Archive for the ‘history’ Category

White Cliffs of Dover

June 4, 2017

Dover is also another place I have not thought of visiting but Jimmy came with Tin Aung on the morning of 5 May 16 and took us there on a picnic (he had brought a ground sheet and a basket full of drinks and food) and it was another unexpected nice trip


There’ll be bluebirds over
The white cliffs of dover
Just you wait and see

I’ll never forget the people I met
Braving those angry skies
I remember well as the shadows fell
The light of hope in their eyes

And though I’m far away
I still can hear them say
Bombs up
But when the dawn comes up

There’ll be bluebirds over
The white cliffs of dover
Just you wait and see

There’ll be love and laughter
And peace ever after
When the world is free

The shepherd will tend his sheep
The valley will bloom again
And Jimmy will go to sleep
In his own little room again

There’ll be bluebirds over
The white cliffs of dover
Just you wait and see

There’ll be bluebirds over
The white cliffs of dover
Just you wait and see

Read more: Vera Lynn – The White Cliffs Of Dover Lyrics | MetroLyrics
The White Cliffs of Dover 5

white cliffs of Dover

I have known this song since I was a lad but had not seen the movie.



bluebirds are a group of medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous bird in the order of Passerines in the genus Sialia of the thrush family. Bluebirds are one of the few thrush genera in the Americas. Wikipedia

The White Cliffs of Dover are cliffs that form part of the English coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France. The cliffs are part of the North Downs formation. The cliff face, which reaches up to 350 feet (110 m),[1] owes its striking appearance to its composition of chalk accented by streaks of black flint. The cliffs stretch along the coastline for eight miles (13 km), spreading east and west from the town of Dover in the county of Kent, an ancient and still important English port.[2]

White Cliffs of Dover map

It is said that the Dover cliffs can be seen from the French coast across the Straight of Dover. This narrow water that separates France from England is the scene of the long history between the 2 countries with Anglo Francophone Wars, even the WWs and Trade, both legal and blackmarketeering throughout the centuries.

The cliffs have great symbolic value in Britain because they face towards continental Europe across the narrowest part of the English Channel, where invasions have historically threatened and against which the cliffs form a symbolic guard. The National Trust calls the cliffs “an icon of Britain”, with “the white chalk face a symbol of home and war time defence.”[3] Because crossing at Dover was the primary route to the continent before the advent of air travel, the white line of cliffs also formed the first or last sight of Britain for travellers. In World War II, thousands of allied troops on the little ships in the Dunkirk evacuation saw the welcoming sight of the cliffs.[4]

The White Cliffs of Dover 9

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the white cliff



We walked a long way to the distant South Foreland lighthouse, Dover


South Foreland lighthouse, Dover at a distance


getting nearer


there was an English teashop


with free places


but we picnicked outside




South Foreland lighthouse, Dover





June 1, 2017
The Palace of Versailles, Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. Wikipedia
When the château was built, Versailles was a small village dating from the 11th century.

It is just 30 minutes away, some 20 kilometres (12 miles) southwest of the centre of the French capital (point zero at square in front of Notre Dame)

Versailles was the seat of political power in the Kingdom of France from 1682, when King Louis XIV moved the royal court from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789, within three months after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.

I have read about Versailles from the stories, novels, articles and history books about the French Revolution,  King Louis XIV and Queen Marie Antoinette (whose’s remarks “Why do’t they eat cakes if they do not have bread?” is one of the most famous Quotes of all times), so when I planned my visit to Paris, I made sure Versailles is on my iteniary.

We went there with a half day tour although one can go there by train.


After failing to get off near the Tour company office and having taken a mercedes limousine taxi, we went to Versailles on a bus full of tourists from all over the world, but we were the only ones from SE Asia.



King Louis XIV

Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. Wikipedia

Versailles Palace


Statute inside the palace grounds


The Versailles garden is the most beautiful garden I have been to.



The sculpture of Louis XIV



The wall murals of the palace are magnificent.





So too are those on the ceilings.






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The King’s reception room


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The Royal Bedchamber


The Hall of Mirrors!

Mirrors must be scarce and expensive at the time that mirrors were used to decorate the room.


Hall of mirrors


The Hall of Mirrors

Louis XIV on horseback




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Bas reliefs


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And paintings on the wall!



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Royal staircase


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Statute on the gate post



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We all gathered near this post and returned to Paris where we had Chinese lunch so that we can have rice.





A mishap on our visit to Versailles

May 30, 2017

Versailles Palace is the famous French Palace built before and used during the time of the French Revolution and is a little far from Paris. We bought tickets to visit Versailles with the tour company that operates the Hop on Hop off Paris. As our Hop on Hop off 24 hour ticket was still valid that morning, we went by Metro to the Pyramid station near where the Hop on Hop off office is.



We boarded the first Hop on Hop off bus to go to the Tour company that would take us to Versailles. We had a nice bus ride around Paris again, going round the loop.

There were not many tourists and the top was nearly empty we had a nice go around Paris by bus.




We passed by the Notre Dame Cathedral of Paris again.



Also the magnificent Arch de Triumph built on order of Napoleon, the most famous French Emperor (actually he is a Corsican and his native land is in Italy now).




After passing the Maritime Museum, we had to get off near the Eiffel Tower as it is the nearest hop off stop to the Tour office. We had hopped off at the Maritime Museum and walked down to the Eiffel Tower the previous day so I do not know which usual route the HOHO bus takes.


Looking at the photos I had taken, we had passed in front of the Tour office without realizing we should get off here.


After passing through a boulevard, and going for some time, I noticed a building which was quite far from the Eiffel and which I had observed on the HOHO bus tour the previous day.

I got up and asked the bus driver. He said the usual route was blocked that day because of the Marathon and they had bypassed the Eiffel stops. We got off the bus and walked back. I did not see the Eiffel anywhere and checked the map and noticed that we could not make it in time by walking. I stopped and waited for a free taxi to come along. There was not much time to get to the tour company in time, and luckily, a vacant taxi came along.



I was surprised that the taxi was bigger than usual ones and a Mercedes. Furthermore, the taxi driver, a white middle east looking man, was dressed smartly in a suit. It would be a limousine and I was worried about the fare. However, it was a meter taxi and the rate was reasonable. When we got off, the Eiffel tower was not in sight and I asked him whether it might be the wrong place. He indicated to the opposite side of the road and drove off.


We arrived in time, but had to wait for others before our Touir guide called us and we all boarded the Tour Bus to Versailles.

During the time we waited, I walked around for a short distance and found an interesting shop selling souvenrs including aprons, French style.









Toungoo Crown prince Tabin ShweHti’s earboring ceremony at the Shwe Maw Taw pagoda

April 8, 2017

Heroic deeds are remembered and handed over from one generation to another. One such feat is the Ear boring ceremony of King Tabinshwehti while he was a Crown Prince.

Although it has been mentioned that “Tabinshwehti started his reign with a gesture of sublime audacity, He determined to carry out the ear-boring ceremony at the Shwemawdaw Pagoda at Pegu, and with a chosen band of armed followers did so under the very nose of King Takayutpi”, tradition mentioned him as being a Crown Prince at the time.

Although Toungoo has been ruled by kings မင္း, they were mostly governors and not hereditary royalty and appointed by the Kings မင္းၾကီး of Ava.   The turning-point in its history came with the reign of မင္းၾကီးညိဳ Minkyinyo (1486-1531). Profiting by the chaos and weakness then reigning in the Ava kingdom, he acquired large additions to his territory, including the Kyauksè irrigation area. In 1527, when the Shans reoccupied Ava, so many Burmese chiefs fled to take service with him, that he became the most powerful ruler in Burma. Tabinshwehti was the Crown Prince.

Toungoo moat

In selecting the troops to accompany him Tabinshwehti had a wedge hammered beneath the nails and those who grimaced or withdrew back were left out. Only those who passed the test without flinching were taken along as his guards and the number was not adequate enough to face the Hantharwaddy troops. They went to Hantharwaddy on horses and during the night, crossed into the Mon territory, approached and reached the Shwemawdaw pagoda which is just outside the city walls. The ear piercing ceremony was begun at dawn and their presence was noticed and reported to the authorities. The Mon troops surrounded he pagoda hill and after finishing the ceremony Tabinshwehti’s group broke through them and reached the safety of their Toungoo territory.

In the 16th century, the 15 year-old Crown Prince Tabin Shwe Hti of the Taungoo kingdom held his ear boring ceremony on the platform of the Shwe Maw Daw Pagoda of Bago, at the time enemy territory, accompanied only by a few guards. They had gone on horseback on a moonlit night. When the army of the Bago kingdom heard of it and surounded the pagoda, Tabin Shwe Hti told the Master of Ceremonies to take his time and make sure that the ear holes were perfectly aligned. Afterwards he and his soldiers broke through enemy ranks and galloped home, leaving the Bago army bewildered but admiring his audicity.


This daring act not only showed Tabinshwehti’s valour, but also one of threading on the sacred grounds ေအာင္ေျမနင္း, a traditional ceremony held before war for the luck to win, this time against Hantharwaddy, which Tabinshwehti aimed to conquer since he was a teen Crown Prince, a prelude to building a nation.


Burma by Hall



I have begun this blog on 30 Aug 2011 but found the heading only in my draft today 8 Apr 2017. I do not remember whether I have finished another one by a similar name but will begin writing this beginning from today. Hope this will be finished soon.

Fin 2:15 pm 8-April-2017

Loch Ness monster

June 22, 2016
Loch Ness monster statutte at the boat ride stop

Loch Ness monster statute at the boat ride stop


We went to Loch Ness during my recent visit to Edinburgh, not to see the Loch Ness monster but to see the famous Loch Ness which is the second largest Scottish Loch.
































Loch Ness is the second largest Scottish loch by surface area at 22 sq mi (56 km2) after Loch Lomond, but due to its great depth, it is the largest by volume in the British Isles. Its deepest point is 755 ft (230 m), making it the second deepest loch in Scotland after Loch Morar. A 2016 survey claimed to have discovered a crevice that pushed the depth to 889 ft (271 m) but further research determined it to be a sonar anomaly. It contains more fresh water than all the lakes in England and Wales combined, and is the largest body of water on the Great Glen Fault, which runs from Inverness in the north to Fort William in the south.



Loch Ness map











Loch Ness lies along the Great Glen Fault, which forms a line of weakness in the rocks which has been excavated by glacial erosion, forming the Great Glen and the basins of Loch Lochy, Loch Oich and Loch Ness.

It is because it is on the Great Glen Fault that the Loch Ness is so straight (as with the 3rd Ayeyarwaddy defile at Thabeik Kyinn).


Loch Ness is narrow and long.

Loch Ness (/ˌlɒx ˈnɛs/; Scottish Gaelic: Loch Nis, [l̪ˠɔxˈniʃ]) is a large, deep, freshwater loch in the Scottish Highlands extending for approximately 23 miles (37 km) southwest of Inverness. Its surface is 52 ft (16 m) above sea level. Loch Ness is best known for alleged sightings of the cryptozoological Loch Ness Monster, also known affectionately as “Nessie”. It is connected at the southern end by the River Oich and a section of the Caledonian Canal to Loch Oich. At the northern end there is the Bona Narrows which opens out into Loch Dochfour, which feeds the River Ness and a further section of canal to Inverness. It is one of a series of interconnected, murky bodies of water in Scotland; its water visibility is exceptionally low due to a high peat content in the surrounding soil.



Loch Ness Monster



Loch Ness is thought by some to be the home of the Loch Ness Monster (also known as “Nessie“), a cryptid, reputedly a large unknown animal. It is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere, though its description varies from one account to the next. Popular interest and belief in the animal’s existence has varied since it was first brought to the world’s attention in 1933.


Spicers (1933)

Modern interest in the monster was sparked by a sighting on 22 July 1933, when George Spicer and his wife saw “a most extraordinary form of animal” cross the road in front of their car. They described the creature as having a large body (about 4 feet (1.2 m) high and 25 feet (8 m) long) and a long, wavy, narrow neck, slightly thicker than an elephant’s trunk and as long as the 10–12-foot (3–4 m) width of the road. They saw no limbs. It lurched across the road towards the loch 20 yards (20 m) away, leaving a trail of broken undergrowth in its wake.

In August 1933 a motorcyclist, Arthur Grant, claimed to have nearly hit the creature while approaching Abriachan (near the north-eastern end of the loch) at about 1 a.m. on a moonlit night. According to Grant, it had a small head attached to a long neck; the creature saw him, and crossed the road back to the loch. Grant, a veterinary student, described it as a cross between a seal and a plesiosaur. He said he dismounted and followed it to the loch, but only saw ripples. Some interpret the story as a humorous explanation of a motorcycle accident.

Sightings of the monster increased after a road was built along the loch in early 1933, bringing workers and tourists to the formerly-isolated area. Sporadic land sightings continued until 1963, when poor-quality film of the creature was shot in the loch from a distance of 4 kilometres (2.5 mi).

This photo was later proved to be a hoax but interest and popularity soared.


In folklore, the Loch Ness Monster is an aquatic being which reputedly inhabits Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands. It is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere, although its description varies; it is described by most as large. Popular interest and belief in the creature has varied since it was brought to worldwide attention in 1933. Evidence of its existence is anecdotal, with few, disputed photographs and sonar readings.

The most common speculation among believers is that the creature represents a line of long-surviving plesiosaurs.[5] While adherents of cryptozoology, a pseudoscience, describe the creature as a cryptid,[6] the scientific community regards the Loch Ness Monster as a myth, explaining sightings as misidentifications of mundane objects, hoaxes, and wishful thinking.[7] The creature has been affectionately called Nessie[b] (Scottish Gaelic: Niseag)[8] since the 1940s.



The word “monster” was reportedly applied for the first time to the creature on 2 May 1933 by Alex Campbell, water bailiff for Loch Ness and a part-time journalist, in an Inverness Courier report.[10][11][12] On 4 August 1933 the Courier published a report by Londoner George Spicer that several weeks earlier, while they were driving around the loch, he and his wife saw “the nearest approach to a dragon or pre-historic animal that I have ever seen in my life” trundling across the road toward the loch with “an animal” in its mouth.[13] Letters began appearing in the Courier, often anonymously, claiming land or water sightings by the writer, their family or acquaintances or remembered stories.[14] The accounts reached the media, which described a “monster fish”, “sea serpent”, or “dragon”[15] and eventually settled on “Loch Ness monster”.[16]

On 6 December 1933 the first purported photograph of the monster, taken by Hugh Gray, was published in the Daily Express;[17] the Secretary of State for Scotland soon ordered police to prevent any attacks on it.[18] In 1934, interest was further piqued by the “surgeon’s photograph”. That year, R. T. Gould published an account[19] of the author’s investigation and a record of reports predating 1933. Other authors have claimed sightings of the monster dating to the sixth century AD.



Saint Columba (565)

The earliest report of a monster in the vicinity of Loch Ness appears in the Life of St. Columba by Adomnán, written in the seventh century AD.[20] According to Adomnán, writing about a century after the events described, Irish monk Saint Columba was staying in the land of the Picts with his companions when he encountered local residents burying a man by the River Ness. They explained that the man was swimming in the river when he was attacked by a “water beast” which mauled him and dragged him underwater. Although they tried to rescue him in a boat, he was dead. Columba sent a follower, Luigne moccu Min, to swim across the river. The beast approached him, but Columba made the sign of the cross and said: “Go no further. Do not touch the man. Go back at once.”[21] The creature stopped as if it had been “pulled back with ropes” and fled, and Columba’s men and the Picts gave thanks for what they perceived as a miracle.[21] The oldest manuscript relating to this story was put online in 2012.[22]

Believers in the monster point to this story, set in the River Ness rather than the loch itself, as evidence for the creature’s existence as early as the sixth century.[23] Sceptics question the narrative’s reliability, noting that water-beast stories were extremely common in medieval hagiographies and Adomnán’s tale probably recycles a common motif attached to a local landmark.[24] According to sceptics, Adomnán’s story may be independent of the modern Loch Ness Monster legend and became attached to it by believers seeking to bolster their claims.[23] According to R. Binns, this account is the most credible of the early sightings of the monster; all other claims before 1933 are dubious and do not prove a tradition of sightings before that date.[11]

D. Mackenzie (1871–72)

Pre-1933 sightings of the creature were rare.[25] In October 1871 (or 1872), D. Mackenzie of Balnain reportedly saw an object resembling a log or an upturned boat “wriggling and churning up the water”. The object moved slowly at first, disappearing at a faster speed.[26][27] Mackenzie sent his story in a letter to Rupert Gould in 1934, shortly after popular interest in the monster increased.[27]

William Fraser (1938)

In 1938 William Fraser, chief constable of Inverness-shire, wrote a letter that the monster existed beyond doubt and expressed concern about a hunting party which had arrived (with a custom-made harpoon gun) determined to catch the monster “dead or alive”. He believed his power to protect the monster from the hunters was “very doubtful”. The letter was released by the National Archives of Scotland on 27 April 2010.[33][34]

C. B. Farrel (1943)

In May 1943, C. B. Farrel of the Royal Observer Corps was reportedly distracted from his duties by a Nessie sighting. He claimed to have been about 230 metres (750 ft) away from a large-eyed, “finned” creature with a 6-to-9-metre (20 to 30 ft) long body and a neck which protruded about 1.2 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) out of the water.[35]

Sonar readings (1954)

In December 1954, sonar readings were taken by the fishing boat Rival III. Its crew noted a large object keeping pace with the vessel at a depth of 146 metres (479 ft). It was detected for 800 m (2,600 ft) before contact was lost and regained.[35] Previous sonar attempts were inconclusive or negative.


Photos and video

Hugh Gray photograph (1933)

On 12 November 1933, Hugh Gray was walking along the loch after church when he reportedly saw a large creature rising from the lake. Gray took several pictures, but only one was successfully developed. The blurry image appeared to show a creature with a long tail and thick body on the surface of the loch.[36] Although critics have claimed that the photograph is of Gray’s Labrador Retriever swimming towards the camera (possibly carrying a stick), researcher Roland Watson suggests that there is an eel-like head on the right side of the image.[37] This is the first known photograph of the creature.

“Surgeon’s photograph” (1934)

The “surgeon’s photograph” is reportedly the first photo of the creature’s head and neck.[38] Supposedly taken by Robert Kenneth Wilson, a London gynaecologist, it was published in the Daily Mail on 21 April 1934.[39] Wilson’s refusal to have his name associated with its led to its being known as the “surgeon’s photograph”.[40] According to Wilson, he was looking at the loch when he saw the monster, grabbed his camera and snapped four photos. Only two exposures came out clearly; the first reportedly shows a small head and back, and the second shows a similar head in a diving position. The first photo became well-known, and the second attracted little publicity because of its blurriness.

