995). “Genesis of a submarine sinkhole without subaerial exposure”. Geology 23 (10): 949–951. Bibcode 1995Geo….23..949L. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0949:GOASSW>2.3.CO;2.
  2. ^ “Caves and karst – dolines and sinkholes”. British Geological Survey. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mendips/caveskarst/karst_3.htm.
  3. ^ Martin S. Kohl Subsidence and sinkholes in East Tennessee. A field guide to holes in the ground (2001). (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-04-24.
  4. ^ Friend, Sandra (2002). Sinkholes. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 11. ISBN 1-56164-258-4. http://books.google.com/?id=Z5SWpk-38eYC&dq=sinkhole. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
  5. ^ a b c d “Largest and most impressive sinkholes of the world”. Wondermondo. http://www.wondermondo.com/Best/World/Sinkholes.htm.
  6. ^ “Naré sinkhole”. Wondermondo. http://www.wondermondo.com/Countries/Au/Papua/EastNewBritain/Nare.htm.
  7. ^ “Tiankengs in the karst of China”. http://www.speleogenesis.info. http://www.speleogenesis.info/pdf/SG9/SG9_artId3290.pdf.
  8. ^ “Sotano de las Guasguas”. Promo Tur un encuentro con Querétaro. http://www.promoturqueretaro.com.mx/detalles-de-noticias.php?id=105.
  9. ^ “Sistema Zacatón”. by Marcus Gary. http://www.geo.utexas.edu/faculty/jmsharp/zacaton/default.htm.
  10. ^ a b “Sistema Zacatón”. Wondermondo. http://www.wondermondo.com/Countries/NA/Mexico/Tamaulipas/SistemaZacaton.htm.
  11. ^ “Sinkholes”. Wondermondo. http://www.wondermondo.com/Attractions/Sinkholes.htm.
  12. ^ “Black Hole of Andros”. Wondermondo. http://www.wondermondo.com/Countries/NA/Bahamas/SouthAndros/AndrosBlackHole.htm.
  13. ^ Dan Fletcher, Time.com (June 1, 2010). “Massive Sinkhole Opens in Guatemala City”. http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/06/01/giant-sinkhole-opens-in-guatemala-city/. Retrieved June 01 2010.
  14. ^ Que diablos provoco este escalofriante hoy?. http://www.lun.com (2010-06-02). Retrieved on 2011-04-24.
  15. ^ “Se abre hoyo de 100 metros en Guatemala”, Associated Press, February 23, 2007
  16. ^ a b c Waltham, T. (2008). “Sinkhole hazard case histories in karst terrains”. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 41 (3): 291–300. doi:10.1144/1470-9236/07-211.
  17. ^ Halliday, W. R., 2007, Pseudokarst in the 21st century. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies. vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 103–113.
  18. ^ “Bimmah sinkhole”. Wondermondo. http://www.wondermondo.com/Countries/As/Oman/Muscat/Bimmah.htm.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sinkholes
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Swallow-hole.

Blowout (well drilling)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blowout_%28well_drilling%29

A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed.[1]

Contents

History

Gushers were an icon of oil exploration during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During that era, the simple drilling techniques such as cable-tool drilling and the lack of blowout preventers meant that drillers could not control high-pressure reservoirs. When these high pressure zones were breached the hydrocarbon fluids would travel up the well at a high rate, forcing out the drill string and creating a gusher. A well which began as a gusher was said to have “blown in”: for instance, the Lakeview Gusher blew in in 1910. These uncapped wells could produce large amounts of oil, often shooting 200 feet (60 m) or higher into the air.[2] A blowout primarily composed of natural gas was known as a gas gusher.