Although for a number of years the photo was considered evidence of the monster, sceptics dismissed it as driftwood,[27] an elephant,[41] an otter, or a bird. The photo’s scale was controversial; it is often shown cropped (making the creature seem large and the ripples like waves), while the uncropped shot shows the other end of the loch and the monster in the centre. The ripples in the photo were found to fit the size and pattern of small ripples, unlike large waves photographed up close. Analysis of the original image fostered further doubt. In 1993, the makers of the Discovery Communications documentary Loch Ness Discovered analysed the uncropped image and found a white object visible in every version of the photo (implying that it was on the negative). It was believed to be the cause of the ripples, as if the object was being towed, although the possibility of a blemish on the negative could not be ruled out. An analysis of the full photograph indicated that the object was small, about 60 to 90 cm (2 to 3 ft) long.[40]

Since 1994, most agree that the photo was an elaborate hoax.[40] It had been accused of being a fake in a 7 December 1975 Sunday Telegraph article which fell into obscurity.[42] Details of how the photo was taken were published in the 1999 book, Nessie – the Surgeon’s Photograph Exposed, which contains a facsimile of the 1975 Sunday Telegraph article.[43] The creature was reportedly a toy submarine built by Christian Spurling, the son-in-law of Marmaduke Wetherell. Wetherell had been publicly ridiculed by his employer, the Daily Mail, after he found “Nessie footprints” which turned out to be a hoax. To get revenge on the Mail, Wetherell perpetrated his hoax with co-conspirators Spurling (sculpture specialist), Ian Wetherell (his son, who bought the material for the fake), and Maurice Chambers (an insurance agent).[44] The toy submarine was bought from F. W. Woolworths, and its head and neck were made from wood putty. After testing it in a local pond the group went to Loch Ness, where Ian Wetherell took the photos near the Altsaigh Tea House. When they heard a water bailiff approaching, Duke Wetherell sank the model with his foot and it is “presumably still somewhere in Loch Ness”.[27] Chambers gave the photographic plates to Wilson, a friend of his who enjoyed “a good practical joke”. Wilson brought the plates to Ogston’s, an Inverness chemist, and gave them to George Morrison for development. He sold the first photo to the Daily Mail,[45] who then announced that the monster had been photographed.[27]

Little is known of the second photo; it is often ignored by researchers, who believe its quality too poor and its differences from the first photo too great to warrant analysis. It shows a head similar to the first photo, with a more turbulent wave pattern and possibly taken at a different time and location in the loch. Some believe it to be an earlier, cruder attempt at a hoax,[46] and others (including Roy Mackal and Maurice Burton) consider it a picture of a diving bird or otter which Wilson mistook for the monster.[26] According to Morrison, when the plates were developed Wilson was uninterested in the second photo; he allowed Morrison to keep the negative, and the second photo was rediscovered years later.[47] When asked about the second photo by the Ness Information Service Newsletter, Spurling ” … was vague, thought it might have been a piece of wood they were trying out as a monster, but [was] not sure.”[48]

The hoax story is disputed by Henry Bauer, who claims that the debunking is evidence of bias and asks why the perpetrators did not reveal their plot earlier to embarrass the newspaper.[49] According to Alastair Boyd, a researcher who uncovered the hoax, the Loch Ness Monster is real; the surgeon’s photo hoax does not mean that other photos, eyewitness reports, and footage of the creature are also, and he claims to have seen it.[50]

Tim Dinsdale disputes the claim that the photograph is a hoax in his book, Loch Ness Monster, after reportedly extensively studying the photograph from a number of angles: “Upon really close examination, there are certain rather obscure features in the picture which have a profound significance.”[51] Two are a solid object breaking the surface to the right of the neck and a mark to the left and behind the neck.[52] According to Dinsdale, the objects are either a subtle fake or part of the monster.[53] Others are vague, small ripples behind the neck, apparently after the neck broke the surface.[53]

Taylor film (1938)

In 1938, South African tourist G. E. Taylor filmed something in the loch for three minutes on 16 mm colour film. The film was obtained by popular-science writer Maurice Burton, who did not show it to author Peter Costello and the Loch Ness Investigation Bureau.[citation needed] A single frame was published in his 1961 book, The Elusive Monster.

Dinsdale film (1960)

Aeronautical engineer Tim Dinsdale filmed a hump which left a wake crossing Loch Ness in 1960.[54] Dinsdale, who reportedly had the sighting on his final day of search, described it as reddish with a blotch on its side. He said that when he mounted his camera the object began to move, and he shot 40 feet of film. According to JARIC, the object was “probably animate”.[55][third-party source needed] Others were sceptical, saying that the “hump” cannot be ruled out as being a boat[56] and when the contrast is increased, a man in a boat can be seen.[55]

In 1993 Discovery Communications produced a documentary, Loch Ness Discovered, with a digital enhancement of the Dinsdale film. A person who enhanced the film noticed a shadow in the negative which was not obvious in the developed film. By enhancing and overlaying frames, he found what appeared to be the rear body of a creature underwater: “Before I saw the film, I thought the Loch Ness Monster was a load of rubbish. Having done the enhancement, I’m not so sure”.[50] According to sceptics, the angle of the film from the horizontal and the sun’s angle that day made underwater shadows unlikely.[57] Although the darker water is coincidentally shaped like a body,[58] there may be a smaller object (a second hump or a head) in front of the hump.[58]

“Loch Ness Muppet” (1977)

On 21 May 1977 Anthony “Doc” Shiels, camping next to Urquhart Castle, took “some of the clearest pictures of the monster until this day”.[citation needed] Shiels, a magician and psychic, claimed to have summoned the animal out of the water. He later described it as an “elephant squid”, claiming the long neck shown in the photograph is actually the squid’s “trunk” and that white spot at the base of the neck is its eye. Due to the lack of ripples, it has been declared a hoax by a number of people and received its name because of its staged look.[59][60][61]

Holmes video (2007)

On 26 May 2007, 55-year-old laboratory technician Gordon Holmes videotaped what he said was “this jet black thing, about 14 metres (46 ft) long, moving fairly fast in the water.”[62] Adrian Shine, a marine biologist at the Loch Ness 2000 Centre in Drumnadrochit, described the footage as among “the best footage [he had] ever seen.”[62] BBC Scotland broadcast the video on 29 May 2007.[63] STV News North Tonight aired the footage on 28 May 2007 and interviewed Holmes. Shine was also interviewed, and suggested that the footage was an otter, seal or water bird.[64] According to Joe Nickell, the footage shows a beaver or otter swimming in the loch.[65]

Sonar image (2011)

On 24 August 2011 Loch Ness boat captain Marcus Atkinson photographed a sonar image of a 1.5-metre (4 ft 11 in), unidentified object which seemed to follow his boat for two minutes at a depth of 23 m (75 ft), and ruled out the possibility of a small fish or seal. In April 2012, a scientist from the National Oceanography Centre said that the image is a bloom of algae and zooplankton.[66]

George Edwards photograph (2011)

On 3 August 2012, skipper George Edwards published what he claimed to be “the most convincing Nessie photograph ever”,[citation needed] which he said he took on 2 November 2011. Edwards’ photograph shows a hump above the water which, he said, remained there for five to ten minutes. According to Edwards, the photograph was independently verified by a Nessie sighting specialist and a group of US military monster experts. Edwards reportedly spent 60 hours per week on the loch aboard his boat, Nessie Hunter IV, on which he takes tourists for rides on the lake and claimed to have searched for the monster for 26 years.[67][68] Edwards said, “In my opinion, it probably looks kind of like a manatee, but not a mammal. When people see three humps, they’re probably just seeing three separate monsters.”[69]

Other researchers have questioned the photograph’s authenticity, and Loch Ness researcher Steve Feltham suggested that the object in the water is a fibreglass hump used in a National Geographic Channel documentary in which Edwards had participated.[70] Researcher Dick Raynor has questioned Edwards’ claim of discovering a deeper bottom of Loch Ness, which Raynor calls “Edwards Deep”. He found inconsistencies between Edwards’ claims for the location and conditions of the photograph and the actual location and weather conditions that day. According to Raynor, Edwards told him he had faked a photograph in 1986 which he claimed was genuine in the Nat Geo documentary.[71] Although Edwards admitted in October 2013 that his 2011 photograph was a hoax,[72] he insisted that the 1986 photograph was genuine.[73]

David Elder video (2013)

On 27 August 2013, tourist David Elder presented a five-minute video of a “mysterious wave” in the loch. According to Elder, the wave was produced by a 4.5 m (15 ft) “solid black object” just under the surface of the water.[74] Elder, 50, from East Kilbride, South Lanarkshire, was taking a picture of a swan at the Fort Augustus pier on the south-western end of the loch,[75] when he captured the movement.[76] He said, “The water was very still at the time and there were no ripples coming off the wave and no other activity on the water.”[76] Sceptics suggested that the wave may have been caused by a wind gust.[77]

Apple Maps photograph (2014)

On 19 April 2014, it was reported[4] that a satellite image on Apple Maps showed what appeared to be a large creature (thought by some to be the Loch Ness Monster) just below the surface of Loch Ness. At the loch’s far north, the image appeared about 30 metres (98 ft) long. Possible explanations were the wake of a boat (with the boat itself lost in image stitching or low contrast), seal-caused ripples, or floating wood.[78][79]

Google Street View (2015)

Google commemorated the 81st anniversary of the “surgeon’s photograph” with a Google Doodle,[80] and added a new feature to Google Street View with which users can explore the loch above and below the water.[81][82] Google reportedly spent a week at Loch Ness collecting imagery with a street-view “trekker” camera, attaching it to a boat to photograph above the surface and collaborating with members of the Catlin Seaview Survey to photograph underwater.[83]



Edward Mountain expedition (1934)

After reading Rupert Gould‘s The Loch Ness Monster and Others,[19] Edward Mountain financed a search. Twenty men with binoculars and cameras positioned themselves around the loch from 9 am to 6 pm for five weeks, beginning on 13 July 1934. Although 21 photographs were taken, none was considered conclusive. Supervisor James Fraser remained by the loch filming on 15 September 1934; the film is now lost.[84] Zoologists and professors of natural history concluded that the film showed a seal, possibly a grey seal.[85]

Loch Ness Phenomena Investigation Bureau (1962–1972)

The Loch Ness Phenomena Investigation Bureau (LNPIB) was a UK-based society formed in 1962 by Norman Collins, R. S. R. Fitter, politician David James, Peter Scott and Constance Whyte[86] “to study Loch Ness to identify the creature known as the Loch Ness Monster or determine the causes of reports of it.”[87] The society’s name was later shortened to the Loch Ness Investigation Bureau (LNIB), and it disbanded in 1972. The LNIB had an annual subscription charge, which covered administration. Its main activity was encouraging groups of self-funded volunteers to watch the loch from vantage points with film cameras with telescopic lenses. From 1965 to 1972 it had a caravan camp and viewing platform at Achnahannet, and sent observers to other locations up and down the loch.[88] According to the bureau’s 1969 annual report [89] it had 1,030 members, of whom 588 were from the UK.

Sonar study (1967–1968)

D. Gordon Tucker, chair of the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Birmingham, volunteered his services as a sonar developer and expert at Loch Ness in 1968.[90] His gesture, part of a larger effort led by the LNPIB from 1967 to 1968, involved collaboration between volunteers and professionals in a number of fields. Tucker had chosen Loch Ness as the test site for a prototype sonar transducer with a maximum range of 800 m (2,600 ft). The device was fixed underwater at Temple Pier in Urquhart Bay and directed at the opposite shore, drawing an acoustic “net” across the loch through which no moving object could pass undetected. During the two-week trial in August, multiple targets 6 m (20 ft) in length were identified rising from and diving to the loch bottom. Analysis of diving profiles ruled out air-breathers, because the targets never surfaced or moved shallower than midwater.[citation needed]

Robert Rines studies (1972, 1975, 2001, 2008)

In 1972, a group of researchers from the Academy of Applied Science led by Robert H. Rines conducted a search for the monster involving sonar examination of the loch depths for unusual activity. Rines took precautions to avoid murky water with floating wood and peat.[citation needed] A submersible camera with a floodlight was deployed to record images below the surface. If Rines detected anything on the sonar, he turned the light on and took pictures.

On 8 August Rines’ Raytheon DE-725C sonar unit, operating at a frequency of 200 kHz and anchored at a depth of 11 metres (36 ft), identified a moving target (or targets) estimated by echo strength at 6 to 9 metres (20 to 30 ft) in length. Specialists from Raytheon, Simrad (now Kongsberg Maritime), Hydroacoustics, Marty Klein of MIT and Klein Associates (a side-scan sonar producer) and Ira Dyer of MIT’s Department of Ocean Engineering were on hand to examine the data. P. Skitzki of Raytheon suggested that the data indicated a 3-metre (10 ft) protuberance projecting from one of the echoes. According to author Roy Mackal, the shape was a “highly flexible laterally flattened tail” or the misinterpreted return from two animals swimming together.[91]

Concurrent with the sonar readings, the floodlit camera obtained a pair of underwater photographs. Both depicted what appeared to be a rhomboid flipper, although sceptics have dismissed the images as the bottom of the loch, air bubbles, a rock, or a fish fin. The apparent flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement.[92] The first flipper photo is better-known than the second, and both were enhanced and retouched from the original negatives. According to team member Charles Wyckoff, the photos were retouched to superimpose the flipper; the original enhancement showed a considerably less-distinct object. No one is sure how the originals were altered.[93]

British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975, on the basis of the photographs, that the creature’s scientific name would be Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Greek for “Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin”).[94] Scott intended that the name would enable the creature to be added to the British register of protected wildlife. Scottish politician Nicholas Fairbairn called the name an anagram for “Monster hoax by Sir Peter S”.[95][96]

Another sonar contact was made, this time with two objects estimated to be about 9 metres (30 ft). The strobe camera photographed two large, white, lumpy objects surrounded by a flurry of bubbles. Some interpreted the objects as two plesiosaur-like animals, suggesting several large animals living in Loch Ness. This photograph has rarely been published.

In 2001, Rines’ Academy of Applied Science videotaped a V-shaped wake traversing still water on a calm day. The academy also videotaped an object on the floor of the loch resembling a carcass and found marine clamshells and a fungus-like organism not normally found in freshwater lochs, a suggested connection to the sea and a possible entry for the creature.[97]

In 2008 Rines theorised that the creature may have become extinct, citing the lack of significant sonar readings and a decline in eyewitness accounts. He undertook a final expedition, using sonar and an underwater camera in an attempt to find a carcass. Rines believed that the animals may have failed to adapt to temperature changes resulting from global warming.[98]

Operation Deepscan (1987)

Operation Deepscan was conducted in 1987.[99] Twenty-four boats equipped with echosounder equipment were deployed across the width of the loch, and simultaneously sent acoustic waves. According to BBC News the scientists had made sonar contact with an unidentified object of unusual size.[citation needed] The researchers returned, re-scanning the area. Analysis of the echosounder images seemed to indicate debris at the bottom of the loch, although there was motion in three of the pictures. Adrian Shine speculated, based on size, that they might be seals which had entered the loch.[100]

Sonar expert Darrell Lowrance, founder of Lowrance Electronics, donated a number of echosounder units used in the operation. After examining a sonar return indicating a large, moving object at a depth of 180 metres (590 ft) near Urquhart Bay, Lowrance said: “There’s something here that we don’t understand, and there’s something here that’s larger than a fish, maybe some species that hasn’t been detected before. I don’t know.”[101]

Searching for the Loch Ness Monster (2003)

In 2003, the BBC sponsored a search of the loch using 600 sonar beams and satellite tracking. The search had sufficient resolution to identify a small buoy. No animal of substantial size was found and, despite their high hopes, the scientists involved admitted that this proved the Loch Ness Monster was a myth. Searching for the Loch Ness Monster aired on BBC One.[102]


A number of explanations have been suggested to account for sightings of the creature. They may be categorised as misidentifications of known animals, misidentifications of inanimate objects or effects, reinterpretations of Scottish folklore, hoaxes, and exotic species of large animals.

Misidentification of known animals

Bird wakes

Wakes have been reported when the loch is calm, with no boats nearby. Bartender David Munro reported a wake he believed was a creature zigzagging, diving, and reappearing; there were reportedly 26 other witnesses from a nearby car park.[93][better source needed] Although some sightings describe a V-shaped wake similar to a boat’s,[97] others report something not conforming to the shape of a boat.[50] Under calm conditions, creatures invisible to the naked eye (such as a group of swimming birds) may leave a V-shaped wake. They can leave the water and land again, leaving a series of wakes like an object breaking the surface (which Dick Raynor cites as a possible explanation of his film).[103]


A large eel was an early suggestion.[18] Eels are found in Loch Ness, and an unusually-large one would explain many sightings.[104] Dinsdale dismissed the hypotheses, because eels undulate side to side like snakes.[105] Sightings in 1856 of a “sea-serpent” (or kelpie in a freshwater lake near Leurbost in the Outer Hebrides were explained as those of an oversized eel, also believed common in “Highland lakes””[106]

On 2 May 2001, two conger eels were found on the shore of the loch. Since that fish is a marine species, they were considered a hoax.[107]


In a 1979 article, California biologist Dennis Power and geographer Donald Johnson claimed that the “surgeon’s photograph” was the top of the head, extended trunk and flared nostrils of a swimming elephant photographed elsewhere and claimed to be from Loch Ness.[41] In 2006, palaeontologist and artist Neil Clark suggested that travelling circuses might have allowed elephants to bathe in the loch; the trunk could be the perceived head and neck, with the head and back the perceived humps. In support of this, Clark provided a painting.[108]

Greenland shark

Angler and television presenter Jeremy Wade investigated the creature in 2013 as part of the series River Monsters, and concluded that it is a Greenland shark. The Greenland shark, which can reach up to 20 feet in length, inhabits the North Atlantic Ocean around Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and possibly Scotland. It is dark in colour, with a small dorsal fin.[109] According to biologist Bruce Wright, the Greenland shark could survive in fresh water (possibly using rivers and lakes to find food) and Loch Ness has an abundance of salmon and other fish.[110][111]

Wels catfish

In July 2015 three news outlets reported that Steve Feltham, after a vigil at the loch which was recognized by the Guinness Book of Records, theorised that the monster is an unusually-large specimen of Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) which may have been released during the late 19th century.[112][113][114]

Resident animals

It is difficult to judge the size of an object in water through a telescope or binoculars with no external reference. Loch Ness has resident otters, and photos of them and deer swimming in the loch which were cited by author Ronald Binns[115] may have been misinterpreted. According to Binns, birds may be mistaken for a “head and neck” sighting.[116]


During the 1930s, Dutch zoologist Antoon Cornelis Oudemans proposed that the creature might be an unknown form of long-necked pinniped (semi-aquatic mammal, including the seals). In 1892, he concluded that several sightings of sea serpents were probably large, plesiosaur-like pinnipeds and named a hypothetical species of long-necked pinniped Megophias megophias. According to Oudemans, the Loch Ness Monster was a freshwater version of Megophias megophias.[citation needed]

A number of photographs and a video have confirmed the presence of seals in the loch for as long as several months at a time.[117][118] In 1934 the Edward Mountain expedition analysed film taken that year and concluded that the monster was a species of seal; a Daily Mirror headline read, “Loch Ness Riddle Solved – Official”.[119] A long-necked seal was hypothesised by Peter Costello for Nessie and for other reported lake monsters.[120] According to R. T. Gould, “A grey seal has a long and surprisingly extensible neck; it swims with a paddling action; its colour fits the bill; and there is nothing surprising in its being seen on the shore of the loch, or crossing a road.”[19] This explains sightings of lake monsters on land in which the creature reportedly waddled into the loch when startled, consistent with seal behaviour.[120] Seals would account for sonar traces of animate objects. However, it has been argued that all known pinnipeds sunbathe on land during the day.[121]

Misidentifications of inanimate objects or effects


In 1933, the Daily Mirror published a picture with the caption: “This queerly-shaped tree-trunk, washed ashore at Foyers [on Loch Ness] may, it is thought, be responsible for the reported appearance of a ‘Monster'”.[122] In a 1982 series of articles for New Scientist, Maurice Burton proposed that sightings of Nessie and similar creatures may be fermenting Scots pine logs rising to the surface of the loch. A decomposing log could not initially release gases caused by decay because of its high resin level. Gas pressure would eventually rupture a resin seal at one end of the log, propelling it through the water (sometimes to the surface). According to Burton, the shape of tree logs (with their branch stumps) closely resembles descriptions of the monster.[123][124][125]

Four Scottish lochs, including Loch Morar, Loch Ness and Loch Lomond, are very deep. Only lochs with pine forests on their shores have monster legends; Loch Lomond, with no such forests, does not. Gaseous emissions and surfactants resulting from log decay can cause the foamy wake reported in some sightings, and beached pine logs showing evidence of deep-water fermentation have been found. However, believers say that some lakes have reports of monsters despite an absence of pines; one example is the Irish lough monsters.[126][better source needed]

Seiches and wakes

Loch Ness, because of its long, straight shape, is subject to unusual ripples affecting its surface. A seiche is a large oscillation of a lake, caused by water reverting to its natural level after being blown to one end of the lake (resulting in a standing wave); the Loch Ness oscillation period is 31.5 minutes.[127]

Boat wakes can produce strange effects in the loch. As a wake spreads from a boat passing the centre of the loch, it hits both sides almost simultaneously and deflects back to meet in the middle. The movement produces standing waves larger than the original wake, which may appear humped. Since the boat has passed, the unusual waves are all that can be seen.[128][129]

Optical effects

Wind conditions can give a choppy, matte appearance to the water, with calm patches appearing dark from the shore (reflecting the mountains). In 1979 W. H. Lehn showed that atmospheric refraction could distort the shape and size of objects and animals,[130] and later published a photograph of a mirage of a rock on Lake Winnipeg which resembled a head and neck.[131]

Seismic gas

Italian geologist Luigi Piccardi has proposed geological explanations for ancient legends and myths. Piccardi noted that in the earliest recorded sighting of a creature (the Life of Saint Columba), the creature’s emergence was accompanied “cum ingenti fremitu” (“with loud roaring”). The Loch Ness is along the Great Glen Fault, and this could be a description of an earthquake. Many reports consist only of a large disturbance on the surface of the water; this could be a release of gas through the fault, although it may be mistaken for something swimming below the surface.[132]

According to Ronald Binns, there is probably no one explanation of the monster. A wide range of natural phenomena have been hypothesised, including otters, swimming deer, and unusual waves. Binns wrote that an aspect of human psychology is the ability of the eye to see what it wants, and expects, to see.[11]


In 1980 Swedish naturalist and author Bengt Sjögren wrote that present beliefs in lake monsters such as the Loch Ness Monster are associated with kelpie legends. According to Sjögren, accounts of loch monsters have changed over time; originally describing horse-like creatures, they were intended to keep children away from the loch. Sjögren wrote that the kelpie legends have developed into descriptions reflecting a modern awareness of plesiosaurs..[133]

The kelpie as a water horse in Loch Ness was mentioned in an 1879 Scottish newspaper,[134] and inspired Tim Dinsdale‘s Project Water Horse.[135] A study of pre-1933 Highland folklore references to kelpies, water horses and water bulls indicated that Ness was the loch most frequently cited.[136]


A number of hoax attempts have been made, some of which were successful. Other hoaxes were revealed rather quickly by the perpetrators or exposed after diligent research. A few examples follow.

In August 1933, Italian journalist Francesco Gasparini submitted what he said was the first news article on the Loch Ness Monster. In 1959, he reported sighting a “strange fish” and fabricated eyewitness accounts: “I had the inspiration to get hold of the item about the strange fish. The idea of the monster had never dawned on me, but then I noted that the strange fish would not yield a long article, and I decided to promote the imaginary being to the rank of monster without further ado.”[137]

In the 1930s, big-game hunter Marmaduke Wetherell went to Loch Ness to look for the monster. Wetherell claimed to have found footprints, but when casts of the footprints were sent to scientists for analysis they turned out to be from a hippopotamus; a prankster had used a hippopotamus-foot umbrella stand.[138]

In 1972 a team of zoologists from Yorkshire’s Flamingo Park Zoo, searching for the monster, discovered a large body floating in the water. The corpse, 4.9–5.4 m (16–18 ft) long and weighing as much as 1.5 tonnes, was described by the Press Association as having “a bear’s head and a brown scaly body with clawlike fins.” The creature was placed in a van to be carried away for testing, but police seized the cadaver under an act of parliament prohibiting the removal of “unidentified creatures” from Loch Ness. It was later revealed that Flamingo Park education officer John Shields shaved the whiskers and otherwise disfigured a bull elephant seal which had died the week before and dumped it in Loch Ness to dupe his colleagues.[citation needed] On 2 July 2003, Gerald McSorely a fossil supposedly from the creature when he tripped and fell into the loch. After examination, it was clear that the fossil had been planted.[107]

In 2004 a Five TV documentary team, using cinematic special-effects experts, tried to convince people that there was something in the loch. They constructed an animatronic model of a plesiosaur, calling it “Lucy”. Despite setbacks (including Lucy falling to the bottom of the loch), about 600 sightings were reported where she was placed.[139][140]

In 2005, two students claimed to have found a large tooth embedded in the body of a deer on the loch shore. They publicised the find, setting up a website, but expert analysis soon revealed that the “tooth” was the antler of a muntjac.[141] The tooth was a publicity stunt to promote a horror novel by Steve Alten, The Loch.[107]

In 2007, a video reportedly showing Nessie jumping into the air appeared on YouTube. It was unmasked by eSkeptic as an advertisement for Sony Pictures’ The Water Horse,[142] since the video contained footage from the film.

Exotic large-animal species



In 1933 it was suggested that the creature “bears a striking resemblance to the supposedly extinct plesiosaur“,[143] a long-necked aquatic reptile which became extinct during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. A popular explanation at the time, the following arguments have been made against it:

  • Plesiosaurs were probably cold-blooded reptiles needing warm tropical waters; the average temperature of Loch Ness is only about 5.5 °C (42 °F).[144] If the plesiosaurs were warm-blooded, they would require a food supply beyond that supplied by Loch Ness.[145]
  • In an October 2006 New Scientist article, “Why the Loch Ness Monster is no plesiosaur”, Leslie Noè of the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge said: “The osteology of the neck makes it absolutely certain that the plesiosaur could not lift its head up swan-like out of the water”.[146]
  • The loch is only about 10,000 years old, dating to the end of the last ice age. Before then, it was frozen for about 20,000 years.[147]
  • If creatures similar to plesiosaurs lived in Loch Ness they would be seen frequently, since they would have to surface several times a day to breathe.[100]

In response to these criticisms, Tim Dinsdale, Peter Scott and Roy Mackal postulate a trapped marine creature which evolved from a plesiosaur directly or by convergent evolution.[148] Robert Rines explained that the “horns” in some sightings as breathing tubes (or nostrils), allowing it to breathe without breaking the surface.

Long-necked giant amphibian

R. T. Gould suggested a long-necked newt;[19][149] Roy Mackal examined the possibility, giving it the highest score (88 percent) on his list of possible candidates.[150]


In 1968 F. W. (Ted) Holiday proposed that Nessie and other lake monsters, such as Morag, may be a large invertebrate such as a bristleworm; he cited the extinct Tullimonstrum as an example of the shape.[151] According to Holiday, this explains the land sightings and the variable back shape; he likened it to the medieval description of dragons as “worms”. Although this theory was considered by Mackal, he found it less convincing than eels, amphibians or plesiosaurs.[











A visit to the Thagara Pyu ancient city, Laung Lon, Dawei, Tenerisserim, Myanmar

May 6, 2013

I have watched the Thagara Pyu ancient city ruins on Lwin Moe Kha Yee Twar Nay Thi လြင္မိုး ခရီးသြားေနသည္ and other TV programs and have wanted to visit it. I got the opportunity to visit it during my recent visit to Dawei.

Dawei is situated on the Thanintharyi, on the southern part of Myanmar

Dawei is situated on the Thanintharyi, on the southern part of Myanmar

Traditionally, the Pyu has been believed to have built a series of city states from Tagaung to Sriksetra, some of which existed contemporily. The Pyu cities included Halin, Maingmaw, Beinnaka and Beikthano_all in the central part of Myanmar.

Pyu cities, the First Myanmar empire

Pyu cities, the First Myanmar empire

Pyu city states (Burmese: ပ်ဴျမိဳ႕ျပႏိုင္ငံမ်ား) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BC to c. mid-11th century in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar). The city-states—five major walled cities and several smaller towns have been excavated—were all located in the three main irrigated regions of Upper Burma: the Mu valley, the Kyaukse plains and Minbu region, around the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers.

However, the Pyu built the First Myanmar nation which included the Thanintharyi in the south.  Although the details of the Pyu nation has not been recorded in Myanmar chronicles, the Chinese had recorded it.

The Tang Chinese records report 18 Pyu states (nine of which were walled cities), covering 298 districts

The New T’ang History listed thirty-two important settlements or tribes subject to the Pyu, eighteen dependencies, and eight or nine garrison towns. None of these have been definitively identified, although one such stockade may have been located near Myingan, near the Chindwin-Ayeyarwaddy confluence.

However, the name of the capital was not given.

Sri Ksetra, which is first mentioned in Chinese sources of the fourth century A.D., occupied most of the Irra-waddy River valley and in the south included the Mon cities. Sri Ksetra maintained extensive commercial and cultural relations not only with India and China, but also with Oc Eo a Funan city on the coast of present day Vietnam to the east and the Dhanyawaddy on the Bay of Bengal on the west and is at the junction of the trade routes.

In 832, according to the Chinese chronicles of the T’ang Dynasty, the troops of Nan Chao overran and leveled the Pyu capital; the surviving Pyu became slaves. The Pyu, a people of the Tibeto-Burmese group, subsequently were assimilated by the Burmese; they are last mentioned between the 11th and 13th centuries as one of the peoples inhabiting the Pagan state.

The Thargara ancient Pyu city map

The Thargara ancient Pyu city map

Thagara is one of the Pyu cities and is situated near Dawei, Thanintharyi, in Launglon township, Myanmar. It was founded in the year 113 M.E. / 751 A.D. There were Pyu finger marked bricks and laterite artifacts indicating that the Pyu first built the city.

Finger marked Pyu brick found at Thagara ancient city

Finger marked Pyu brick found at Thagara ancient city

The laterite artifacts also attested to the later Mon laterite culture.

Laterite artifact found at the Thagara ancient city ruins

Laterite artifact found at the Thagara ancient city ruins

It was on 16-April 2013, the last day of Thingyan (Myanmar New Year Water Festival) သၾကၤန္အတက္ေန႔ that I went to Thagara which is at the Myohaung ျမိဳ႕ေဟာင္း (Old city)village. We went there on motorcycles and water was splashed on us all along the way. In Dawei, the children begin the Water festival 3 days before Thingyan and everyone still plays water on the day after Thingyan on the Myanmar New Year’s day ႏွစ္ဆန္း တစ္ရက္ေန႔

Our classmate friend Dr. Kyaw Min of Dawei who made our visit to the Thargara ancient Pyu city possible. He, like us was drenched by the Thingyan water

Our classmate friend Dr. Kyaw Min of Dawei who made our visit to the Thargara ancient Pyu city possible. He, like us was drenched by the Thingyan water

Our friend Dr. Kyaw Min of Dawei took us there. First, he called along someone who knows the area. On the way, a couple who knows about the Thagara ancient city was called along to show us. Others had not been to Thargara.

Dr. Kyaw Min, the couple who showed us around, Pyone, and others of our group

Dr. Kyaw Min, the couple who showed us around, Pyone, and others of our group

We first reached the outskirts of the Thagara historical park where posts have been newly installed.

Myohaung archeological park boundary post

Myohaung archeological park boundary post

Then we were shown the ancient burial site but there is not much to see.

The ancient burial site.

The ancient burial site.

Old stupa near the ancient burial site

Old stupa near the ancient burial site

There was an old ruined pagoda / stupa near the burial site.

By the 4th century, most of the Pyu had become predominantly Buddhist and as Thagara was built in 751 A.D, this pagoda might have been in existence since that time. According to the excavated texts, as well as the Chinese records, the predominant religion of the Pyu was Theravada Buddhism.

The local couple who showed us around the Thagara ancient city ruins.

The local couple who showed us around the Thagara ancient city ruins.

We were then taken to the outer city wall remains.

Outer city wall remains.

Outer city wall remains.

It is not high nowadays and as the road has been built through the wall the cut section is clearly seen.

Further ahead we stopped at the inner city wall.

The inner city wall

The inner city wall

There was a large group of people celebrating the Thingyan Water festival nearby. A lady there went ahead to call the local staff of the Archeology Department to show us around.

Map of Protected and Preserved Zone at Thagara Ancient City

Map of Protected and Preserved Zone at Thagara Ancient City

We stopped for a while at the office of the Archeology Department.

Then we went to the palace site.

DSC02508 r

The palace site lies among the village houses and the area has been cleared.

The palace site နန္းေတာ္ရာကုန္း

The palace site နန္းေတာ္ရာကုန္း

Even the local couple do not know the exact location of the palace site. We were taken there by the villager staff of the Archeology Department who explained to us the details.

The Myohaung villager staff of the Archeology who showed us the Palace site and explained us the details

The Myohaung villager staff of the Archeology who showed us the Palace site and explained us the details

There is a Palace pagoda nearby. It was built in 113 M.E. (Myanmar Era) / 751 A.D. However, it has been renovated as the place has been continuously inhabited and the pagoda used by the locals all the time.

Palace pagoda နန္းဦးဘုရား

Palace pagoda နန္းဦးဘုရား

We were then taken to the foreshore ေဖာင္ေတာ္ဦး

This place is where boats arrive at the Thagara ancient city.

The foreshore  ေဖာင္ေတာ္ဦး

The foreshore ေဖာင္ေတာ္ဦး

The Pyu built their cities at a distance from the rivers, but as water transport is important, they are located along the streams.

The Thagara Pyu city is not a large settlement and is a small city of about 1 mile in diameter. It seems to be one of the “thirty-two important settlements or tribes subject to the Pyu, eighteen dependencies, and eight or nine garrison towns” mentioned by the New T’ang History. It is far from the capital Sriksetra which is situated near Pyay in central Myanmar.

I thank my friend Dr. Kyaw Min and his people who showed us around the historical Thagara city. Without their help, I would not have reached it and be able to inform others through this record.

The Yodaya ယိုးဒယား (Ayutthaya) Thai king’s tomb at the Linzin လင္းဇင္းကုန္း (Lang Xang) Laos hill

May 4, 2013

tomb of former Siamese King Uthumphon r

The tomb of former Ayutthaya king Utumpon at Linzin hill, Taungtaman shore, Amarapura, near Mandalay, Myanmar

There have been news about the excavation of the Yodaya ယိုးဒယား (Ayutthaya) king’s tomb at the Linzin လင္းဇင္း (Lang Xang) hill at Mandalay (Taungtaman, Amarapura). It has been confirmed that it is the tomb of Ayutthaya king Utumpon. This led me to know more about the Linzin campaigns of the Konebaung era in 1763 and 1765 and also about the interesting life of king Utumpon.

First of all I wondered why the place is called Linzin (Lang Xang / Laos) hill and not Yodaya (Ayutthaya) hill.

While king Naungdawgyi was laying siege to the Toungoo, the vassal king loyal of Lan Na at Chiang Mai was overthrown.

After Toungoo was captured, Naungdawgyi then sent an 8000-strong army to Chiang Mai. The Burmese army captured Chiang Mai in early 1763

1763 – The Burmese invade Chiang Mai and the principality of Luang Prabang (now part of Laos) is captured.

It has also been mentioned that_

As a first step toward a war with the Siamese, Hsinbyushin decided to secure the northern and eastern flanks of Siam. In January 1765, a 20,000-strong Burmese army led by Ne Myo Thihapate based in Chiang Mai invaded the Laotian states. The Kingdom of Vientiane agreed to become Burmese vassal without a fight. Luang Prabang resisted but Thihapate’s forces easily captured the city in March 1765, giving the Burmese complete control of Siam’s entire northern border.

It must have been during these 2 wars with Lang Xang in 1763 and 1765 that captives from Lang Xang were taken back and settled near the Taungtaman lake, not far from Ava, and the place has been called Linzin hill since the time (Amarapura was not yet built at the time).

Burmese forces reached the outskirts of Ayutthaya on 20 January 1766. The Burmese then began what turned out to be a grueling 14-month siege. The Burmese forces finally breached the city’s defenses on 7 April 1767, and sacked the entire city. The Siamese royalty and artisans were carried back.

Hsinbyushin built a village near Mandalay for Uthumphon and his Siamese people—who then became the Yodia people. In accordance with Burmese chronicles, Uthumphon, as a monk, died in 1796 in the village. His is believed to be entombed in a chedi at the Linzin Hill graveyard on the edge of Taungthaman Lake in Mandalay Region‘s Amarapura Township.

Ex-king Utumpon (2 months rule 1758) was among those taken back to Ava and settled near present day Mandalay. However, the last Ayutthaya king Ekathat (1758–1767) was not among those captured and taken back.

During the 1767 siege of Ayutthaya_

King Ekathat and his family secretly fled from the capital. The nobles then agreed to surrender. On April 7, 1767, Ayutthaya fell.

Siamese chronicles said Ekkathat died upon having been in starvation for more than ten days while concealing himself at Ban Chik Wood (Thai: ป่าบ้านจิก), adjacent to Wat Sangkhawat (Thai: วัดสังฆาวาส). His dead body was discovered by the monk. It was buried at a mound named “Khok Phra Men” (Thai: โคกพระเมรุ), in front of a Siamese revered temple called “Phra Wihan Phra Mongkhonlabophit” (Thai: พระวิหารพระมงคลบพิตร).

King Utumpon was king of Ayutthaya for only 2 months after the death of his father king Borommakot.

One year before his death, Borommakot decided to skip Ekkathat and appointted Ekkathat’s younger brother, Uthumphon, as the Front Palace.

In 1758, Borommakot died. Uthumphon was then crowned, and Ekkathat entered in priesthood to signify his surrender. However, two months after that, Ekkathat returned and claimed for the throne.

1758, AugKing Utumpon abdicates the throne and retires at Wat Pradu. He is succeeded by Prince Ekatat who assumes the title Boromaraja V

1760, Apr – King Alaungsaya lays siege on Ayutthaya. Siamese King Ekatat who senses that he is not up to the task of leading the defense of the city invites his younger brother, the former King Utumpon to rule temporarily in his behalf.

Only five days into the siege, however, the Burmese king suddenly fell ill and the Burmese withdrew.. (The Siamese sources say he was wounded by a cannon shell explosion while he was inspecting the cannon corps at the front.).

1762 – With the Burmese danger contained, Utumpon retires again and returns to his monastery, leaving the fate of Siam in the hands of his older brother, King Ekatat

The Burmese, however, came back in 1767 under the commission of Hsinbyushin and led by Neimyo Thihapate. Though he was strongly urged to take role in leading Siamese armies, Uthumphon chose to stay in the monk status. Ayutthaya finally fell. Uthumphon was captured by the Burmese forces and was brought to Burma along with a large number of Ayutthaya’s people.

Uthumphon was grounded near Ava, along with other Ayutthaya ex-nobles, where he was forced by the Burmese to give them knowledge about the history and court customs of Ayutthaya—preserved in the Ayutthayan affidavit. Hsinbyushin built a village near Mandalay for Uthumphon and his Siamese people—who then became the Yodia people. In accordance with Burmese chronicles, Uthumphon, as a monk, died in 1796 in the village. His is believed to be entombed in a chedi at the Linzin Hill graveyard on the edge of Taungthaman Lake in Mandalay Region‘s Amarapura Township.

ထိုင္းဘုရင္ အုတ္ဂူ အစစ္အမွန္ဟု အတည္ျပဳ

fromby ကိုကို 😀


မႏၲေလးတိုင္း အမရပူရၿမိဳ႕ ေတာင္သမန္အင္းေစာင္း လင္းဇင္းကုန္း သုသာန္ရွိ ထုိင္းဘုရင္ေဟာင္း ဥတြန္ပုံ Utumpon ၏ အုတ္ဂူမွာ အစစ္ အမွန္ဟု အတည္ျပဳႏုိင္ၿပီျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း တူးေဖာ္ရာတြင္ေတြ႔ရွိရသည့္ အေထာက္အထားမ်ားကုိ ကုိးကား၍ ထုိင္းသမုိင္း ပညာရွင္မ်ားက ေျပာဆုိသည္။

အုတ္ဂူကုိ တူးေဖာ္စစ္ေဆးရာတြင္ အေရွ႕ေျမာက္ဘက္ အရန္ ေစတီတုိင္အတြင္းမွ အ႐ိုးမ်ားထည့္ထားသည့္ မွန္စီေရႊခ် သပိတ္ တလုံး ႏွင့္ ပန္းခ်ီေရးဆြဲထားသည့္ မွန္ခ်ပ္မ်ားေတြ႔ရျခင္း၊ ထုိင္း ရာဇအႏြယ္၀င္မ်ား၏ ထုံးတမ္းဓေလ့ႏွင့္အညီ ျမႇဳပ္ႏွံထားျခင္းမ်ားကုိ ေတြ႔ရသည့္အတြက္ မွန္ကန္သည္ဟု ယူဆျခင္းျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။
ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံမွ သမုိင္းႏွင့္ ေရွးေဟာင္းသုေတသနအဖြဲ႔ ဒုတိယေခါင္းေဆာင္ မစၥတာ မစ္ကီဟတ္က“အ႐ိုးေတြသပိတ္ထဲမွာ ထည့္ထား တယ္ ဆုိကတည္းက ဘုန္းႀကီး၀တ္နဲ႔ ပ်ံလြန္ေတာ္မူသြားတဲ့မင္းႀကီး ဥတြန္ပုံ ဆုိတာ ၉၉ ရာခုိင္ႏႈန္း ေသခ်ာသြားၿပီ”ဟု ဧရာ၀တီ ကုိ ေျပာသည္။

အဆုိပါ မွန္စီေရႊခ် ေျမသပိတ္သည္ အက်ယ္ ၈ . ၅ လက္မ၊ အျမင့္ ၅ . ၅ လက္မရွိၿပီး ႏႈတ္ခမ္းနားတြင္ ေရႊခ်ထားေၾကာင္း၊ သပိတ္ အဖုံး လက္ကုိင္မွာ ၾကာဖူးပုံသ႑ာန္ ျပဳလုပ္ထားၿပီး သုိ႔ေသာ္ ေက်ာက္စာ ကမၸည္းျဖင့္ မွတ္တမ္းတင္ ေရးထုိးထားျခင္းမရွိဟု သိရ သည္။

ဤအုတ္ဂူသည္ ေက်ာက္ဘြားေဒါက္မဒူူ၀ါး Dok Madua —”Dok Duea” (ดอกเดื่อ) and “Uthmphon” (อุทุมพร) are under the same meaning, “fig” ဘြဲ႔ခံံ ထုိင္းဘုရင္ေဟာင္း မင္းသားႀကီး ဥတြန္ပုံ ၏ အုတ္ဂူ အစစ္အမွန္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း မၾကာ မီ ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံ ဘန္ေကာက္ ၿမိဳ႕၌ သတင္းစာရွင္းလင္းပြဲ ျပဳလုပ္မည္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း မစၥတာ မစ္ကီဟတ္က ေျပာသည္။

Thai Cultural Village to Be Built in Burma

By YAN PAI / THE IRRAWADDY| Friday, May 3, 2013 |

A Thai cultural village is set to be built near the Burmese city of Mandalay, reflecting the ancient Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya in a joint project Burma and neighboring Thailand.