Despite being symbols of new-found wealth, gushers were dangerous and wasteful. They killed workmen involved in drilling, destroyed equipment, and coated the landscape with thousands of barrels of oil; additionally, the explosive concussion released by the well when it pierces an oil/gas reservoir has been responsible for a number of oilmen losing their hearing entirely; standing too near to the drilling rig at the moment it drills into the oil reservoir is extremely hazardous. The impact on wildlife is very hard to quantify, but can only be estimated to be mild in the most optimistic models—realistically, the ecological impact is estimated by scientists across the ideological spectrum to be severe, profound, and lasting.[3]

To complicate matters further, the free flowing oil was—and is—in danger of igniting.[4] One dramatic account of a blowout and fire reads,

“With a roar like a hundred express trains racing across the countryside, the well blew out, spewing oil in all directions. The derrick simply evaporated. Casings wilted like lettuce out of water, as heavy machinery writhed and twisted into grotesque shapes in the blazing inferno.”[5]

The development of rotary drilling techniques where the density of the drilling fluid is sufficient to overcome the downhole pressure of a newly penetrated zone meant that gushers became avoidable. If however the fluid density was not adequate or fluids were lost to the formation, then there was still a significant risk of a well blowout.

Mahar Thambawa & Cula Thambawa

February 28, 2013

In the year 40 Budddhist Era (504 B.C.) the Queen Keinnayi Devi of the Tagaung King Thadoe Maha Raja gave birth to blind twin brothers. The Tagaung king ordered the queen to get rid of them. At 59 Budddhist Era (485 B.C.) when the princes were 19 years of age, the king came to know about the existence of the twins. He ordered the queen to kill them again. The queen dared not keep them any longer and had a strong raft built and had long lasting food stored on board and drifted the twin princes down the Ayeyarwaddy.

The brothers ate the food their queen mother sent along with them and went down river until they reached Sagaing when their raft got tangled with the hanging branch of the Sitt tree on the Ayeyarwaddy bank. The Sanda Mukhi orgress who lived there got on the raft and ate the food of the princes as they eat. Because the Sitt tree is overhanging, the place is called Sagaing.

The brothers noticed that their food packet was not enough although it had been adequate previously. They discussed about it and make sure of each other’s hands and caught the hand of the Sanda Mukhi ogress as she tried to eat from their meal packet the next time. The brothers drew their knives to kill her. As the ogress could not escape from their hands, she begged them not to kill her and told them that if they spare her, she would do what they wanted. The brothers asked her whether she could cure them of their blindness. The ogress informed the ogres with superpowers about her plight and they gave her eye drops as they could foresee what the princes would do for the Sasana.

In Yarzawingyi, it is said that the treatment of the blindness of the princes began at the place called SaKu and that they gained vision at the place called Ywa Linn. The place where the princes could see clearly and said that the sky is the lid and the earth is the floor is now called Moephone Myayhte.

Chiang Mai / Zinn Mai and Myanmar

April 24, 2012

Chiang Mai was the capital of the kingdom of Lanna (the kingdom of a million fields), which enjoyed a golden age throughout the 15th century. During this age the powerful inland kingdom came to control most of what now constitutes northern Thailand, north-western Laos, the eastern Shan states of Burma and Xishuangbanna in southern Yunnan.

King Mangrai founded Chiang Mai. 1296

Lan Na had been the old and powerful kingdom since the early times. According to Lan Na Chronicles, in the year Kad Sai, B.E. 1181 (A.D. 638) Thai Yuan principalities had been consolidated into a leading, powerful kingdom. It corresponded to the neighborhoods of Chiang Lao-Chiang Saen, the first ruler of which was Lava-changaraj.

And King Lava-changaraj was succeeded by many kings until Phya Mangrai, the 25th monarch of Lava-changaraj Dynasty (B.E. 1805-1854 / A.D. 1262-1311).

The Mao Chiefs claim the honour of this dominion. They annexed Chieng-mai about AD 1295, and were strong enough to attack Cambodia. Between 1285 and 1292 the Mao Shans shattered the Burman Empire. About 1293 they annexed Chieng-mai (most likely driving the Chieng-mai Shans to Chaliang, whence the Siamese, to escape a pestilence, descended and founded Ayuthia in 1350).

After his founding of the Lan Na Kingdom in the mid-13th century, King Mangrai established friendly relations with Burma when he travelled to the court of King Suttasoma of Pegu. King Suttasoma cemented this friendship by giving Mangrai his daughter, the Lady Phai Kho, in marriage. According to the Chiang Mai Chronicle “the two rulers met at the Asa (Sittang?) River, and feasted their retainers with food and drink, and staged great entertainments for three days and three nights.