Thailand’s Siam Society is reportedly seeking permission from local authorities in Mandalay to build the village at the edge of Taungthaman Lake in Amarapura Township, in a bid to preserve the culture of Thai people living in Mandalay in the 18th century.

The Siam Society, under the Thai royal patronage, was founded in 1904 in cooperation with Thai and foreign scholars to promote knowledge of Thailand and its surrounding region.

The push to build the cultural village follows the discovery last month that the former Siamese King Uthumphon—better known in Thai history as King Dok Madua, or “fig flower”—and other royal family members were buried at a prominent graveyard near the lake.

“A lot of Thai people arrived in Burma as prisoners of war and asylum seekers,” said Mickey Heart, a historian and deputy chief the excavation team that uncovered Uthumphon’s tomb.

He added that a large number of Thai people from Thailand’s Tak Province later migrated to Burma because of internal disputes in Ayutthaya Kingdom and were allowed to settle in Mandalay’s Yahai Quarter.

According to Burmese history records, King Hsinbyushin, the third king of Burma’s Konbaung Dynasty, invaded the ancient Thai capital of Ayutthaya in 1767 and brought as many subjects as he could, including Uthumphon, back to his own capital, Ava.

Residential areas and markets were named after Thai people settling around Mandalay and Ava at the time, and even today, the region boasts elements of Thai culture in certain religious practices, cuisines, and arts and crafts.

“A hybrid culture, the combination of Burmese and Thai, emerged following the death of those who were brought from Ayutthaya,” said Heart. “The smell of that culture can be felt around Mandalay these days.”

Meanwhile, since the excavation of the former Siamese king’s tomb, Thai media has recommended the burial place as a tourist attraction for Thai travelers.

Although Thai historians initially disagreed over whether to excavate the tomb, the project was initiated by the Siam Society following a report by The Irrawaddy in July last year that the burial place would be destroyed by local authorities in Mandalay to make way for a new urban development project.




King Utumpon


King of Ayutthaya

King of Siam








Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty


King Borommakot


Krom Luang Phiphit Montri




Mandalay, Konbaung Kingdom

Somdet Phrachao U-thumphon (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าอุทุมพร)[1] or Phra Bat Somdet Phra Chao Uthomphon Mahaphon Phinit (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระอุทุมพรมหาพรพินิต) was the 32nd and penultimate monarch of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, ruling in 1758 for about two months. Facing various throne claimants, Uthumphon was finally forced to abdicate and enter monkhood. His preference of being a monk rather than keep the throne, earned him the epithet “Khun Luang Ha Wat”[1] (Thai: ขุนหลวงหาวัด), or “the king who prefers the temple”.

Prince Dok Duea or Prince Uthumphon—”Dok Duea” (ดอกเดื่อ) and “Uthmphon” (อุทุมพร) are under the same meaning, “fig”—was a son of Borommakot. In 1746, his elder brother, Prince Thammathibet who had been appointed as the Front Palace, was beaten to death for his affair with one of Borommakot’s concubines. Borommakot didn’t appoint the new Front Palace as Kromma Khun Anurak Montri or Ekkathat, the next in succession line, was proved to be incompetent. In 1757, Borommakot finally decided to skip Anurak Montri altogether and made Uthumphon the Front Palace—becoming Kromma Khun Phon Phinit.

In 1758, upon the passing of Borommakot, Uthumphon was crowned. However, he faced oppositions from his three half-brothers, namely, Kromma Muen Chit Sunthon, Kromma Muen Sunthon Thep, and Kromma Muen Sep Phakdi. Uthumphon then reconciled with his half-brothers and took the throne peacefully.

Ekkathat, who had become a monk, decided to made himself a king only two months after Uthumphon’s coronation. The three half-brothers resented and fought Ekkathat, and they were executed by Ekkathat. Uthumporn then gave up his throne to his brother and leave for the temple outside Ayutthaya so as to become a monk.

1758, AugKing Utumpon abdicates the throne and retires at Wat Pradu. He is succeeded by Prince Ekatat who assumes the title Boromaraja V

In 1760, Alaungpaya of Burma led his armies invading Ayutthaya. Uthumphon was asked to leave monkhood to fight against the Burmese. However, Alongpaya died during the campaigns and the invasion suspended. Uthumphon, once again, returned to monkhood.

1760, Apr – King Alaungsaya lays siege on Ayutthaya. Siamese King Ekatat who senses that he is not up to the task of leading the defense of the city invites his younger brother, the former King Utumpon to rule temporarily in his behalf

1762 – With the Burmese danger contained, Utumpon retires again and returns to his monastery, leaving the fate of Siam in the hands of his older brother, King Ekatat

1766, Feb – The Burmese begin their siege of Ayutthaya. King Ekatat again offers his brother Utumpon to lead the defence of the city but this time Utumpon declines.

1767, Apr 7 – After 14 months of siege, Ayutthaya falls and King Ekatat flees.

Uthumphon was captured by the Burmese forces and was brought to Burma along with a large number of Ayutthaya’s people.

Uthumphon was grounded near Ava, along with other Ayutthaya ex-nobles, where he was forced by the Burmese to give them knowledge about the history and court customs of Ayutthaya—preserved in the Ayutthayan affidavit. Hsinbyushin built a village near Mandalay for Uthumphon and his Siamese people—who then became the Yodia people. In accordance with Burmese chronicles, Uthumphon, as a monk, died in 1796 in the village. His is believed to be entombed in a chedi at the Linzin Hill graveyard on the edge of Taungthaman Lake in Mandalay Region‘s Amarapura Township



I have begun my blog about Yodaya king’s tomb in Linzin kone (hill) several months ago when it was not mentioned as to which Ayutthayan king it was. I could not complete it at the time, and only completed it this morning. It has now come out in an entirely different form as it has been confirmed as being king Utumpon’s tomb during the interval. I’m glad I did not finish it earlier, as the draft was vague and even included king Bayintnaung’s wars into Linzin as I was not aware at the time of the 2 Linzin wars during Hsinbyushin’s era.

My main interest in history and archeology is pre-history and the Pyu. I had been to Dawei last month and visited the Thargara Pyu (and later Mon) city in Laung Lon township, not far from Dawei. I will write a blog about my visit to the Thargara city, but, it will be more of a travelogue as I find little facts.



Nanmadaw Me Nu နန္းမေတာ္ မယ္ႏု, Sagaing Min စစ္ကိုင္းမင္း / ဘၾကီးေတာ္ Bagyitaw, and the First Anglo Burmese War

March 18, 2013

I began this blog as about Nanmadaw Me Nu နန္းမေတာ္ မယ္ႏု alone, a queen who was not of royal birth but became chief queen of the Bagyitaw / Sagaing king စစ္ကိုင္းမင္း. She and her brother Lord of Salin Maung O စလင္းစားေမာင္အို were the true powers in the court of Ava during the later years of the reign of the Sagaing king. However, as the First Anglo Burmese War and the life of the Sagaing Min cannot be left out and just a short mention about them would make it incomplete, I have included more about them and also about the crown prince Tharawaddy သာယာ၀တီမင္းသား who later revolted and dethroned his elder brother the king Sagaing and ascended the throne himself_ in order that readers will not have to refer elsewhere to understand the complex situation in Myanmar at the time.

I wish to thank Maung Kyaw Shin ေမာင္ေက်ာ္ရွင္း (the late U Kyaw Shin), who’s book Withayta NaeMyae ၀ိေသသနယ္ေျမ inspired me to begin this blog and from which I obtained much data to begin with, and also to various sources on the internet, especially the Wikipedia and the Encyclopedia Britannica which I enriched my blog. However, I find differences between Maung Kyawt Shin (who had researched extensively from Myanmar sources and the others on the internet_ the year an episode occured and whether Prince Tharawaddy was or not a crown prince, for example_ I put my faith on Maung Kyawt Shin as he quoted from the original Myanmar sources whereas, in my view, the internet versions are written by non-Burmese, from second hand sources_ translated or verbal data of modern Burmese historians.

Nanmadaw Me Nu  နန္းမေတာ္ မယ္ႏု; 18 June 1783 (၁၁၄၆ 1784/85) – 12 May 1840 (၁၂၀၂ 1840/41)  was one of the few strong Queens in Myanmar history and she was the main character in Myanmar government of the time and the First Anglo Burmese War. She was born a commoner but rose to fame or notoriety. Nanmataw Me Nu was mother of Queen (Hsinbyumashin ဆင္ျဖဴမရွင္ မိဖုရား) of King Mindon မင္းတုန္းမင္း who herself was mother of Burma’s last queen Supayalat စုဖုရားလတ္. The female lineage of Nanmataw Me Nu, Hsinphyumashin and Supayalat in the male dominnated Burmese monarchy is a very intersting one regarding the end of Independence and the monarchy.

She was the chief queen of King Bagyidaw ဘၾကီးေတာ္မင္း / Sagaing Min စစ္ကိုင္းမင္း of Konbaung dynasty of Burma from 1819 to 1837. Married to Prince of Sagaing (as king Bagyidaw / Sagaing Min was then) in 1801, Me Nu became Chief queen (when Bagyidaw ascended the throne on 5 June 1819), with the title Namadaw Mibaya Khaunggyi (Chief Queen of the Royal Palace) and also known as Taung Nann San Miphayargyi ေတာင္နန္းစံမိဖုရားၾကီး (Queen of the South palace_south palace is the palace of chief queens).

Born (သကၠရာဖ္ ၁၁၄၆ 1784/85) at Phalankhone village ဖလံခံုရြာ 5 miles northwest of present day town of Khin Oo ခင္ဦး, she was named Shin Min Nu ရွင္မင္းႏု and she was great grand daughter of the hero Bala Thaman ဗလသမန္း who was posted to the Phalankhone village fort ဖလံခံုရြာ တပ္စခန္း during the reign of king Maharajadipadi မဟာရာဇာဓိပတိမင္း of Nyaungyan dynasty ေညာင္ရမ္းေခာတ္ to guard against the danger of Manipuris မဏိပူရ ကသည္း

The third daughter of Bala Thaman was Thakhin Mun သခင္မြန္. Her son was Htaung Thinn Hmu Thiha Kyawswar ေထာင္သင္းမွူး သီဟေက်ာ္စြာ.  (name U Hlote ဦးလႈပ္). Shin Min Nu was born of Thiha Kyawswar U Hlote and his wife Daw Nge ေဒၚငယ္

King Bodawpaya ဘိုးေတာ္ ဘုရား / Badon Min  ပဒံုမင္း also known as Bodaw U Waing ဘိုးေတာ္ ဦး၀ိုင္း made his eldest son Thado Minsaw crown prince on သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၄၅ ခု၊ ဒုတိယ၀ါဆို လဆန္း ၁၂ ရက္ေန႔ 1783 Jun / Jul with the title of Thiri Maha Dhammar Bizaya Thiha Thura သီရိမဟာဓမၼာဘိဇယသီဟသူရ  and gave him the Depeyin  cavalry ဒီပဲရင္းျမင္းစု.

The Phalankhone village squire ywar sarr Thway Thauk MyinSi ရြာစားေသြးေသာက္ျမင္းစီး (cavalry  trooper) Thiha Kyawswar U Hlote of the Depeyin cavalry was transferred from Phalankhone village to serve at the Amarapura Naypyitaw အမရပူရ ေနျပည္ေတာ္ capital. He went there with his wife, son, daughter, uncle, aunt etc. Before the two months is up after reaching the Amarapura Naypyitaw, on the day of သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၄၆ ခု၊ ၀ါဆို လျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၅ ရက္၊ အဂၤါေန႔ နံနက္ပိုင္း 1784 Jun / Jul, Shin Min Nu was born of U Hlote’s wife Daw Nge.

When Shin Min Nu was about 7 – 8 years age, she learned the basic teachings of သင္ပုန္းၾကီး၊ မဂၤလသုတ္၊ အတြင္းေအာင္ျခင္း၊ အျပင္ေအာင္ျခင္း၊ ရတနာေရႊခ်ိဳင့္၊ နမကၠာရ၊ ေလာကနီတိ၊ ပရိတ္ၾကီး၊ ဆုမၼစာ၊ ဇာတ္ေတာ္ၾကီး ဆယ္ဘြဲ႔ စေသာ အေျခခံ စာမ်ား  from her younger brother Maung O ေမာင္အို as girls were not allowed to attend the monastery schools which were the only schools at the time.

When she was 12 years age and her father became Htaung Thinn Hmu she was selected to become a maid at the South Palace. Sagaing prince Maung Shwe Zin (Maung Maung Sein), born 23 July 1784, fell in love with the South Palace maid Mae Nu. However, marriage between them was impossible. Badon Min / King Badon bethroted his grandson Sagaing prince to Hsinphyushinmae princess ဆင္ျဖဴရွင္မယ္ မင္းသမီး

King Bagyidaw (Burmese: ဘၾကီးေတာ္; also known as Sagaing Min စစ္ကိုင္းမင္း ; 23 July 1784 – 15 October 1846) was the seventh king of Konbaung dynasty of Burma from 1819 until his abdication in 1837. He was born 23 July 1784 and his parents were king  Bodawpaya and Min Kye, Princess of Taungdwin. Prince of Sagaing, as he was commonly known in his day, was selected as crown prince by his grandfather King Bodawpaya in 1808, and became king in 1819 after Bodawpaya’s death. Bagyidaw moved the capital from Amarapura back to Ava in 1823.

In 1812, his first wife Princess Hsinbyume died of childbirth in Mingun. He took on five more wives as crown prince (of the eventual number of 23 queens). His third and later chief queen was Nanmadaw Me Nu


On 9 February 1803, the 18-year-old prince married 14-year-old Princess Hsinbyume, a granddaughter of Bodawpaya

On သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၇၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္၊ တန္ခူးလဆန္း ၁၄ ရက္ေန႔  April 1808, the crown prince Thado Minsaw died at age 45. His son and grandson of King Bodawpaya, the Sagaing prince became the crown prince Nine days later. The prince was also allowed to inherit his father’s fiefs of Dabayin / Depeyin and Shwedaung.

His elevation to crown prince also brought his royal servants, including Maung Yit (later Gen. Maha Bandula) of Dabayin and Maung Sa (later Lord of Myawaddy) of Sagaing to prominence. Myawaddy became his longtime adviser and personal secretary (atwinwn) until his abdication in 1837. He promoted Maung Yit to governor of Ahlon-Monywa.

At သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၇၄ ခု၊ သိတင္းကြ်တ္လျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၇ ရက္ေန႔ 1812 October, Hsinphyushinmae princess died seven days after the birth of her first son who would later be known as Setkyar Min Thar စၾကာမင္းသား / Nyaungyan prince ေညာင္ရမ္းမင္းသား  Before long, Shin Min Nu became the crown princess and for this she faced severe criticism and opposition by the royalty.

Nanmataw Me Nu while being a crown princess had a daughter who died soon after birth and a son, Prince of Palaing, who died young at age of six (some say_ ten).

On 5 June 1819, Sagaing ascended the throne after the death of the king Badon. Shin Min Nu became the Taung Nann San Agga Mahaythi Miphayagaunggyi ေတာင္နန္းစံ အဂၢမေဟသီ မိဖုရားေခါင္ၾကီး (Chief Queen of the south palace) and came to be known as Nanmataw Me Nu နန္းမေတာ္ မယ္ႏု

King Badon had 61 daughters, 106 grand daughters. His son, the first crown prince Thado Minsaw had 26 daughters. There were many daughters of other kings, princes, princesses, Sawbwas / Saophas, Lords, Governors more suitable to become Taung Nann San Agga Mahaythi. Therefore Shin Min Nu was disliked and critized by the court.

However, King Sagaing and Nanmataw Me Nu were inseparable. Nanmataw Me Nu sat beside the king on the throne during ceremonies and the palanquin of the queen went beside that of the king on their outings. Thus they were referred to as the Two Royals / Shin Hna-parr ရွင္ႏွစ္ပါး rather than the King and Queen ရွင္ဘုရင္ႏွင့္ မိဖုရား as was the court etiquette previously.

Prince of Sagaing was fond of shows, theater, elephant catching and boat racing and so was his younger brother Prince Tharrawaddy. When his elder brother Bagyidaw ascended the throne in 1819, Tharrawaddy was appointed crown prince.

On သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၈၃ ခု၊ တန္ေဆာင္မုန္းလျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၁၃ ရက္ေန႔ 1821 November, Nanmataw Me Nu gave birth to a daughter. She was later well known as Hsinphyumashin Me Thae ဆင္ျဖဴမရွင္ မိသဲ, Queen (Hsinbyumashin ဆင္ျဖဴမရွင္ မိဖုရား) of King Mindon မင္းတုန္းမင္း and mother of Burma’s last queen Supayalat စုဖုရားလတ္. The princess was given Sagaing, Depeyin, Momeik, Pakhangyi, Sint Kuu, Ingapu, Myehte, Padaung and Kyankhin towns in addition to many jewelry.

– bodawpaya’s grandson, king bagyidaw moved the court back to ava in november 1821 (


Both brothers Sagaing king and prince Tharrawaddy like to live peacefully and Bagyidaw was an ineffectual king. This led to Nanmataw Me Nu and her brother Maung O, Lord of Salin စလင္းစား to take control of governing the country. However, they are not qualified for such a role and they gave their relatives from Depeyin important posts of ေျမာက္ဘက္၀န္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ Prime minister of the North, ေျမာက္ဘက္ျမင္း၀န္ Horse retainer of the North and ေတာင္ဘက္္ျမင္း၀န္ Horse retainer of the South. They offered the titles of ရာဇာဓိရာဇဂုရု Razadi Raza Guru and ရာဇဂုရု Raza Guru to the monks of their Phalankhone village and the villages of WaThe ၀သဲ, YwaThitKyee ရြာသစ္ၾကီး and TuMauung တူေမာင္း around it. In this way Nanmataw Me Nu and her brother Lord of Salin’s power grew slowly and the power of Sagaing king and prince Tharrawaddy waned.

_ Maung O is Shin Min Nu’s half brother, born of Thiha Kyawswar U Hlote’s first marriage. He became Lord of Salin in ၁၁၈၁ ႏွစ္ 1819 A.D. soon after Sagaing ascended the throne. He was awarded the titles of Thadoe Minhla Kyawhtin သတိုးမင္းလွက်ာ္ထင္ first and secondly Thadoe Dhammayarzar သတိုးဓမၼရာဇာ. During the First Anglo Burmese war he defended as Bohmu ဗိုလ္မႈး with over 100 armed men from Salin.



Bagyidaw inherited the largest Burmese empire, second only to King Bayinnaung‘s, but also one that shared ill-defined borders with British India. The British, disturbed by the Burmese control of Manipur and Assam which threatened their own influence on the eastern borders of British India, supported rebellions in the region

The first to test Bagyidaw’s rule was the Raja of Manipur, who was put on the Manipuri throne only six years earlier by the Burmese. Raja Marjit Singh failed to attend Bagyidaw’s coronation ceremony, or send an embassy bearing tributes, as all vassal kings had an obligation to do. In October 1819, Bagyidaw sent an expeditionary force of 25000 soldiers and 3000 cavalry led by his favorite general Maha Bandula to reclaim Manipur.[12] Bandula reconquered Manipur but the raja escaped to neighboring Cachar, which was ruled by his brother Chourjit Singh.[13] The Singh brothers continued to raid Manipur using their bases from Cachar and Jaintia, which had been declared as British protectorates.

In the years leading to the war, the king had been forced to suppress British supported rebellions in his grandfather’s western acquisitions (Arakan, Manipur and Assam), but unable to stem cross border raids from British territories and protectorates.

His ill-advised decision to allow the Burmese army to pursue the rebels along the vaguely defined borders led to the war.

The instabilities spread to Assam in 1821, when the Ahom king of Assam, Chandrakanta Singha tried to shake off Burmese influence. He hired mercenaries from Bengal and began to strengthen the army. He also began to construct fortification to prevent further Burmese invasion.[14] Bagyidaw again turned to Bandula. It took Bandula’s 20,000 strong army about a year a half, until July 1822, to finish off the Assamese army. Bagyidaw now scrapped the six century old Assamese monarchy and made Assam a province under a military governor-general. This differs with the Assamese versions of history where it is written that Bagyidaw installed Jogeshwar Singha, a brother of Hemo Aideo, the Ahom princess who was married to Bodawpaya as the new Ahom king of Assam and a military governor-general was appointed to look after the administration.[15][16] The defeated Assamese king fled to British territory of Bengal. The British ignored Burmese demands to surrender the fugitive king, and instead sent reinforcement units to frontier forts.[17] Despite their success in the open battlefield, the Burmese continued to have trouble with cross border raids by rebels from British protectorates of Cachar and Jaintia into Manipur and Assam, and those from British Bengal into Arakan.

At Bagyidaw’s court, the war party which included Gen. Bandula, Queen Me Nu and her brother, the lord of Salin made the case to Bagyidaw that a decisive victory could allow Ava to consolidate its gains in its new western empire in Arakan, Manipur, Assam, Cachar and Jaintia, as well as take over eastern Bengal.[18] In January 1824, Bandula allowed one of his top lieutenants Maha Uzana into Cachar and Jaintia to chase away the rebels. The British sent in their own force to meet the Burmese in Cachar, resulting in the first clashes between the two. The war formally broke out on 5 March 1824, following border clashes in Arakan.

During သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၈၅ ခု 1823 Apr – 24 Apr there was dispute between the English and Burmese regarding the possession of the Shinmaphyu island at the mouth of the Nat / Naf river. This leads to the First Anglo Burmese War.

Nanmadaw Me Nu selected Maha Bandoola as Commander in Chief of the Burmese Army. Maha Bandoola is close to the royals and had vowed to die if he cannot win for the country and king. Prince Tharawaddy did was not enthusiastic about the Anglo Burmese war. However, king Sagaing relied on his younger brother.

Bagyidaw’s reign saw the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826), which marked the beginning of the decline of the Konbaung dynasty. It is also the longest and most expensive war in British Indian history ended decisively in British favor, and the Burmese had to accept British terms without discussion. Bagyidaw was forced to cede all of his grandfather’s western acquisitions, and Tenasserim to the British, and pay a large indemnity of one million pounds sterling, leaving the country crippled for years.

First Anglo-Burmese War

In the beginning of the war, battle hardened Burmese forces, who were more familiar with the terrain which represented “a formidable obstacle to the march of a European force”, were able to push back better armed British forces made up of European and Indian soldiers. By May, Uzana’s forces had overrun Cachar and Jaintia, and Lord of Myawaddy‘s forces had defeated the British inside Bengal, causing a great panic in Calcutta.

1824. In May, Burmese forces led by U Sa, Lord Myawaddy (about 4,000) fought their way into Bengal, and defeated British troops at the Battle of Ramu, 10 miles east of Cox’s Bazar on 17 May 1824. Sa’s column then joined Bandula’s column on the march to defeat British forces at Gadawpalin, and went on to capture Cox’s Bazar. The Burmese success caused extreme panic in Chittagong and in Calcutta. Across the eastern Bengal, the European inhabitants formed themselves into militia forces. And a large portion of the crews of East India Company’s ships were landed to assist in the defence of Calcutta.

But Bandula, not wanting to overstretch, stopped U Sa from proceeding to Chittagong. Had Bandula marched on to Chittagong, which unbeknown to him was lightly held, he could have taken it and the way to Calcutta would have been open.(The Burmese, because of the disparity in arms, could not have won the war in any case. But had they been able to threaten Calcutta, the Burmese could have obtained more favourable terms in the peace negotiations later on.)

Instead of fighting in harsh terrain, the British took the fight to the Burmese mainland. On 11 May 1824 သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၈၆ခု၊ ကဆုန္လဆန္း ၁၄ ရက္ေန႔, a British naval force of over 10,000 men, led by Archibald Campbell entered the port city of Yangon, taking the Burmese by surprise.

Sagaing Min sent the ministers Thadoe Mingyi Maha Minkhaung သတိုးမင္းၾကီးမဟာမင္းေခါင္ and Thadoe Maha Thaynarpati သတိုးမဟာေသနာပတိ with over 10,000 armed personnel to retake Yangon but failed. Then Sagaing Min sent his brother the crown prince, prince Tharawaddy as commander ဗိုလ္မွဴး with fully armed army from Naypyitaw (Ava) to Danuphyu ဓႏုျဖဴ on ၁၁၈၆ခု၊ ၀ါဆို္လဆန္း ၁၅ ရက္ေန႔ June 1984. He also ordered the Toungoo prince ေတာင္ငူမင္းသား to march to Toungoo with a full army.

Sagaing Min gave his brother prince Tharawaddy the following orders:

To attack and take all English အဂၤလိပ္ ကုလား who have entered and are in Yangon. Ministers Thadoe Mingyi Maha Minkhaung and Thadoe Maha Thaynarpati have been given the posts of commanding officer ဗိုလ္မွဴး and general ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ with the forces along the river to do this but had not done with utmost diligence and it is still undone.

Tharawady prince Maha Thiri Thiha Thura Dhamma Raja  မဟာသီရိသီဟသူရဓမၼရာဇာ was made commanding officer ဗိုလ္မွဴး and general ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ given an armed force and ordered to march to, take Yangon and present after establishing a command structure. In accordance with the order, Tharawady prince’s army departed Ava ၁၁၈၆ခု၊ ၀ါဆို္လဆန္း ၁၅ ရက္ေန႔ June 1984 for Dhanuphyu and stationed there.

Tharawady prince did not want to march to lower Myanmar ေအာက္ျပည္ေအာက္ရြာ to wage war but had to obey the king’s orders.  Tharawady prince was not in good terms with Nanmataw Me Nu and her brother for some time and was dissatisfied with his elder brother the king.

Tharawady prince at first stationed his army at Dhanuphyu. Later he moved his command to Tharawaddy and commanded from there. He sent Thadoe Mingyi Maha Minkhaung သတိုးမင္းၾကီးမဟာမင္းေခါင္, minister ၀န္ၾကီး Thadoe Maha Thaynarpati သတိုးမဟာေသနာပတိ,  Sarrtaw-wun စားေတာ္္၀န္ Minhla Khaung မင္းလွေခါင္,  Lord of Zwe Thapon ဇြဲသူပုန္ျမိဳ႕စား Maha Zeya မဟာေဇယ် in 3 routes to attack the English in Yangon but failed.

King Sagaing then recalled Maha Bandoola from Dhanyawaddy ဓည၀တီ and on ၁၁၈၆ခု၊ တန္ေဆာင္မုန္းလဆန္း ၅ ရက္ေန႔ November 1824 sent via Hantharwaddy ဟံသာ၀တီေၾကာင္း to take Yangon. Maha Bandoola could not take Yangon and retreated to Dhanuphyu and fell there from cannon fire during heated battle while he was walking on the rampart to encourage his troops while commanding them.

Without Maha Bandoola, Myanmar forces were in disarray. Prince Tharawaddy who was in overall command did not collect the defeated forces nor lead the attacks. He lived playfully, taking / taw kauk ေတာ္ေကာက္ beautiful girls where-ever he got to. He retreated to Minbu giving illness as excuse. He was interested in armstice only.

It has been written in American missionary ေမာ္လကြန္း Mawlakun’s book “2 years in Ava” that _ Tharawaddy prince leads the opposition in the palace. During the war with the English, the commander in chief did not lead his army in battle. This differes with the founder of the dynasty king AlaungMintayar အေလာင္းမင္းတရား who leads the army in battle.

The basic cause is the bad relations between Prince Tharawaddy and Nanmataw Me Nu.

Bagyidaw ordered Bandula and most of the troops back home to meet the enemy at Yangon. In December 1824, Bandula’s 30,000 strong force tried to retake Yangon but was soundly defeated by the much better armed British forces. The British immediately went on an offensive on all fronts. By April 1825, the British had driven out the Burmese forces from Arakan, Assam, Manipur, Tenasserim, and the Irrawaddy delta where Gen. Bandula died in action. After Bandula’s death, the Burmese fought on but their last-ditch effort to retake the delta was repulsed in November 1825. In February 1826, with the British army only 50 miles away from Ava, Bagyidaw agreed to British terms.

As per the Treaty of Yandabo, the British demanded and the Burmese agreed to:

  1. Cede to the British Assam, Manipur, Arakan, and Tenasserim coast south of Salween river,
  2. Cease all interference in Cachar and Jaintia,
  3. Pay an indemnity of one million pounds sterling in four installments,
  4. Allow for an exchange of diplomatic representatives between Ava and Calcutta,
  5. Sign a commercial treaty in due course.

The treaty imposed highly severe financial burden to the Burmese kingdom, and effectively left it crippled. The British terms in the negotiations were strongly influenced by the heavy cost in lives and money which the war had entailed. Some 40,000 British and Indians troops had been involved of whom 15,000 had been killed. The cost to the British India’s finances had been almost ruinous, amounting to approximately 13 million pounds sterling. The cost of war contributed to a severe economic crisis in India, which by 1833 had bankrupted the Bengal agency houses and cost the British East India Company its remaining privileges, including the monopoly of trade to China

According to the Treaty of Yantapo the indemnity was to have been given in four installments but there was not enough in the Treasury even for the first installment. Nanmataw Me Nu gave part of her jewelery and cash to complete it. However, the English recorded that Nanmataw lent 20 Lakhs Rupees 2,000,000 Rupees / Kyats for the indenmity.

For the Burmese, the treaty was a total humiliation and a long lasting financial burden. A whole generation of men had been wiped out in battlefield. The world the Burmese knew of conquest and martial pride, built on the back of impressive military success of prior 75 years, had come crashing down. An uninvited British Resident in Ava was a daily reminder of humiliation of defeat. The burden of indemnity would leave the royal treasury bankrupt for years. The indemnity of one million pounds sterling would have been considered a colossal sum even in Europe of that time, and it became frightening when translated to Burmese kyat equivalent of 10 million. The cost of living of the average villager in Upper Burma in 1826 was one kyat per month

During the remaining years of his reign, Bagyidaw attempted to mitigate the harsh terms of the treaty. In 1826 the king negotiated a commercial treaty with the British envoy, John Crawfurd, but refused to establish formal diplomatic relations unless he could deal on an equal basis with the British sovereign, rather than through the East India Company at Calcutta. Bagyidaw failed to persuade the British to give Thanintharyi back to Myanmar, but a deputation that he sent to Calcutta in 1830 successfully reasserted the Myanmar claim to the Kale-Kabaw Valley, which had been occupied by the Manipuris.

Bagyidaw could not come to terms with the loss of the territories, and the British used Tenasserim as bait for the Burmese to pay the installments of indemnity. In 1830, the British agreed to redraw the Manipuri border with Burma, giving back Kabaw Valley to the Burmese. Bagyidaw delivered the balance of the indemnity at great sacrifice in November 1832. But by 1833, it was clear that the British had no intention of returning any of the territories.

After 1831 Bagyidaw became increasingly susceptible to attacks of mental instability.

The king, who used to love theater and boat racing, grew increasingly reclusive, afflicted by bouts of depression. Power devolved to his queen Nanmadaw Me Nu and her brother. Me Nu and her brother became de facto rulers of the country, and they much feared for their tyrannical rule.

In February 1837, Bagyidaw’s crown prince and brother Tharrawaddy rebelled, and two months later in April, Bagyidaw was forced to abdicate. Tharrawaddy executed Me Nu and her brother, and kept his brother under house arrest. Bagyidaw died on 15 October 1846, at age 62. The former king had 23 queens, five sons and five daughters

Tharrawaddy was born Maung Khin to Crown Prince Thado Minsaw (son of King Bodawpaya) and Princess Min Kye on 14 March 1787. When his elder brother Bagyidaw ascended the throne in 1819, Tharrawaddy was appointed Heir Apparent. As crown prince, he fought in the First Anglo-Burmese War. In February 1837, he raised the standard of rebellion after escaping to Shwebo, the ancestral place of the Konbaung kings. Tharrawaddy succeeded in overthrowing Bagyidaw in April and was crowned king. Princess Min Myat Shwe, a granddaughter of Hsinbyushin, whom he married in 1809, was crowned as his chief queen (Nanmadaw Mibaya Hkaungyi).

Prince Tharawady was the third son born of crown prince Thado Minsaw and princess Taungdwin on သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၄၈ ခု၊ တေပါင္းလျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၁၀ ရက္ေန႔ 14 March 1787 during the reign of his grandfather King Bodawpaya ဘိုးေတာ္ ဘုရား / Badon Min  ပဒံုမင္း / Bodaw U Waing ဘိုးေတာ္ ဦး၀ိုင္း.

During Badon Min’s time, he was given the title of Thadoe Minhla Anuruddha သတိုးမင္းလွအႏုရုဒၶါ and the town of Thayet သရက္ျမိဳ႕ . Badon Min bethroted him to his uncle Bagan prince’s daughter and gave him the town of Tharawaddy.

During his elder brother Sagaing king’s reign, he was given the title of Thiri Maha Thudhamma Razar သီရိမဟာသုဓမၼာရာဇာ. Although Sagaing king did not make him crown prince, he was given previleges similar to that of a crown prince. (Maung Kyawt Shin. Wikipedia mentioned that he was a crown prince).

In spite of what Sagaing king bequeathed on him, Tharawaddy was not satisfied with the growing power of Nanmataw Me Nu and her brother Lord of Salin. From the time their power grew, Tharawaddy did not participate in matters of State and began to consolidate his strength.

After the end of the First Anglo Burmese war, the two sides were totally opposed. Sagaing king became unhappy from the matters of state_ loss of territories, the indemnity and the development of antagonism between the queen and Tharawaddy_ and his health deteriorated. Lord Salin and the ministers took over the powers of State. He had been attending the Hluttaw လႊတ္ေတာ္ (parliament) together with the ministers as a prince for some time.

While Lord of Salin and the ministers were performing the State duties, thefts, robberies and other crimes occured frequently within the Naypyitaw ေနျပည္ေတာ္  / Ava. The Lord of Salin and the ministers believed that the bad men of Tharawaddy are to blame for these crimes.

Although Tharawaddy did not have power, he had people of ability around him. Of his sons, Thiri Maha Thudhamma Razar the Taungtwinchaung prince ေတာင္တြင္းေခ်ာင္မင္းသား သီရိမဟာသုဓမၼာရာဇာ, Minye Thihakyaw မင္းရဲသီဟေက်ာ္,  Minye Kyawhtin မင္းရဲေက်ာ္ထင္,  Minye Zeya မင္းရဲေဇယ် were princes of ability.

There were also good people such as Naymyo Letyar Kyawhtin ေနမ်ိဳးလက္်ာေက်ာ္ထင္, Naymyo Thiha Kyawswar ေနမ်ိဳးသီဟေက်ာ္စြာ, Ahtwinwun Naymyo Thiha Sithu အတြင္း၀န္ ေနမ်ိဳးသီဟစည္သူ, Naymyo Bandu Kyaw ေနမ်ိဳးဗႏဳၶေက်ာ္, Naymyo Nayar ေနမ်ိဳးနရာ , Sayaygyi Thiha Kyawhtin Nawratha စေရးၾကီးသီဟေက်ာ္ထင္ေနာ္ရထာ, Bandarsoe Shwetaung Pyanchi ဘ႑ာစိုးေရႊေတာင္ပ်ံခ်ီ , Hseit-ote NgaTotegyi ဆိတ္အုပ္ငတုတ္ၾကီး , NgaShweNi ငေရႊနီ, NgaNaung ငေနာင္, NgaKywet ငၾကြက္ , NgaShweAte ငေရႊအိပ္, NgaShweya ငေရႊရ , Ponna Wunna Zeya Bhyamma ပုဏၰား၀ဏၰေဇယ်ျဗဟၼာ, NgaYe ငေရး  , NgaSo ငစို, NgaAwzar ငၾသဇာ around prince Tharawaddy at the time. He also collected boxers, wrestlers, rowdies and dacoits around him. Tharawaddy was prepared to take State power by force. It has been prophesied that he would be king and he was ready to use force if necessary.

On သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၉၈ ခု၊ တေပါင္းလျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၆ ရက္၊ March 1837, Myo Letwun Mingyi Maha Minhla Minkhaungkyaw ျမိဳ႕လက္၀န္မင္းၾကီး မဟာမင္းလွမင္းေခါင္ေက်ာ္, Htantapin Myosarr Ngwekhunwa Myauk Daweibo ထန္းတပင္ ျမိဳ႕စား ေငြခြန္၀ေျမာက္ဒ၀ယ္ဗိုလ္, Minhla Maha Thihathu မင္းလွမဟာသီဟသူ, Byetaik Thanhsint Thiri Kyawhtin Nawratha ျဗဲတိုက္သံဆင့္ သီရိေက်ာ္ထင္ေနာ္ရထာ with 200 armed personnel went to Tharawaddy prince and Bagan princess compounds to search for and capture Ngasintku Myothugyi NgaYay ငစဥ္႔ကူအံုျမိဳ႕သူၾကီး ငေရး who was believed to be in contact with rebels. Prince Tharawaddy also had armed personnel in readiness guarding his compound. While Shwepyi Hmankinn Thwethaukgyi NgaKho who was with Myauk Daweibo was going around to the rear of the compound, he was attacked and killed by Naymyo Bandu Kyawhtin. There was a lot of commotion and Myo Letwun Mingyi Maha Minhla Minkhaungkyaw turned his horse and escaped to the Palace. Myauk Daweibo was captured by Prince Tharawaddy’s forces.

Prince Tharawaddy knew they had met a big incident and with that in mind, on that very day crossed to the north bank of the Ayeyarwaddy by the Shwe Tone boat ေရႊတံုးေလွေတာ္ of Tharawaddy with his children, maids and fully armed 700 men, marched to  Yadana Theinga Myo ရတနာသိဃၤျမိဳ႕  and rebelled against his elder brother. He was able to collect Lords / MyoSarr ျမိဳ႕စား, Squires / YwaSarr ရြာစား  and troops well experienced in warfare. His followers from the Naypyitaw were also well trained. Nanmataw Me Nu and Salin prince had few well experienced people. Most were old lackey ministers. Experienced ones like Maha Bandoola had given their lives during the war with the British. Prince Tharawaddy’s forces won over all the armies sent from Naypyitaw.  Finally on သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၉၉ ခု၊ ကဆုန္လျပည့္ေက်ာ္ ၁၂ ရက္၊ May 1837 Prince Tharawaddy obtained the throne from his brother king Sagaing.