According to the same source, the King of Pagan in Upper Burma was also on good terms with Mangrai, and sent five hundred families of artisans, including silver, gold, bronze and iron workers, as a gift to the Lan Na court

The Chieng-mai “adventurer” named Magedu established himself at Martaban as “King Wareru of Pegu” in AD 1287, founding a dynasty that maintained itself in the heart of the Mon kingdom for 253 years.

When Mengrai Dynasty Lanna began to crumble, with no reign ending peaceably for a quarter century, a LanSang ruler, King Potisarat, began to fantasize of becoming the ‘wheel-turning universal monarch whose righteousness and might make all the world turn around him.’ Unfortunately, at the same time, so did a King Burengnong from Toungoo (due west from ChiangRai, separated by Karen people and the mighty Salween River). After Mengrai’s direct line ended, half of the last independent rulers were women. One, MahaTevi Jiraprapa (sometimes said named PhraNang Yout KhamThip), was a full, absolute ruler from 1545- 46.

In July, 1545, Shan King FaYongHui of Mong Nai (Muang Nai, on the Salween, were Lanna’s last king was from) attacked ChiangMai. As he did, an earthquake destroyed nine revered reliquaries there, including a couple of the most important (finials at Wat Jedi Luang and Wat PraSing). For a month attackers poured dirt into the city moat and tried to cross it with bamboo bridges; but defenders burnt the attackers’ encampment, and the Shans withdrew.

1545-47 and 1564-78 Queen Regnant Phra Chao Chira Prapa Mahadevi
Also known as Chiraprabha, Mahatevi Jiraprapa or Phra Nang Yout Kham Thip, she was the oldest daughter of king Phaya Ket, and took over after a power struggle among various factions and during civil war in the region. According to some sources, King Burengnong married her, (now in her 40s (at least), and she ruled for a second time from 1564 until her death in 1578, according to other sources, it was her younger sister, Queen Wisutthithew, that Burengong married, and it was she who ruled from 1564.

1551 – 1564 Mekuti
Lanna endured anarchy and civil war, with nobles fighting on elephants in the middle of ChiangMai City. Petty officials and rulers of principalities proved more interested in their changing relative power than in the threat from Burma (as seems the case today), until Mekut of MongNai (a Shan State where rebellious descendents of Mengrai were sometimes sent to rule) was made king in 1552.
In 1551 the influential court officials at Chiang Mai, seeking to end this chaotic interregnum, invited Mae Ku, then reigning in Mong Nai, to come to Chiang Mai and rule over the Kingdom of Lan Na.
Mae Ku, legitimised by his status as a direct descendant of King Mangrai, accepted the invitation. According to the Chiang Mai Chronicle: ‘On the fourth waxing of the 9th month 913 (9 May 1551), King Mae Ku entered the city of Chiang Mai and was enthroned in the royal palace on the bejewelled throne’.
Phra Mekuti (r.1551- 1564) began an oppressive and unpopular rule. He forbade worship of Chiang Mai pillar, an act which is thought to have brought misfortune to Chiang Mai.
Mekhut levied heavy taxes and conscription. Sensing weak public support, other princes of Maung Nai decided to invade. Mekhut was briefly aided by King Burengnong (Bayinnaung of Hantawaddy and Pegu)
Mae Ku was the 17th monarch of the Mangrai Dynasty(1263-1578), who ruled North Thailand from 1551 to 1564, the last six years of his reign as a vassal of King Bayinnaung of Taungoo. Mae Ku, whose full name was Phra Maekutawisutthiwong, was a direct descendant of King Mangrai through the latter’s son, Khun Khrua, who Mangrai had sent, in 1312, to rule over Mong Nai in Shan State.
In 1555, Mekut’s brothers attempted to seize Lanna’s Mekong region, and gained ChiangRai and ChiangSaen… so Mekhut “was not at first inclined to listen to his brothers’ cry for help” when Burengnong, who’d become king in 1551, took Ava in 1555, then Hsenwi, then KengTung…
For the next seven years King Mae Ku ruled Lan Na without serious challenge, though in October 1556, while making merit at Wat Lampang Luang, he saw ‘a cloud shaped like a naga serpent… more than seven fathoms long’. At the same time ‘the planet Jupiter appeared like a comet with its tail to the north, which could be seen for a month before disappearing’. The Chronicle interprets these events (with the ease of hindsight) as bad omens, and sure enough one year later, in 1557/58, King Bayinnaung of Taungoo crossed the Salween into North Thailand at the head of his army. On 31 March 1558 he besieged Chiang Mai ‘for three days and three nights’, before taking the city, apparently with little opposition, early in the morning of April 2 1558.
King Min Taya of Pegu advances, demanding Mae Ku to come and meet him at Salween River. Mae Ku evades his invitation, sending officials instead. Min Taya takes Chiang Mai. Min Taya stays in Chiang Mai for 1 month and 12 days.
Setthatirat returned, defeating ChiangMai and almost taking ChiangSaen in 1558. Governors of Lampang, Prae and Nan joined his, but Burengnong forced him back to Laos, where the Burmese ran out of provisions.
Min Taya allows Mae Ku to rule Lan Na as before, but leaves a Burmese commissioner, a deputy commissioner and 10,000 troops to stay in Chiang Mai.