The Lord of Salin , Lord of Pintalae ပင္းတလဲစား , minister Mingyi Maha Thiha Thura ၀န္ၾကီးမင္းၾကီးမဟာသီဟသူရ, HsawMyosarr Ahtwinwun ေဆာျမိဳ႕စားအတြင္း၀န္, WunhtaukMingyi Maha Sithu ၀န္ေထာက္မင္းၾကီး မဟာစည္သူ, Maha Minkhaung Raza မဟာမင္းေခါင္ရာဇာ, MyoLetWun Mingyi ျမိဳ႕လက္၀န္မင္းၾကီး, Maha Minhla Minkhaungkyaw မဟာမင္းလွမင္းေခါင္ေက်ာ္, Kinwun Mingyi Maha Minhla Kyawswa ကင္း၀န္မင္းၾကီး မဟာမင္းလွေက်ာ္စြာ and Kyi Ahtwinwun Mingyi MahaMinhla Thiha Thu က်ီအတြင္း၀န္ မင္းၾကီး မဟာမင္းလွသီဟသူ who were demanded by Prince Tharawaddy were sent to him through Ahnaukphetkyaungchi bohmu son Thadoe Minsaw အေနာက္ဘက္ေၾကာင္းခ်ီဗိုလ္မွဴးသားေတာ္ သတိုးမင္းေစာ and the brothers’ war between Ava and YadanaTheinga ended.

Of the war criminals as Ahnaukphet Kyaungchi Bohmu Minthar အေနာက္ဘက္ေၾကာင္းခ်ီ ဗိုလ္မွဴးမင္းသား presents medicines to uncle Mintayargyi he was allowed to continue his duties. Lord of Hsaw Ahtwinwun Mingyi MahaNandaThingyan ေဆာျမိဳ႕စား အတြင္း၀န္ မင္းၾကီး မဟာနႏၵသၾကၤန္ and WunhtaukMingyi MahaSithu ၀န္ေထာက္မင္းၾကီး မဟာစည္သူ were found not to be in collusion with Lord of Salin and released.

Nanmataw Me Nu’s last voyage

While Prince Tharawaddy was in Yadana TheingaMyo Phalankhone village was burnt down. All who would not obey were killed. NgaKun ငကြန္, Nga Kanpaw ငကံေပၚ, Ngabuu ငဘူး and Tadalabo တဒလဗိုလ္ who were in the service of Lord Salin were executed.

Sagaing king transferred the throne to brother Prince Tharawaddy was let to live at the palace built near the Setkya Thiha pagoda သက္က်သီဟဘုရား.

In သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၂၀၁ ခု၊ တေပါင္းလ၊ May 1840 March during king Tharawaddy’s reign, about 1500 Shan Bamars led by Bo Win Nge ဗိုလ္၀င္းငယ္ called Shwehtar Minthar ေရႊထားမင္းသား BoKhantkyaw ဗိုလ္ခန္႔ေက်ာ္ BoShweMaung ဗိုလ္ေရႊေမာင္ attacked Matayar မတၱရာ and rebelled. After the rebellion was crushed in သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၂၀၂ ခု၊ တန္ခူး April 1840 and the rebels captured they were interrogated Thantawhsint U Shwe Tharr သံေတာ္ဆင့္ဦးေရႊသား testified that the Lord of Salin and the ex-ministers led by the dethroned queen Me Nu advised them secretly. Me Nu admitted to it without hiding anything.

In သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၂၀၂ ခု၊ ကဆုန္လဆန္း ၂ ရက္၊ May 1840 Me Nu was handed over to the executioners to be executed by submerssion. That day Lord of Salin, his wife and two daughters, Ahtwinwun Ngaparyauk အတြင္း၀န္ငပါေရာက္, MyoLatwun Ngayay ျမိဳ႕လတ္၀န္ငေရး, Thantawhsint Ngashwetharr သံေတာ္ဆင့္ငေရႊသား, Pakhan BoNgayantmin ပုခန္းဗိုလ္ ငရန္႔မင္း, Sayaygyi Ngapyo စာေရးၾကီးငပ်ိဳ, Toungoo Myowun Ngabuu ေတာင္ျမိဳ႕၀န္ငဘူး , Ahhsaungmye Ngatunnyo အေဆာင္ျမဲငထြန္ညို were excecuted.

The dethroned queen Me Nu requested for a chance to meet Sayardaw U Bose ဆရာေတာ္ဦးဗုစ္ and got permission. She gave homage to the Sayardaw and informed him that it was her last homage. The Sayardaw looked up from reading and told her “ if you have debt, you will have to repay”_ မိႏု သူေၾကြးရွိလွ်င္ ဆပ္ရေပလိမ့္မည္။.

Me Nu was not afraid of her execution and was not angry against king Tharawaddy who ordered her execution. Me Nu was executed at the northeast corner of the Taung Taman Inn ေတာင္တမန္အင္းMebayetkone bank မယ္ဘယက္ကုန္းကမ္းစ. Me Nu was put in a velvet bag and placed in the water ေရခ်ခံရသည္. (It is Burmese custom not to spill royal blood on the earth. Hence executions of royalties were made by submersion in velvet bags)


Good Deeds of Nanmataw Me Nu


Maha Aungmye Bonzan Monastery or popularly known as Mai Nu Oak Kyaung မယ္ႏုအုဌ္ေက်ာင္း or the Brick Monastery  donated by Klng Bagyidaw and his chief Queen  Mai Nu was constructed in 1822 A.D. ( This graceful and beautiful stucco decorated building was also known as ” Oak Kyaung” because of the masonry construction.

There are no records of the good deeds of Me Nu around the Phalankhone village of Ye U township. It has been handed down that Tharawaddy king’s men burned all records of it. Only the bell inscriptions were left undestroyed. According to the bell inscriptions, there were many monasteries, zayats, stupas, bells, Buddha images donated by the relatives of Me Nu_ စလင္းမင္းသားၾကီးေမာင္အိုမိသားစု Lord of Salin Maung O’s family, ဦးရီးေတာ္ဦးကြန္မိသားစု the uncle U Kun’s family, ေတာင္ဘက္ကိုးသင္းျမင္း၀န္မိသားစု Taungbet KoeThin Myin-wun MinhlaMahaMinTin family, Treasurer YeHla Shwetaung Kyawswa family ဘ႑ာစိုး ရဲလွေရႊေတာင္ေက်ာ္စြာမိသားစု.

The Mahamuni pagoda within the Phalankhone village west monastery အေနာက္တိုက္ (current day Thoepoe  monastery သိုးပိုးဘုန္ေတာ္ၾကီးေက်ာင္းတိုက္ is accepted by historians as Me Nu’s donation.

It has been handed over that Me Nu gave money to uncle U Kun ဦးရီးေတာ္ဦးကြန္, North Prime minister Maha Mingyi Kyawhtin မဟာမင္းၾကီးေက်ာ္ထင္ to build a beautiful monastery in South Phalankhone monastery ဖလံခံုေတာင္ေက်ာင္း

In Nyo Mya’s “Konebaung Sharponetaw ညိဳျမေရး ကုန္းေဘာင္ရွာပံုေတာ္” page 257_

On the day Me Nu donated the Me Nu Oke Kyaung to Abbot / Sayartaw U Bose ဆရာေတာ္ဦးဗုစ္ she mentioned, “I have built this brick monastery at the cost of 3 Lakhs 300,000. I have also built a monastery at Phalankhone village at the cost of 1 Lakh 100,000”

Letlan Tawya Kyaung လက္လံေတာရေက်ာင္း a monastery south east of Phalankhone village was also donated by Nanmadaw Me Nu.

In Ava, Amapura, Mingun and Sagaing areas, Me Nu and Sagaing Min together made the following donations:

  1. Donate for entrance of 49 boys to become novices and 55 men to become monks.
  2. သကၠရာဇ္ ၁၁၈၁ ခု၊ 1819 A.D., just after Sagaing king ascended the throne, donated 777 sets of robes to monks.
  3. Shin Phyu pagoda ရွင္ျဖဴဘုရား and hall with 5 storied tower အာလိန္ငါးဆင့္ခံ လိုဏ္မုခ္တန္ေဆာင္း north of Mingun Pathotawgyi မင္းကြန္းပုထိုးေတာ္ၾကီး
  4. Aungcharzina Shwebontha pagoda ေအာင္ခ်မ္းသာ ေရႊဘံုသာဘုရား and Lawka Chantha pagoda ေလာကခ်မ္းသာဘုရား in Sagaing
  5. Maha Wizayayanthi Sigonetawgyi မဟာ၀ိဇယရံသီစည္းခံုေတာ္ၾကီး and bell ေခါင္းေလာင္းေတာ္ၾကီး at Amarapura
  6. Maha Setkya Thiha Buddha image မဟာသက္က်သီဟရုပ္ပြားေတာ္္ၾကီး (now in Mandalay) Bonkyaung Mahaaungmyay Bonsan Okekyaungtawgyi ဘံုေက်ာင္းမဟာေအာင္ေျမဘံုစံအုတ္ေက်ာင္းေတာ္္ၾကီး and  Mahaaungmyay Bonsan-San Kyaungtawgyi မဟာေအာင္ေျမဘံုစံ ဘံုစံေက်ာင္းေတာ္္ၾကီး at Ava
  7. Maha Way-yan Bontha Tawya Zaytawun Kyaungtawgyi မဟာေ၀ယံဘံုသာ ေတာရေဇတ၀န္ ေက်ာင္းေတာ္္ၾကီး at Mingun.
  8. Maha Setkya Yanthi Kyaukphyu Buddha image  မဟာသက္က်ရံသီ ေက်ာက္ျဖဴ ရုပ္ပြားေတာ္္ၾကီး (now near Taungtaman Inn)
  9. Donor of 4 kinds of materials for Htutkhaung Sayardaw ထြတ္ေခါင္ဆရာေတာ္ and Sayartaw U Bose ဆရာေတာ္ဦးဗုစ္


This part should have been part of my prelude but as I do not want a long prelude and want to introduce my main blog quickly to viewers, I have kept this till the end and present it as a postscript / Note.

I have always been interested in history, but more on ancient history_ the Bagan dynasty, the Pyu and the pre-Pyu stone age, bronze age and early prehistory iron age cultures of Myanmar. I have written much about Pyu and early Rakhine history in my blogs and notes. I also have written about the Bagan era Battle of Ngahsaungchan, other Bagan era Sino Burmese wars and the Myanmar Siamese wars_mainly that of Bayintnaung’s wars, but also a little of the wars of king Alaungphaya and Hsinphyushin (the most militant Burmese king who fought wars on three fronts against China, Siam and the Assam Manipura at the same time). However those wars were fought on more or less equal arms, not against an adversary of much higher grade of weaponary and modern warefare techniques as the British who was already ruling the world. Even then, the early victories of Burmese forces of Maha Bandoola and Myawaddy Mingyi U Sa against the frontline British forces was impressive_” able to push back better armed British forces made up of European and Indian soldiers. By May, Uzana’s forces had overrun Cachar and Jaintia, and Lord of Myawaddy‘s forces had defeated the British inside Bengal at the Battle of Ramu, 10 miles east of Cox’s Bazar on 17 May 1824. Sa’s column then joined Bandula’s column on the march to defeat British forces at Gadawpalin, and went on to capture Cox’s Bazar. The Burmese success caused extreme panic in Chittagong and in Calcutta. But Bandula, not wanting to overstretch, stopped U Sa from proceeding to Chittagong. Had Bandula marched on to Chittagong, which unbeknown to him was lightly held, he could have taken it and the way to Calcutta would have been open.” _ in the words of Western historians.

Myanmar wars have been studied in detail by Myanmar historians and the Myanmar Armed Forces, and much has been written in Burmese for the Myanamar public, but the majority of Myanmars still do not know much about them or about Myanmar history. It is my intention to present Myanmar history to the Myanmar public so that they know more about Myanmar and also to the international community who might care to read my blogs.

Quicksand, Sinkholes, Blowouts and the Swallowing up of Devatta / Daywatat ေဒ၀ဒတ္ and Cina Manakiva / Zeinzamarna ဇိဥၨမာန by the earth ေျမျမိဳခံရျခင္း

March 5, 2013

Of the Eight Glorious Victories of Buddha ေအာင္ျခင္း ၈ ပါး are (3) the Subduing the fierce elephant, Nalagiri, released by Devadatta, the third Victory တတိယ ေအာင္ျခင္း and (5) Exposing the tricks of the beautiful Cinca Manavika, the fifth Victory ပဥၥမ ေအာင္ျခင္း။

Buddha subduing the drunken fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri sent by Devadatta

Buddha subduing the drunken fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri sent by Devadatta

Cinca Manavika making a false accusation against Buddha

Cinca Manavika making a false accusation against Buddha

Both Devadatta and Cinca Manavika were swallowed up by the earth near the Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း gates for their misdeeds and went down alive to Avici အ၀ီစိ.

Devadatta 2

Devadatta being swallowed by the earth.

Place near Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း where Devadatta was swallowed by the earth

Place near Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း where Devadatta was swallowed by the earth

Place near Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း where Cina Manavika was swallowed by the earth and went alive to Avici အ၀ီစိ.

Place near Jevatana / Zatawun monastery ေဇတ၀န္ေက်ာင္း where Cina Manavika was swallowed by the earth and went alive to Avici အ၀ီစိ.

Devadatta, brother in law and cousin of Buddha, was a misled monk with many followers. He planned to kill Buddha, first by hiring assasins, and when it failed, he himself climbed on the hill near the Vulture’s Rock while Buddha was walking and hurled a a huge stone at Buddha, which, although it missed, struck another rock and a splinter wounded Buddha’s foot. His third attempt, using the fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri after making it drunk with liquor also failed when Buddha‘s loving kindness conquered it.

The Vulture’s Rock / Gigzagote hill ဂဇၨဂုတ္ေတာင္ where Buddha resided and meditated during His stay in Rajgir / Yarzagyo ရာဇျဂိဳလ္

The Vulture’s Rock / Gigzagote hill ဂဇၨဂုတ္ေတာင္ where Buddha resided and meditated during His stay in Rajgir / Yarzagyo ရာဇျဂိဳလ္

Devadatta pushing a stone from the hill near the Vulture’s Rock while Buddha was walking beneath

Devadatta pushing a stone from the hill near the Vulture’s Rock while Buddha was walking beneath

< Devadatta>

Devadatta's third attempt on Buddha, using the fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri after making it drunk with liquor

Devadatta’s third attempt on Buddha, using the fierce man-killer elephant Nalagiri after making it drunk with liquor

The hill near the Vulture’s Rock / Gigzagote hill ဂဇၨဂုတ္ေတာင္ from which Devadatta pushed down a stone down on Buddha

The hill near the Vulture’s Rock / Gigzagote hill ဂဇၨဂုတ္ေတာင္ from which Devadatta pushed a stone down on Buddha

Cina Manavika is a paribbajika of some ascetic Order. She was very beautiful and was enlisted by the heretics of this Order in their attempt to discredit Buddha as their gains were getting less. She pretended to pay visits to Buddha at Jetavana and after some time, simulated pregnancy and appeared before Buddha as He was preaching to a large congregation. She falsely accused Him of being the cause of her pregnancy in front of others.

< Cinca Manavika life-of-buddha-46>

Buddha, without refuting, said that only she and He know the truth. Sakka သိၾကားမင္း, king of the devas နတ္, came to the rescue by sendning four of his devas in form of rats to cut the cords of the wooden disc (or cloth in another version) which is used to feign pregnancy. It fell down and her deception was established and she ran away and was swallowed up by the earth nearby.

The swallowing up of people by the earth ေျမျမိဳခံရျခင္း  has been mentioned in Buddhawin and Myanmar folklore and even in present day period such an incident was reported in Thanlyin not so long ago. However, apart from quick sand, which is a naturally occuring phenomenon, the occurences in Buddhawin are said to occur on firm ground as a supernatural phenomenon.

A sinkhole, also known as a sink, snake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline, or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the Earth’s surface caused by karst processes — for example, the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks[1] or suffosion processes[2] in sandstone. Sinkholes may vary in size from 1 to 600 metres (3.3 to 2,000 ft) both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms. Sinkholes may be formed gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide. The different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably.



Natural sinkholes have swallowed down even large buildings but large holes are left in the ground.

Natural sinkholes have swallowed down even large buildings but large holes are left in the ground.

Natural sinkholes have swallowed down even large buildings but large holes are left in the ground.

Formation mechanisms

How Sinkholes work

Sinkholes near the Dead Sea, formed by dissolution of underground salt by incoming freshwater, as a result of a continuing sea level drop.

A special type of sinkhole, formed by rainwater leaking through the pavement and carrying soil into a ruptured sewer pipe.

Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may also form in high and dry places in a certain location.

The mechanisms of formation involve natural processes of erosion[4] or gradual removal of slightly soluble bedrock (such as limestone) by percolating water, the collapse of a cave roof, or a lowering of the water table. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion. Thus, for example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and then carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void.

Also in the oil and gas industry when blowouts occur during drilling, large drilling rigs can be totally swallowed into the earth, even in offshore situations (as with the well documented disappearance of a land rig and even a bigger off shore rig in Myanmar in the not so distant past).

Oil well blowout

Well blowouts can occur during the drilling phase, during well testing, during well completion, during production, or during workover activities.

offshore oil well drilling blowout

offshore oil well drilling blowout

In the modern petroleum industry, uncontrollable wells became known as blowouts and are comparatively rare. There has been significant improvement in technology, well control techniques, and personnel training which has helped to prevent their occurring

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Sakka သိၾကားမင္း, king of the devas နတ္, came to the rescue by sendning four of his devas in form of rats to cut the cords of the wooden disc (or cloth in another version) which is used to feign pregnancy.

Sakka သိၾကားမင္း, king of the devas နတ္, came to the rescue by sendning four of his devas in form of rats to cut the cords of the wooden disc (or cloth in another version) which is used to feign pregnancy.

How Quicksand forms

How Quicksand forms

Quicksand is a colloid hydrogel consisting of fine granular material (such as sand or silt), clay, and water.

Quicksand forms in saturated loose sand when the sand is suddenly agitated. When water in the sand cannot escape, it creates liquefied soil that loses strength and cannot support weight. Quicksand can be formed in standing water or in upwards flowing water (as from an artesian spring). In the case of upwards flowing water, seepage forces oppose the force of gravity and suspend the soil particles.

The saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a sudden change in pressure or shock initiates liquefaction. This causes the sand to form a suspension and lose strength. The cushioning of water gives quicksand, and other liquefied sediments, a spongy, fluidlike texture. Objects in liquefied sand sink to the level at which the weight of the object is equal to the weight of the displaced soil/water mix and the submerged object floats due to its buoyancy.

Liquefaction is a special case of quicksand. In this case, sudden earthquake forces immediately increases the pore pressure of shallow groundwater. The saturated liquefied soil loses strength, causing buildings or other objects on that surface to sink or fall over.

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The Jetavana monastery in Sravasti of Kosala Kingdom

The Jetavana monastery in Sravasti of Kosala Kingdom

The swallowing up of both Devadatta and Cinca Manavika occurred near the Jetavana monastery in Sravasti သာ၀တၱိ of Kosala Kingdom.


Modern day Sravasti  သာ၀တၱိ

Sravasti Myanmar monastery သာ၀တၱိ ျမန္မာဘုန္းၾကီးေက်ာင္း

Sravasti Myanmar monastery သာ၀တၱိ ျမန္မာဘုန္းၾကီးေက်ာင္း

Sravasti was visited and recorded by the Chinese Monk pilgrim, Fa Hien after his travels to India and Sri Lanka (A.D. 399-414) in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline (the famous story of Journey to the West by a Tang monk and his four disciples_ Sun Wu Kong et al _was based on Fa Hien’s travels) and he mentioned as follows_ The earth at the same time was rent, and she Chanchamana / Cinca Manavika / Zeinzamana went (down) alive into hell / Avici အ၀ီစိ. (This) also is the place where Devadatta, trying with empoisoned claws to injure Buddha, went down alive into hell. Men subsequently set up marks to distinguish where both these events took place.

Details of the subjects of interest on the topic follows below

  • Devadatta, the Buddha’s Enemy
  • Devadatta
  • Cinca Manavika
  • Cinca Manavika falsely accuses the Buddha
  • Quicksand
  • How Quicksand Works
  • Cause of Florida sinkhole tragedy: Human activity or revenge of the karst?
  • Sinkhole
  • Blowout (well drilling)

Record of Buddhist Kingdoms by Chinese Monk, Fa Hien

Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his Travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline



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Going on from this to the south, for eight yojanas, (the travellers) came to the city of Sravasti[1] in the kingdom of Kosala,[2] in which the inhabitants were few and far between, amounting in all (only) to a few more than two hundred families; the city where king Prasenajit[3] ruled, and the place of the old vihara of Maha-prajapti;[4] of the well and walls of (the house of) the (Vaisya) head Sudatta;[5] and where the Angulimalya[6] became an Arhat, and his body was (afterwards) burned on his attaining to pari-nirvana. At all these places topes were subsequently erected, which are still existing in the city. The Brahmans, with their contrary doctrine, became full of hatred and envy in their hearts, and wished to destroy them, but there came from the heavens such a storm of crashing thunder and flashing lightning that they were not able in the end to effect their purpose.