Between 1558 and 1564 Mae Ku continued to govern Chiang Mai, but as a vassal ruler of Bayinnaung.

Keng Tung has remained with Burma since that time (1559) except for two brief instances, in 1802 and during Japanese occupation in the Second World War.

In 1559 Mae Ku led a military expedition, well documented in the Chiang Mai Chronicle, to subdue provincial lords in Chiang Rai, Phayao and Phrae who remained loyal to Luang Prabang.

As a vassal state of Burma, Chiang Mai had to send Burma some tributes in terms of “silver trees, golden trees” and revenues, including foodstuffs in the wartime. As regards the administration, in the beginning the Burmese government did not come to take a direct rule but allowed Phra Mekuti to be the king of Chiang Mai as before.
Mekut revolted against his obligations, and the Burmese returned, invading Luang Prabang to capture Mekut, who’d taken refuge there.
Perhaps before going back to Burma, Burengnong married Princess Jiraprapa, now in her 40s (at least). Perhaps he married another ChiangMai princess.
The woman who ruled Lanna from 1564 until her death in 1578 is called Wisutthitewi. This PhraNang Visuti (Wisutatewi, a.k.a. MahaTewi), whom Burengnong replaced Phra Mekut with, may have been a different, younger daughter of Phaya Ket.
However, Burma dethroned Phra Mekuti when he tried to gain independence and appointed Phra Nang Visuddhidevi or Nang Phaya Rajadevi as a ruler of Chiang Mai.

Mekut was taken to Pegu
Mekut died in exile at Pegu or Ava, and became known as one of Burma’s famous “37 Nat” spirits, YunBayin. The Mengrai line is said to end there, but the last person descended from Mengrai to rule might have been Thado Gyaw, 4th Lanna ruler (descended from urengnong/MinTaya) through MahaTwei Jiraprapa).