As you go out from the city by the south gate, and 1,200 paces from it, the (Vaisya) head Sudatta built a vihara, facing the south; and when the door was open, on each side of it there was a stone pillar, with the figure of a wheel on the top of that on the left, and the figure of an ox on the top of that on the right. On the left and right of the building the ponds of water clear and pure, the thickets of trees always luxuriant, and the numerous flowers of various hues, constituted a lovely scene, the whole forming what is called the Jetavana vihara.[7]

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The Jetavana vihara was originally of seven storeys. The kings and people of the countries around vied with one another in their offerings, hanging up about it silken streamers and canopies, scattering flowers, burning incense, and lighting lamps, so as to make the night as bright as the day. This they did day after day without ceasing. (It happened that) a rat, carrying in its mouth the wick of a lamp, set one of the streamers or canopies on fire, which caught the vihara, and the seven storeys were all consumed. The kings, with their officers and people, were all very sad and distressed, supposing that the sandal-wood image had been burned; but lo! after four or five days, when the door of a small vihara on the east was opened, there was immediately seen the original image. They were all greatly rejoiced, and co-operated in restoring the vihara. When they had succeeded in completing two storeys, they removed the image back to its former place.

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When Fa-hien and Tao-ching first arrived at the Jetavana monastery, and thought how the World-honoured one had formerly resided there for twenty-five years, painful reflections arose in their minds. Born in a border-land, along with their like-minded friends, they had travelled through so many kingdoms; some of those friends had returned (to their own land), and some had (died), proving the impermanence and uncertainty of life; and to-day they saw the place where Buddha had lived now unoccupied by him. They were melancholy through their pain of heart, and the crowd of monks came out, and asked them from what kingdom they were come. “We are come,” they replied, “from the land of Han.” “Strange,” said the monks with a sigh, “that men of a border country should be able to come here in search of our Law!” Then they said to one another, “During all the time that we, preceptors and monks,[11] have succeeded to one another, we have never seen men of Han, followers of our system, arrive here.”

< 5 exposing the tricks of the beautiful Cinca-Manavika>

Outside the east gate of the Jetavana, at a distance of seventy paces to the north, on the west of the road, Buddha held a discussion with the (advocates of the) ninety-six schemes of erroneous doctrine, when the king and his great officers, the householders, and people were all assembled in crowds to hear it. Then a woman belonging to one of the erroneous systems, by name Chanchamana,[15] prompted by the envious hatred in her heart, and having put on (extra) clothes in front of her person, so as to give her the appearance of being with child, falsely accused Buddha before all the assembly of having acted unlawfully (towards her). On this, Sakra, Ruler of Devas, changed himself and some devas into white mice, which bit through the strings about her waist; and when this was done, the (extra) clothes which she wore dropt down on the ground. The earth at the same time was rent, and she went (down) alive into hell.[16] (This) also is the place where Devadatta,[17] trying with empoisoned claws to injure Buddha, went down alive into hell. Men subsequently set up marks to distinguish where both these events took place.

There are also companies of the followers of Devadatta still existing. They regularly make offerings to the three previous Buddhas, but not to Sakyamuni Buddha.


[1] In Singhalese, Sewet; here evidently the capital of Kosala. It is placed by Cunningham (Archaeological Survey) on the south bank of the Rapti, about fifty-eight miles north of Ayodya or Oude. There are still the ruins of a great town, the name being Sahet Mahat. It was in this town, or in its neighbourhood, that Sakyamuni spent many years of his life after he became Buddha.

[2] There were two Indian kingdoms of this name, a southern and a northern. This was the northern, a part of the present Oudh.

In Singhalese, Pase-nadi, meaning “leader of the victorious army.” He was one of the earliest converts and chief patrons of Sakyamuni. Eitel calls him (p. 95) one of the originators of Buddhist idolatory, because of the statue which is mentioned in this chapter. See Hardy’s

B., pp. 283, 284, et al.

[4] Explained by “Path of Love,” and “Lord of Life.” Prajapati was aunt and nurse of Sakyamuni, the first woman admitted to the monkhood, and the first superior of the first Buddhistic convent. She is yet to become a Buddha.

[5] Sudatta, meaning “almsgiver,” was the original name of Anatha­pindika (or Pindada), a wealthy householder, or Vaisya head, of Sravasti, famous for his liberality (Hardy, Anepidu). Of his old house, only the well and walls remained at the time of Fa-hien’s visit to Sravasti.

[6] The Angulimalya were a sect or set of Sivaitic fanatics, who made assassination a religious act. The one of them here mentioned had joined them by the force of circumstances. Being converted by Buddha, he became a monk; but when it is said in the text that he “got the Tao,” or doctrine, I think that expression implies more than his conversion, and is equivalent to his becoming an Arhat. His name in Pali is Angulimala. That he did become an Arhat is clear from his autobiographical poem in the “Songs of the Theras.”

[7] Eitel (p. 37) says:–“A noted vihara in the suburbs of Sravasti, erected in a park which Anatha-pindika bought of prince Jeta, the son of Prasenajit. Sakyamuni made this place his favourite residence for many years. Most of the Sutras (authentic and supposititious) date from this spot.”

[11] This is the first time that Fa-hien employs the name Ho-shang {.} {.}, which is now popularly used in China for all Buddhist monks without distinction of rank or office. It is the representative of the Sanskrit term Upadhyaya, “explained,” says Eitel (p. 155) by “a self-taught teacher,” or by “he who knows what is sinful and what is not sinful,” with the note, “In India the vernacular of this term is {.} {.} (? munshee [? Bronze]); in Kustana and Kashgar they say {.} {.} (hwa-shay); and from the latter term are derived the Chinese synonyms, {.} {.} (ho-shay) and {.} {.} (ho-shang).” The Indian term was originally a designation for those who teach only a part of the Vedas, the Vedangas. Adopted by Buddhists of Central Asia, it was made to signify the priests of the older ritual, in distinction from the Lamas. In China it has been used first as a synonym for {.} {.}, monks engaged in popular teaching (teachers of the Law), in distinction from {.} {.}, disciplinists, and {.} {.}, contemplative philosophers (meditationists); then it was used to designate the abbots of monasteries. But it is now popularly applied to all Buddhist monks. In the text there seems to be implied some distinction between the “teachers” and the “ho-shang;”–probably, the Pali Akariya and Upagghaya; see Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, Vinaya Texts, pp. 178, 179.

[15] Eitel (p. 144) calls her Chancha; in Singhalese, Chinchi. See the story about her, M. B., pp. 275-277.

[16] “Earth’s prison,” or “one of Earth’s prisons.” It was the Avichi naraka to which she went, the last of the eight hot prisons, where the culprits die, and are born again in uninterrupted succession (such being the meaning of Avichi), though not without hope of final redemption. E. H. p. 21.

[17] Devadatta was brother of Ananda, and a near relative therefore of Sakyamuni. He was the deadly enemy, however, of the latter. He had become so in an earlier state of existence, and the hatred continued in every successive birth, through which they reappeared in the world. See the accounts of him, and of his various devices against Buddha, and his own destruction at the last, in M. B., pp. 315-321, 326-330; and still better, in the Sacred Books of the East, vol. xx, Vinaya Texts, pp. 233-265. For the particular attempt referred to in the text, see “The Life of the Buddha,” p. 107. When he was engulphed, and the flames were around him, he cried out to Buddha to save him, and we are told that he is expected yet to appear as a Buddha under the name of Devaraja, in a universe called Deva-soppana. E. H., p. 39.


Devadatta, the Buddha’s Enemy

Devadatta was the son of King Suppabuddha and his wife Pamita, who was an aunt of the Buddha. Devadatta’s sister was Yasodhara, making him both a cousin and brother-in-law of the Buddha. Together with Ananda and other Sakyan princes, he entered the order of monks in the early part of the Buddha’s ministry, but was unable to attain any stage of sainthood and so worked hard for the worldly psychic powers.

In his early days, he was a good monk known for his grace and psychic powers. Later he became conceited with worldly gain and fame. As his ill-will and jealousy towards the Buddha increased, he became the greatest personal enemy of the Buddha.

One day in a large assembly, which included kings and princes, Devadatta approached the Buddha and asked him to make him the leader of the Sangha. Since he was not capable and worthy enough, the Buddha turned down this request. Devadatta became very angry as a result and vowed to take revenge on the Buddha.

Although Devadatta was an evil monk, he had many admirers and followers. One of his chief supporters was King Ajatasattu, with whom he discussed his anger and plots for revenge. Together they planned to kill King Ajatasattu’s father and rival, King Bimbisara and Devadatta’s enemy, the Buddha. Ajatasattu succeeded in killing his father, but Devadatta failed to kill the Buddha.

His first attempt to kill the Buddha was to hire a man to kill the Blessed One. The plan was that the man be killed by two other men who would in turn be killed by four other men. Finally the four men would be killed by eight other men. But when the first man came close to the Buddha, he became frightened. He put aside his weapons and took refuge in the Buddha. Eventually all the men who were hired to kill one another became disciples of the Buddha and the cunning plan failed.

Then Devadatta himself tried to kill the Buddha. When the Buddha was walking on the Vultures’ Rock, Devadatta climbed to the peak and hurled a huge stone at the Buddha. On its way down, the rock struck another rock and a splinter flew and wounded the Buddha’s foot, causing blood to flow. The Buddha looked up and seeing Devadatta, he remarked with pity, “Foolish man, you have done many unwholesome deeds for harming the Buddha.”

Devadatta’s third attempt to kill the Blessed One was to make the fierce man-killer elephant, Nalagiri, drunk with liquor. When Nalagiri saw the Buddha coming at a distance, it raised its ears, tail and trunk and charged at him. As the elephant came close, the Buddha radiated his loving-kindness (metta) towards the elephant. So vast and deep was the Buddha’s love that as the elephant reached the Buddha, it stopped, became quiet and stood before the Master. The Buddha then stroked Nalagiri on the trunk and spoke softly. Respectfully, the elephant removed the dust at the master’s feet with its trunk, and scattered the dust over its own head. Then it retreated, with its head facing the Buddha, as far as the stable, and remained fully tamed. Usually elephants are tamed with whips and weapons, but the Blessed One tamed the elephant with the power of his loving-kindness.

Still trying to be the leader of the Sangha, Devadatta tried yet another plan — a deceitful one. With the help of five hundred misled monks, he planned to split the Sangha community.

He requested the Buddha to make it compulsory for monks to follow five extra rules:

(i) Dwell all their lives in the forest
(ii) Live only on alms obtained by begging
(iii) Wear robes made from rags collected from the dust heaps and cemeteries
(iv) Live at the foot of trees
(v) Refrain from eating fish or meat throughout their lives.

Devadatta made this request, knowing full well that the Buddha would refuse it. Devadatta was happy that the Buddha did not approve of the five rules, and he used these issues to gain supporters and followers. Newly ordained monks who did not know the Dharma well left the Buddha and accepted Devadatta as their leader. Eventually, after Venerable Sariputta and Venerable Moggallana had explained the Dharma to them, they went back to the Buddha.

After this, evil days fell on Devadatta. He fell very ill at the failure of his plans, and before his death he sincerely regretted his actions, and wanted to see the Buddha before he died. But the fruits of his evil karma had begun to ripen and prevented him from doing so. He grew desperately ill on the way to see the Buddha, near the gate of Jetavana monastery. But before he died he took refuge in the Buddha.

Although he has to suffer in a woeful state because of his crimes, the holy life he led in the early part of his career ensured that Devadatta would become a Pacceka Buddha named Atthissara in the distant future. As a Pacceka Buddha he would be able to achieve Enlightenment by his own efforts.


A striking example of this mental attitude is seen in his relation with Devadatta. Devadatta was a cousin of the Buddha who entered the Order and gained supernormal powers of the mundane plane (puthujjana-iddhi). Later, however, he began to harbour thoughts of jealousy and ill will toward his kinsman, the Buddha, and his two chief disciples, Sâriputta and Mahâ Moggallâna, with the ambition of becoming the leader of the Sangha, the Order of Monks.

Devadatta wormed himself into the heart of Ajâtasattu, the young prince, the son of King Bimbisâra. One day when the Blessed One was addressing a gathering at the Veluvana Monastery, where the king, too, was present, Devadatta approached the Buddha, saluted him, and said: “Venerable sir, you are now enfeebled with age. May the Master lead a life of solitude free from worry and care. I will direct the Order.”

The Buddha rejected this overture and Devadatta departed irritated and disconcerted, nursing hatred and malice toward the Blessed One. Then, with the malicious purpose of causing mischief, he went to Prince Ajâtasattu, kindled in him the deadly embers of ambition, and said:

“Young man, you had better kill your father and assume kingship lest you die without becoming the ruler. I shall kill the Blessed One and become the Buddha.”

So when Ajâtasattu murdered his father and ascended the throne Devadatta suborned ruffians to murder the Buddha, but failing in that endeavour, he himself hurled down a rock as the Buddha was climbing up Gijjhakûta Hill in Râjagaha. The rock tumbled down, broke in two, and a splinter slightly wounded the Buddha. Later Devadatta made an intoxicated elephant charge at the Buddha; but the animal prostrated himself at the Master’s feet, overpowered by his loving-kindness. Devadatta now proceeded to cause a schism in the Sangha, but this discord did not last long. Having failed in all his intrigues, Devadatta retired, a disappointed and broken man. Soon afterwards he fell ill, and on his sick-bed, repenting his follies, he desired to see the Buddha. But that was not to be; for he died on the litter while being carried to the Blessed One. Before his death, however, he uttered repentance and sought refuge in the Buddha.

Cinca Manavika, 1 Definition(s)

A paribbajika of some ascetic Order. When the heretics of this Order found that their gains were grown less owing to the popularity of the Buddha, they enlisted the support of Cinca in their attempts to discredit him. She was very beautiful and full of cunning, and they persuaded her to pretend to pay visits to the Buddha at Jetavana. She let herself be seen going towards the vihara in the evening, spent the night in the heretics quarters near by, and in the morning men saw her returning from the direction of the vihara. When questioned, she said that she had passed the night with the Buddha. After some months she simulated pregnancy by tying a disc of wood round her body and appearing thus before the Buddha, as he preached to a vast congregation, she charged him with irresponsibility and callousness in that he made no provision for her confinement. The Buddha remained silent, but Sakkas throne was heated and he caused a mouse to sever the cords of the wooden disc, which fell to the ground, cutting Cincas toes. She was chased out of the vihara by those present, and as she stepped outside the gate the fires of the lowest hell swallowed her up (DhA.iii.178f; J.iv.187f; ItA.69).

XIII:9 Cinca Manavika falsely accuses the Buddha

As the Buddha went on expounding the Dhamma, more and more people came flocking to him, and the ascetics of other faiths found their following to be dwindling. So they decided to ruin the reputation of the Buddha. They instigated Cinca Manavika, a beautiful pupil of theirs, and told her, ‘If you have our interests at heart, please help us and put the Buddha to shame.’ She agreed to their plot.

That same evening, she took some flowers and went in the direction of the Jetavana monastery. When people asked her where she was going, she replied, ‘What is the use of you knowing where I am going?’ Then she would go to the place of the other ascetics near the Jetavana monastery and would come back early in the morning to make it appear as if she had spent the night at the Jetavana monastery. When asked, she would reply, ‘I spent the night with the Buddha at the monastery.’ After three or four months had passed, she wrapped some cloth around her stomach to make herself look pregnant. Then, after nine months, she created the impression of a woman in an advanced stage of pregnancy and she went to the monastery to confront the Buddha.

The Buddha was then expounding the Dhamma to a congregation of bhikkhus and laymen. Seeing him preaching she accused him, ‘O you big Samana! You are clever to preach to others. I am now pregnant by you, yet you do nothing for my confinement. You only know how to enjoy yourself!’ The Buddha stopped preaching for a while and said to her, ‘Sister, only you and I know whether you are speaking the truth or not,’ and she replied, ‘Yes, you are right, how can others know what only you and I have done?’

At that instant, Sakka, king of the devas became aware of the trouble taking place at the Jetavana monastery. So he sent four of his devas in the form of young rats, who got under her clothes and bit off the strings that held the cloth around her belly. Thus, her deception was uncovered, and many from the crowd reprimanded her, ‘O you wicked woman! Liar and cheat! How dare you accuse our noble Teacher!’ Fearing for her safety, she ran from the monastery as fast as she could. However after some distance she met with an unfortunate accident and had to face a miserable and untimely death.

The next day, while the bhikkhus were talking about Cinca Manavika, the Buddha told them ‘Bhikkhus, one who is not afraid to tell lies, and who does not care what happens in the future existences, will not hesitate to do any evil.’

The Buddha then revealed that Cinca Manavika in one of her past existences was born as the chief consort to a King. She fell in love with the King’s son but the Prince did not reciprocate her love. So she conceived an evil plan to harm him. She disfigured her body with her own hands. Then she went to the King and falsely accused that his son had done this to her when she refused his advances.

Without investigating, the King banished him from his kingdom. When the King came to know of the true situation, she was duly punished for her evil deeds.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the geological feature. For other uses, see Quicksand (disambiguation).

Quicksand and warning sign at a gravel quarry.

Quicksand is a colloid hydrogel consisting of fine granular material (such as sand or silt), clay, and water.

Quicksand forms in saturated loose sand when the sand is suddenly agitated. When water in the sand cannot escape, it creates liquefied soil that loses strength and cannot support weight. Quicksand can be formed in standing water or in upwards flowing water (as from an artesian spring). In the case of upwards flowing water, seepage forces oppose the force of gravity and suspend the soil particles.

The saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a sudden change in pressure or shock initiates liquefaction. This causes the sand to form a suspension and lose strength. The cushioning of water gives quicksand, and other liquefied sediments, a spongy, fluidlike texture. Objects in liquefied sand sink to the level at which the weight of the object is equal to the weight of the displaced soil/water mix and the submerged object floats due to its buoyancy.

Liquefaction is a special case of quicksand. In this case, sudden earthquake forces immediately increases the pore pressure of shallow groundwater. The saturated liquefied soil loses strength, causing buildings or other objects on that surface to sink or fall over.



Quicksand is a non-Newtonian fluid: when undisturbed, it often appears to be solid (“gel” form), but a minor (less than 1%) change in the stress on the quicksand will cause a sudden decrease in its viscosity (“sol” form). After an initial disturbance — such as a person attempting to walk on it — the water and sand in the quicksand separate and dense regions of sand sediment form; it is because of the formation of these high volume fraction regions that the viscosity of the quicksand seems to decrease suddenly. Someone stepping on it will start to sink. To move within the quicksand, a person or object must apply sufficient pressure on the compacted sand to re-introduce enough water to liquefy it. The forces required to do this are quite large: to remove a foot from quicksand at a speed of .01 m/s would require the same amount of force as “that needed to lift a medium-sized car.”[1]

Because of the higher density of the quicksand, it would be impossible for a human or animal to completely sink in the quicksand, though natural hazards present around the quicksand would lead people to believe that quicksand is dangerous. In actuality the quicksand is harmless on its own, but because it greatly impedes human locomotion, the quicksand would allow harsher elements like solar radiation, dehydration, carnivores, hypothermia or tides to harm a trapped person.[2]

The way to escape is to wiggle the legs as slowly as possible in order to reduce viscosity, to try spreading the arms and legs far apart and lying supine to increase the body’s surface area, which should allow one to float.[3]


Quicksand may be found inland (on riverbanks, near lakes, or in marshes), or near the coast.

In fiction

People falling into (and, unrealistically, being submerged in) quicksand or a similar substance is a trope of adventure fiction, notably movies. According to Slate, this gimmick had its heyday in the 1960s, when almost 3% of all films showed someone sinking in mud, sand, or clay, but it has since fallen out of use. The proliferation of quicksand scenes in movies has given rise to an internet subculture scene dedicated to the topic.[4]

In music

Pete Seeger‘s song “Waist Deep in the Big Muddy” mentions someone drowning after getting stuck in quicksand.