King Mae Ku: From Lan Na Monarch to Burmese Nat
http://www.cpamedia.com/research/king_mae_ku/
Between 1558 and 1775, for a period of 217 years, the Lan Na Kingdom and its capital of Chiang Mai were ruled by a succession of Burmese-appointed suzerains owing allegiance to the Kings of Pegu in Lower Burma. During this period of lost independence, Chiang Mai and its people were inevitably influenced by Burmese culture and traditions- but the traffic wasn’t all one way. One of the most fascinating and enduring associations between Burma and North Thailand is the continuing widespread veneration in Burma of a Chiang Mai king in the pantheon of Nats that plays so great a role in the spiritual tradition of the Burman people.
Sir Richard Temple describes in considerable detail the full order of thirty-seven Nats of which one in particular stands out where Chiang Mai-known in the Burmese annals as Zinme or Zimme-is concerned. This is the 22nd, or Yun Bayin Nat, a member of Temple’s 5th Group of Nat belonging to the Bayinnaung Cycle. These are defined as a group of four spirits ‘whose direct reference is not clear, but are… of a very late date and are connected with the great conqueror Bayinnaung… and his dynasty in the 17th century’. Of these four spirits, Yun Bayin Nat is the only non-Burmese spirit hero associated with the Nat cult, and as such occupies a special place in the pantheon, emphasising Chiang Mai’s once close association with the courts of Pegu, Toungoo and Ava.
Relatively little is known of the earthly incarnation of the Yun Bayin Nat. According to Temple, he was the ‘Yun Shan’-that is, Northern Thai-ruler of Chiang Mai, who was taken prisoner by King Syinbyumyashin of Hanthawadi (Pegu), the ‘Lord of Many White Elephants’, and taken to Yangon. He is known as Yun Bayin, or ‘King of the Yun’, with reference to the old Burmese name for the Tai Yuan or Northern Thai. He is reported to have died of dysentery in 1558, and thereafter to have become a Nat. The Yun Bayin Nat, who is still widely revered throughout Burma, is generally represented as seated on a lotus throne in high court dress, holding a sheathed sword.
There is no direct reference to the Yun Bayin Nat, or indeed to any ruler of the Lan Na Kingdom dying in captivity in Yangon, either in the Northern Thai Chiang Mai Chronicle or in its Burmese equivalent, the Zinme Yawazin. Both chronicles do, however, record the invasion of Lan Na and the seizure of Chiang Mai by King Bayinnaung in 1558. The Chiang Mai ruler at that time was Mae Ku, who was obliged to pay tribute to Bayinnaung for the last six years of his reign.
Bayinnaung was the second monarch of the Taungoo Dynasty (1531-1752), founded by King Tabinshweti of Taungoo (1531-1550), who conquered the rival Kingdom of Pegu (Temple’s Hanthawadi) and crowned himself King of all Burma. He was succeeded by Bayinnaung (1551-1581), who proved to be a remarkable military commander, subduing Upper Burma, the Shan States, Manipur, North Thailand and parts of Laos.
Mae Ku was the 17th monarch of the Mangrai Dynasty(1263-1578), who ruled North Thailand from 1551 to 1564, the last six years of his reign as a vassal of King Bayinnaung of Taungoo. Mae Ku, whose full name was Phra Maekutawisutthiwong, was a direct descendant of King Mangrai through the latter’s son, Khun Khrua, who Mangrai had sent, in 1312, to rule over Mong Nai in Shan State.
In 1545 King Ket Chettharat of Chiang Mai was assassinated, ushering in-according to the Chiang Mai Chronicle-a ‘Kali Era’ of decline for the Lan Na Kingdom. He was briefly succeeded by his daughter, Queen Maha Thewi Chiraprapha, who ruled as regent (1545-1546), and then by King Setthathirat of Luang Prabang who remained in Chiang Mai for just one year (1546-1547) before returning to Laos, taking with him the fabled Emerald Buddha which had been installed in Chedi Luang and leaving Lan Na without a king for the next four years. In 1551 the influential court officials at Chiang Mai, seeking to end this chaotic interregnum, invited Mae Ku, then reigning in Mong Nai, to come to Chiang Mai and rule over the Kingdom of Lan Na.
Mae Ku, legitimised by his status as a direct descendant of King Mangrai, accepted the invitation. According to the Chiang Mai Chronicle: ‘On the fourth waxing of the 9th month 913 (9 May 1551), King Mae Ku entered the city of Chiang Mai and was enthroned in the royal palace on the bejewelled throne’. For the next seven years King Mae Ku ruled Lan Na without serious challenge, though in October 1556, while making merit at Wat Lampang Luang, he saw ‘a cloud shaped like a naga serpent… more than seven fathoms long’. At the same time ‘the planet Jupiter appeared like a comet with its tail to the north, which could be seen for a month before disappearing’. The Chronicle interprets these events (with the ease of hindsight) as bad omens, and sure enough one year later, in 1557/58, King Bayinnaung of Taungoo crossed the Salween into North Thailand at the head of his army. On 31 March 1558 he besieged Chiang Mai ‘for three days and three nights’, before taking the city, apparently with little opposition, early in the morning of April 2 1558.
Between 1558 and 1564 Mae Ku continued to govern Chiang Mai, but as a vassal ruler of Bayinnaung. In 1559 he led a military expedition, well documented in the Chiang Mai Chronicle, to subdue provincial lords in Chiang Rai, Phayao and Phrae who remained loyal to Luang Prabang. In 1563, however, Mae Ku ignored Bayinnaung’s orders to assist in an expedition against Ayutthaya, effectively repudiating Burmese sovereignty. This was seen as an act of rebellion by Bayinnaung, who-according to the Chiang Mai Chronicle-brought up an army and took Chiang Mai, capturing Lord Mae Ku and taking him back to Pegu, while leaving Lady Wisuttha Thewi to rule in his place’. Queen Wisuttha Thewi ruled over Chiang Mai as a vassal of the Burmese from 1564 to 1578. On her death Bayinnaung’s son, Nawrahtaminsaw, better known in the Chiang Mai annals as ‘Tharawaddy Prince’, succeeded her, ruling over Lan Na from 1578 to 1607.
We know little of Mae Ku’s life as an exile, but The Glass Palace Chronicle tells us he was treated generously by Bayinnaung, being accorded the same royal status as the defeated Kings of Ava also captured by Bayinnaung and taken to his capital at Pegu. The chronicle also relates that on completion of Bayinnaung’s new royal palace called Kambawzathadi, Mae Ku was given the privilege of residing in a royal residence with a double-tiered roof.
Apart from these small but fascinating details, following his exile Mae Ku disappears from the pages of history but enters the realm of the supernatural. Temple tells us that he reportedly died of dysentery while in captivity, but without revealing his source. Yet somehow, despite his defeat and capture by King Bayinnaung and subsequent mundane and rather inglorious end, Mae Ku became venerated as a Nat. How was this possible? By Temple’s definition, the 37 Nats are overwhelmingly heroic spirits ‘either of former royalty, or of persons connected with royalty’. Nats are also, generally, the spirits of people ‘who have met a violent or tragic death’. As a descendant of King Mangrai and King of Chiang Mai himself, Mae Ku was clearly closely associated with royalty, just as his death in exile in Burma was certainly tragic. But what of his status as hero? Perhaps his expedition against the Lao in 1559, or even his spirited rebellion against Bayinnaung in 1564, made him heroic in Burman eyes. Or perhaps he acquitted himself bravely while in exile in Pegu. It seems unlikely that we shall ever know.

Queen Wisuttha Thewi ruled over Chiang Mai as a vassal of the Burmese from 1564 to 1578.
Burengnong replaced Phra Mekut with Phra Nang Visuti (Wisutthatewi), a younger daughter of Phaya Ket whom he’d married, and the last descendent of Mengrai to rule.

In 1565, just seven years after Bayinnaung’s conquest, the Burmese military commander in Lan Na had a huge bronze Buddha image cast, in cooperation with Queen Wisutthithewi of Chiang Mai. It was named ‘Phra Buddha Müang Rai’, doubtless in honour of King Mangrai, the city’s founder. The image has survived the intervening centuries, and today can be seen at Wat Chai Phra Kiat on the north side of the Old City’s central Ratchadamnoen Avenue, not far from Wat Phra Singh. It is in Lan Na style, and so was certainly cast by local artisans

Upon the termination of Phra Nang Visuddhidevi’s reign, the Burma government sent Burmese nobles and officials to rule Chiang Mai directly.

Lanna continued to be troubled by attacks from Shans, and in 1578 Visuti died. Her successor was a son of Burengnong by someone else, Mangnorathacho (Min Noratha, prince of Therawaddy).
Bayinnaung appointed his son, Minthasit (born 1551), to rule over Chiang Mai. At the time Minthasit was administering the Burmese district of Tharyarwaddy, near Pegu, and hence was known as Tharyarwaddy Min, or “the Tharyawaddy Prince”. In 1576, two years before he assumed the throne of Chiang Mai, he successfully put down rebellions against his father’s rule in Mogaung and Mohnyin, as a consequence of which he was given the title Nawrahtaminsaw, the name by which he is best known as the first Burmese ruler of the Lanna Kingdom. He was to rule over Chiang Mai from 1578 to 1607.
In 1578 when Nawrahtaminsaw journeyed to Chiang he brought with him his wife, Queen Hsinbyushinme, the “Lady of the White Elephant”.
http://www.cpamedia.com/research/hsinbyushinme/
It is clear that these new rulers of Chiang Mai were no ingénues. Rather, they were educated sophisticates of their time. Nawrahtaminsaw was a poet and patron of the arts, as well as a warrior prince. For her part Hsinbyushinme was a sophisticated court lady and princess, well suited to rule over-and grow to love-her new home, the city of Chiang Mai.
Hsinbyushinme was a skilled composer of yadu poems, a Burmese verse-form where three stanzas are linked by the rhyming of their last lines. According to Ni Ni Myint, the Director of the Universities Historical Research Centre at Yangon and the skilled linguist who first translated Hsinbyushinme’s verses on Chiang Mai into English, yadu poems generally evoke ‘a mood of wistful sadness through the contemplation of nature in the changing seasons or the yearning for a loved one temporarily separated’.
Hsinbyushinme was the daughter of Thado Dhamma Raja, King of Pyay, a younger brother of King Bayinnaung, and Narapati Medaw, a Burmese lady of high birth. As a young girl Hsinbyushinme learned the art of yadu verses from the great poet Nawade. Nawade even composed an ayegyin song celebrating Hsinbyushinme’s virtues and beauty:
Endowed with the Five Virtues
Exceedingly clear and unblemished
Like a vein of lightning peeping
Lady of the White Elephant
Hsinbyushinme was married to her cousin Minthasit, the future Nawrahtaminsaw, in 1574. On being appointed King of Chiang Mai by Bayinnaung, Nawrahtaminsaw set out with Hsinbyushinme from Pegu in April, 1579. During their journey Hsinbyushinme gave birth to a son at Doi Luang, naming him Tu Luang after the place of his birth. The family arrived at Chiang Mai in July, 1579, and assumed their positions as King and Queen of Lanna. But Nawrahtaminsaw was a warrior prince who loyally served the interests of his father, King Bayinnaung, and was destined to be absent from both Chiang Mai and his beloved wife Hsinbyushinme on many occasions.
How do we know Hsinbyushinme was so loved by Nawrahtaminsaw? Because the latter was also a skilled composer of yadu verse. In one such poem which begins ‘Golden Yun, pleasant country’ (Yun being an old Burmese name for Chiang Mai and its people) he writes of Hsinbyushinme:
None there be in the thousand lands Though should I search
Let alone an equal I will find none
To match a strand of her hair
Fragrant as attar of jasmine
Sweet-voiced, pleasant of expression
Generous of thought, lovely of disposition
My heap of life
The warm nest of my sight
For her part, Hsinbyushinme stayed behind in Chiang Mai when Nawrahtaminsaw was away campaigning. She clearly grew to love her new home and its verdant surroundings. A pious Buddhist, she drew comfort during her husband’s absences by worshipping at various Chiang Mai temples, most notably venerating the Phra Kaew (Emerald Buddha) image at Wat Chedi Luang (now in Bangkok) and the Phra Singh image at Wat Phra Singh. Sometimes she would make the more arduous journey out of town to Doi Suthep, where she would pray at the shrine there and enjoy the view across the country of which she was queen.
In March, 1583, when Nawrahtaminsaw was away campaigning in Yunnan, Hsinbyushinme composed a yadu poem characterised by its translator, Ni Ni Myint, as ‘poetry of grace and fluency’. Across more than four centuries, her love not just for her husband, but also for her adopted city of Chiang Mai, remains clear, genuine and moving:
Victory Land of Golden Yun, Our Home
Thronged pleasantly like paradise.
The clear waters moving without cease
The forests teeming with singing birds
The breezes replace the sere leaves
As buds peep and petals spread
ingyin, yinma, thawka, tharaphi
gangaw, swedaw, fragrant hpetsut
anan, thazin, gamone, balmy in bloom
Luxuriantly scenting the air in the early summer…
Yet my love is not here to enjoy
I in loneliness watch the delights
In this season of diverse scents
In Yun City, created by you, lord
And await your return
Topmost of the royal lineage of the sun
Brilliant like the flame of the sun
Ever-triumphant conqueror of the foes
My husband marches boldly to far-off China and Lan Chang
To clear the enveloping enemies…
Sadly I nurse my loneliness
Clear the enemy before [the month of] Tagu!
All enemies bow to Chiang Mai City
Encircled by cool waters and wall-like hills
Unequalled Lord of Golden Yun…
My topmost lineage of the sun
Now that the south wind blows, the sere leaf falls
The golden laburnum flutters, liquid emerald
I do not know how to wear
Fragrant flowers in my top-hair
Since my lion-hearted husband marched to war
I guard my mind and kneeling
Before Buddha’s images
Of Phra Kaew, Phra Singh, golden Maha Chedi
And the famous Phra Suthep
Images bright as sun
On western hill-top beyond the city, and within
With reverence I say my prayers
Rising glory of the lineage of the sun
Nawrahtaminsaw did indeed return ‘to the Palace of Pleasant Victorious Yun’, ruling over Chiang Mai for 28 years. Hsinbyushinme bore him four children, two of whom-Min Ye Dibba (1607-1613?) and Thado Kyaw (1613-1614?)-succeeded their father as kings of Chiang Mai, albeit more briefly and with less glory. Little is known of Hsinbyushinme’s later life, but it seems likely she stayed at Nawrahtaminsaw’s side until her death in the adopted city she loved so much.
Unfortunately no chedi are known definitely to contain the remains of Nawrahtaminsaw or Hsinbyushinme, though it is possible-even likely-that ashes of both monarchs were interred in the “water melon stupa” of Wat Ku Tao, which was erected in 1613, six years after Nawrahtaminsaw’s death. Be this as it may, as Ni Ni Myint points out: ‘The cool waters and wall-like hills around Chiang Mai which Hsinbyushinme once viewed still remain. The fragrant flowers which she loved to wear in her hair when her husband was with her still bloom in their season. Although Phra Kaew has been moved (to Wat Phra Kaeo in Bangkok), Phra Singh and Phra Suthep, before which she knelt and worshipped with great devotion, still attract devotees. And as these things which she loved and reverenced endure, the presence of Hsinbyushinme lingers in this Victory Land of Golden Yun as it does also in her graceful poetry’.

Min Ye Dibba (1607-1613?) son of Nawrahtaminsaw

Thado Kyaw (1613-1614?) son of Nawrahtaminsaw

In 1628 Burma relocated the center for administration of Lanna to Chiang Saen.

About 1660 Chinese troops invaded northern Burma in search of the emperor Yung-lei (or Yunhli), last of the Ming dynasty. The governor of Chiang Mai, aware of the Burmese army’s defeat and afraid of a Chinese invasion, asked for Ayudhaya’s protection. King Narai sent an army, but as it approached, Chiang Mai pulled away its men. Narai’s force took Lampang but not Chiang Mai. Soon after, Narai sent a much larger army, led by the best of his generals. This force was successful, seizing much of value including the famed Sihinga Buddha image of Wat Phra Sing. In 1664, a local revolt drove the Siamese back out.
When the Chinese had taken Yung-lei off, the Burmese started a harder line of impositions on Lanna. Burmese princes were regularly sent to Chiang Mai as viceroys for the region, and for half a century, Lanna peoples suffered heavy taxation and conscription into the Burmese army, with corvée duties far away.

1661 King Narai (r.1656-1688) of Ayutthaya captured and briefly held Chiang Mai.

1672 The Burmese regain control of the kingdom.

1672 – 1675 Ingsemang Burmese ruler.
9. Uparaj Uang Sae (Ava City) B.E. 2215-2218 (A.D. 1672-1675)

1675 – 1707 Chephutarai Burmese ruler.
10. Cheputrai (son of Chao Chekutra) B.E. 2218- ? (A.D. 1675- ?)

In 1628 Burma relocated the center for administration of Lanna to Chiang Saen. Chiang Saen suffered repeated invasions, and in 1717 the Mae Khong River flooded the town to a depth of five feet. Still, as Chiang Saen was favored by the Burmese, it came under direct administration from Ava, the Burmese capital. It was strongly held, and the last area retaken from Burma, in 1804 (and then only with assistance from independent Nan Kingdom). By 1705, Chiang Mai and southern Lanna were ruled as a military-controlled vassal state. The over two centuries of rebellion, shifting alliances and recurrent warfare resultant from Burmese failure to control, consumed all Lanna, limiting material access, destroying cities and towns and displacing much of the population.