See also


  1. ^ Khaldoun, A., E. Eiser, G. H. Wegdam, and Daniel Bonn. 2005. “Rheology: Liquefaction of quicksand under stress.” Nature 437 (29 Sept.): 635. doi:10.1038/437635a
  2. ^ Discovery Channel. MythBusters. Season 2. “Killer Quicksand.” October 20, 2004.
  3. ^ Bakalarfor, Nicholas (September 28, 2005). “Quicksand Science: Why It Traps, How to Escape”. National Geographic News. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
  4. ^ Engber, Daniel (23 August 2010). “Terra Infirma: The rise and fall of quicksand.”. Slate. Retrieved 23 August 2010.

How Quicksand Works

by Kevin Bonsor

With quicksand, the more you struggle in it the faster you will sink. If you just relax, your body will float in it because your body is less dense than the quicksand.

How many times have you watched a movie where the hero is sucked down into a pit of quicksand, only to be saved at the last minute by grabbing a nearby tree branch and pulling himself out?

If you believed what you saw in movies, you might think that quicksand is a living creature that can suck you down into a bottomless pit, never to be heard from again. But no — the actual properties of quicksand are not quite those portrayed in the movies.

Quicksand is not quite the fearsome force of nature that you sometimes see on the big screen. In fact, the treacherous grit is rarely deeper than a few feet.

It can occur almost anywhere if the right conditions are present. Quicksand is basically just ordinary sand that has been so saturated with water that the friction between sand particles is reduced. The resulting sand is a mushy mixture of sand and water that can no longer support any weight.

If you step into quicksand, it won’t suck you down. However, your movements will cause you to dig yourself deeper into it. In this article, you will learn just how quicksand forms, where it’s found and how you can escape its clutches if you find yourself hip-deep in it.

Next, we’ll find out how the ground shaking beneath your feet can lead to sand slipping beneath your weight. So head to the next page — quick.

What’s Quicksand?

Quicksand is an interesting natural phenomenon — it is actually solid ground that has been liquefied by a saturation of water. The “quick” refers to how easily the sand shifts when in this semiliquid state.

Quicksand is not a unique type of soil; it is usually just sand or another type of grainy soil. Quicksand is nothing more than a soupy mixture of sand and water. It can occur anywhere under the right conditions, according to Denise Dumouchelle, geologist with the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

Quicksand is created when water saturates an area of loose sand and the ordinary sand is agitated. When the water trapped in the batch of sand can’t escape, it creates liquefied soil that can no longer support weight. There are two ways in which sand can become agitated enough to create quicksand:

  • Flowing underground water – The force of the upward water flow opposes the force of gravity, causing the granules of sand to be more buoyant.
  • Earthquakes – The force of the shaking ground can increase the pressure of shallow groundwater, which liquefies sand and silt deposits. The liquefied surface loses strength, causing buildings or other objects on that surface to sink or fall over.

Vibration tends to enhance the quickness, so what is reasonably solid initially may become soft and then quick, according to Dr. Larry Barron of the New South Wales Geological Survey.

The vibration plus the water barrier reduces the friction between the sand particles and causes the sand to behave like a liquid. To understand quicksand, you have to understand the process of liquefaction. When soil liquefies, as with quicksand, it loses strength and behaves like a viscous liquid rather than a solid, according to the Utah Geological Survey. Liquefaction can cause buildings to sink significantly during earthquakes.

While quicksand can occur in almost any location where water is present, there are certain locations where it’s more prevalent. Places where quicksand is most likely to occur include:

  • Riverbanks
  • Beaches
  • Lake shorelines
  • Near underground springs
  • Marshes

The next time you’re at the beach, notice the difference in the sand as you stand on different parts of the beach that have varying levels of moisture. If you stand on the driest part of the beach, the sand holds you up just fine. The friction between the sand particles creates a stable surface to stand on.

If you move closer to the water, you’ll notice that the sand that is moderately wet is even more tightly packed than the dry sand. A moderate amount of water creates the capillary attraction that allows sand particles to clump together. This is what allows you to build sand castles.

But beach sand could easily become quicksand if enough water were thrust up through it. If an excessive amount of water flows through the sand, it forces the sand particles apart. This separation of particles causes the ground to loosen, and any mass on the sand will begin to sink through it. In the next section, you will find out how to save yourself if you happen to fall into a pit of quicksand.

With quicksand, the more you struggle in it the faster you will sink. If you just relax, your body will float in it because your body is less dense than the quicksand.

If you ever find yourself in a pit of quicksand, don’t worry — it’s not going to swallow you whole, and it’s not as hard to escape from as you might think.

The human body has a density of 62.4 pounds per cubic foot (1 g/cm3) and is able to float on water. Quicksand is denser than water — it has a density of about 125 pounds per cubic foot (2 g/cm3) — which means you can float more easily on quicksand than on water. The key is to not panic. Most people who drown in quicksand, or any liquid for that matter, are usually those who panic and begin flailing their arms and legs.

It may be possible to drown in quicksand if you were to fall in over your head and couldn’t get your head back above the surface, although it’s rare for quicksand to be that deep. Most likely, if you fall in, you will float to the surface. However, the sand-to-water ratio of quicksand can vary, causing some quicksand to be less buoyant.

“By the same token, if the quicksand were deep, as in up to your waist, it would be very difficult to extract yourself from a dense slurry, not unlike very wet concrete,” said Rick Wooten, senior geologist for Engineering Geology and Geohazards for the North Carolina Geological Survey. “The weight of the quicksand would certainly make it difficult to move if you were in above your knees.”

The worst thing to do is to thrash around in the sand and move your arms and legs through the mixture. You will only succeed in forcing yourself farther down into the liquid sandpit. The best thing to do is to make slow movements and bring yourself to the surface, then just lie back. You’ll float to a safe level.

“When someone steps in the quicksand, their weight causes them to sink, just as they would if they stepped in a pond,” Dumouchelle said. “If they struggle, they’ll tend to sink. But, if they relax and try to lay on their back, they can usually float and paddle to safety.”

When you try pulling your leg out of quicksand, you are working against a vacuum left behind by the movement, according to The Worst-Case Scenario Survival Handbook. The authors of the book advise you to move as slowly as possible in order to reduce viscosity. Also, try spreading your arms and legs far apart and leaning over to increase your surface area, which should allow you to float.

While quicksand remains the hackneyed convention of bad adventure movies, there’s very little to be afraid of in real life. As long as you keep a cool head in the situation, the worst result will be a shoe full of wet sand.

Cause of Florida sinkhole tragedy: Human activity or revenge of the karst?

One of the most heavily developed states is also one of the most geologically hazardous – two facts that are not mutually exclusive in creating dangerous sinkholes.

By Patrik Jonsson, Staff writer / March 2, 2013


The news of a man being swallowed up by the earth as he slept in his Seffner, Fla., house seemed shocking precisely because it was so unusual: Only three men, two of them well drillers, are known to have ever died from a sudden sinkhole in Florida.

Yet the tragic series of events that began Thursday as a 30-foot hole swallowed Jeff Bush as he slept and continues Saturday as rescue crews tiptoe around an “extremely unstable” house also highlights just how geologically hazardous the Sunshine State is, and how human activities have likely increased the number of sinkholes – essentially geological plumbing breaks as the ceilings of carved-out limestone caverns buckle.

Within a mile of Mr. Bush’s home, which apparently sits atop a 100-foot-wide cavern, are 16 verified sinkholes, compared to over 15,000 known sinkholes throughout the state.

Known as a “karst” landscape, Florida, which was once part of the seafloor, sits on a vast limestone bed cratered with caverns dug out over eons of tidal and chemical weathering. About 10 percent of the earth’s landmass is karst, meaning land shaped by eroding bedrock.

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“What feels capricious to those above is the toll of an active planet, one of those improbable collisions of a human timescale and a geological one,” writes the Atlantic’s Rebecca Rosen on Friday.

Thursday night’s sinkhole drama did not fit the usual progression of dissolving karst, however. Sinkholes usually collapse in slow motion. Walls crack, strain, and complain as the earth begins to slowly give way under a house. In the vast majority of cases, residents have enough time to gather valuables and evacuate the premises.

“Losing a house to a sinkhole is very common, losing life is uncommon,” says retired University of Florida geologist Tony Randazzo. “Most people will have some warning of the pending doom or catastrophic collapse. But there apparently were no warning signs of what happened at the Bush house. That would be very scary.”

Witnesses said the house jarred suddenly, and then they heard yells from a bedroom. Jeff Bush’s brother, Jeremy Bush, ran to the hole, jumped in and began digging for his brother.

“I heard my brother screaming,” Bush told reporters.  “So I ran back there and tried going inside his room.”

A responding deputy told ABC News what he saw as he entered the panicked premises.

“When I turned in the bedroom the only thing that I saw was a hole, and the hole took the entire bedroom,” Hillsborough County Sheriff’s Deputy Douglas Duvall told a local ABC News affiliate. “You could see the bed frame, the dresser. Everything was sinking.”

Mr. Duvall yelled to Jeremy Bush that the house was still collapsing and to get out of the hole. He reached in and pulled a stunned Mr. Bush out.

Changes in drainage due to construction or agricultural irrigation have been known to activate mass outbreaks of sinkholes, where dozens of sinkholes can suddenly appear next to drainage wells and farm fields. Drought followed by heavy rains can also instigate sinkholes as heavy, water-logged earth presses down on limestone caves suddenly devoid of buoyant water. The two previous deaths attributed to sinkholes both involved professional well drillers whose activities cracked the top of limestone caverns, causing collapse.

“Humans can [destabilize karst landscapes] by drawing down water tables or irrigate too much, increasing the weight of the mass of materials that sits on top of the void,” says Jonathan Martin, a geologist at the University of Florida, in Gainesville. “Humans can modify the environment” enough to cause sinkholes.

It’s not yet clear what caused the Seffner sinkhole, however, but geologists say the area, which is part of the heavily populated I-4 corridor that crosses Florida’s midriff from Tampa to Daytona, is particularly prone to sinkhole collapses.

Sinkholes affect so many properties in Florida that the legislature in 2011 changed the law to make it harder to claim sinkhole damages.

“Over the years the [sinkhole] costs to insurance companies have been increasing at an extraordinary rate, because the legislature prevented companies from charging rates in line with the risk,” says Mr. Randazzo. “It finally reached the point where the insurance companies won the day and got the legislature to change the law, significantly weakening the sinkhole protections in the state of Florida.”


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For the War of 1812 battle, see Battle of the Sink Hole. For a hole in a sink, see Drain (plumbing). For a Sinkhole Server or Internet Sinkhole, see DNS_Sinkhole.

Bahmah Sinkhole in Oman

The Devil’s Hole sinkhole near Hawthorne, Florida, USA.

A sinkhole, also known as a sink, snake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline, or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the Earth’s surface caused by karst processes — for example, the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks[1] or suffosion processes[2] in sandstone. Sinkholes may vary in size from 1 to 600 metres (3.3 to 2,000 ft) both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms. Sinkholes may be formed gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide. The different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably.[3]


Formation mechanisms

Sinkholes near the Dead Sea, formed by dissolution of underground salt by incoming freshwater, as a result of a continuing sea level drop.

A special type of sinkhole, formed by rainwater leaking through the pavement and carrying soil into a ruptured sewer pipe.

Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may also form in high and dry places in a certain location.

The mechanisms of formation involve natural processes of erosion[4] or gradual removal of slightly soluble bedrock (such as limestone) by percolating water, the collapse of a cave roof, or a lowering of the water table. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion. Thus, for example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and then carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void.

Occasionally a sinkhole may exhibit a visible opening into a cave below. In the case of exceptionally large sinkholes, such as the Minyé sinkhole in Papua New Guinea or Cedar Sink at Mammoth Cave National Park in Kentucky, a stream or river may be visible across its bottom flowing from one side to the other.

Sinkholes are common where the rock below the land surface is limestone or other carbonate rock, salt beds, or rocks that can naturally be dissolved by circulating ground water. As the rock dissolves, spaces and caverns develop underground. These sinkholes can be dramatic, because the surface land usually stays intact until there is not enough support. Then, a sudden collapse of the land surface can occur.

Sinkholes also form from human activity, such as the rare but still occasional collapse of abandoned mines in places like Louisiana. More commonly, sinkholes occur in urban areas due to water main breaks or sewer collapses when old pipes give way. They can also occur from the overpumping and extraction of groundwater and subsurface fluids. They can also form when natural water-drainage patterns are changed and new water-diversion systems are developed. Some sinkholes form when the land surface is changed, such as when industrial and runoff-storage ponds are created; the substantial weight of the new material can trigger an underground collapse of supporting material, thus causing a sinkhole.


Sinkholes are frequently linked with karst landscapes. In such regions, there may be hundreds or even thousands of sinkholes in a small area so that the surface as seen from the air looks pock-marked, and there are no surface streams because all drainage occurs sub-surface. Examples of karst landscapes dotted with numerous enormous sinkholes are Khammouan Mountains (Laos) and Mamo Plateau (Papua New Guinea).[5] The largest known sinkholes formed in sandstone are Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel in Venezuela.[5]

The most impressive sinkholes form in thick layers of homogenous limestone. Their formation is facilitated by high groundwater flow, often caused by high rainfall; such rainfall causes formation of the giant sinkholes in Nakanaï Mountains, New Britain island in Papua New Guinea.[6] On the contact of limestone and insoluble rock below it, powerful underground rivers may form, creating large underground voids.

In such conditions the largest known sinkholes of the world have formed, like the 662-metre (2,172 ft) deep Xiaozhai tiankeng (Chongqing, China), giant sótanos in Querétaro and San Luis Potosí states in Mexico and others.[5][7][8]

Unusual processes have formed the enormous sinkholes of Sistema Zacatón in Tamaulipas (Mexico), where more than 20 sinkholes and other karst formations have been shaped by volcanically heated, acidic groundwater.[9][10] This has secured not only the formation of the deepest water-filled sinkhole in the world — Zacatón — but also unique processes of travertine sedimentation in upper parts of sinkholes, leading to sealing of these sinkholes with travertine lids.[10]

The state of Florida in the United States is known for having frequent sinkhole collapses, especially in the central part of the state. The Murge area in southern Italy also has numerous sinkholes. Sinkholes can be formed in retention ponds from large amounts of rain.[citation needed]

The Great Blue Hole near Ambergris Caye, Belize.

Sinkholes have been used for centuries as disposal sites for various forms of waste. A consequence of this is the pollution of groundwater resources, with serious health implications in such areas. The Maya civilization sometimes used sinkholes in the Yucatán Peninsula (known as cenotes) as places to deposit precious items and human sacrifices.[citation needed]

When sinkholes are very deep or connected to caves, they may offer challenges for experienced cavers or, when water-filled, divers. Some of the most spectacular are the Zacatón cenote in Mexico (the world’s deepest water-filled sinkhole), the Boesmansgat sinkhole in South Africa, Sarisariñama tepuy in Venezuela, and in the town of Mount Gambier, South Australia. Sinkholes that form in coral reefs and islands that collapse to enormous depths are known as blue holes, and often become popular diving spots.[citation needed]

Image of the entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida going into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater.

The overburden sediments that cover buried cavities in the aquifer systems are delicately balanced by groundwater fluid pressure. The water below ground is actually helping to keep the surface soil in place. Groundwater pumping for urban water supply and for irrigation can produce new sinkholes in sinkhole-prone areas. If pumping results in a lowering of groundwater levels, then underground structural failure, and thus sinkholes, can occur.[citation needed]

Local names of sinkholes

Large and visually unusual sinkholes have been well known to local people since ancient times. Nowadays sinkholes are grouped and named in site-specific or generic names. Some examples of such names are listed below.[11]

  • Cenotes – This refers to the characteristic water-filled sinkholes in the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and some other regions. Many cenotes have formed in limestone deposited in shallow seas created by the Chicxulub meteorite’s impact.
  • Tiankengs – These are extremely large sinkholes which are deeper and wider than 100 m, with mostly vertical walls, most often created by the collapse of underground caverns. This term is proposed by Chinese geologists as many of the largest sinkholes are located in China. The largest tiankeng is the 662 m deep Xiaozhai tiankeng, which is also the largest known sinkhole of the world.
  • Sótanos – This name is given to several giant pits in several states of Mexico. The best known is the 372 m deep Sótano de las Golondrinas – Cave of Swallows.
  • Blue holes – This name was initially given to the deep underwater sinkholes of the Bahamas but is often used for any deep water-filled pits formed in carbonate rocks. The name originates from the deep blue color of water in these sinkholes, which in turn is created by the high lucidity of water and the large depth of sinkholes – only the deep blue color of the visible spectrum can penetrate such depth and return back after reflection. The deepest known undersea sinkhole is Dean’s Blue Hole in the Bahamas.
  • Black holes – This term refers to a group of unique, round, water-filled pits in the Bahamas. These formations seem to be dissolved in carbonate mud from above, by the sea water. The dark color of the water is caused by a layer of phototropic microorganisms concentrated in dense, purple colored layer in 15 – 20 metres depth – this layer “swallows” the light. Metabolism in the layer of microorganisms causes heating of the water – the only known case in the natural world where microorganisms create significant thermal effects. Most impressive is the Black Hole of Andros.[12]
  • Tomo – This term is used in New Zealand karst country to describe pot holes.

Piping pseudokarst

What has been called a “sinkhole” by the popular press formed suddenly in Guatemala in May 2010. Torrential rains from Tropical Storm Agatha and a bad drainage system were blamed for creating the 2010 “sinkhole” that swallowed a three story building and a house.[13] This large vertical hole measured approximately 66 feet (20 m) wide and 100 feet (30 m) deep. A similar hole had formed nearby in February 2007.[14][15]

This large vertical hole, called a “sinkhole” in the popular press, is not a true sinkhole as it did not form via the dissolution of limestone, dolomite, marble, or any other carbonate rock.[16][17] Guatemala City is not underlain by any carbonate rock; instead, thick deposits of volcanic ash, unwelded ash flow tuffs, and other pyroclastic debris underlie all of Guatemala City. Thus, it is impossible for the dissolution of carbonate rock to have formed the large vertical holes that swallowed up parts of Guatemala City in 2007 and 2010.[16]

The large holes that swallowed up parts of Guatemala City in 2007 and 2010 are a spectacular example of “piping pseudokarst”, created by the collapse of large cavities that had developed in the weak, crumbly Quaternary volcanic deposits underlying the city. Although weak and crumbly, these volcanic deposits have enough cohesion to allow them to stand in vertical faces and develop large subterranean voids within them. A process called “soil piping” first created large underground voids as water from leaking water mains flowed through these volcanic deposits and washed fine volcanic materials out of them, then progressively eroded and removed coarser materials. Eventually, these underground voids became large enough that their roofs collapsed to create large holes.[16]

Notable sinkholes

Some of the largest and most impressive sinkholes in the world are:[5]

  • Xiaozhai tiankeng – Chongqing Municipality, China. Double nested sinkhole with vertical walls, 662 m deep.
  • Dashiwei tiankeng – Guangxi, China. 613 m deep, with vertical walls, bottom contains an isolated patch of forest with rare species.
  • Red Lake – Croatia. Approximately 530 m deep pit with nearly vertical walls, contains approximately 280 – 290 m deep lake.
  • Minyé sinkhole – East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. 510 m deep, with vertical walls, crossed by a powerful stream.
  • Sótano del Barro – Querétaro, Mexico. 410 m deep, with nearly vertical walls.
  • Cave of Swallows – San Luis Potosí, Mexico. 372 m deep, round sinkhole with overhanging walls.
  • Sima de las CotorrasChiapas, Mexico. 160 m across, 140 m deep, with thousands of green parakeets and ancient rock paintings.
  • Zacatón – Tamaulipas, Mexico. Deepest water-filled sinkhole in world, 339 m deep. Floating travertine islands.
  • Sima Humboldt – Venezuela. Largest sinkhole in sandstone, 314 m deep, with vertical walls. Unique, isolated forest on bottom.
  • Teiq sinkhole – Oman. One of the largest sinkholes in the world by volume – 90 million cubic metres. Several perennial wadis fall with spectacular waterfalls into this 250 m deep sinkhole.
  • Dean’s Blue Hole – Bahamas. Deepest known sinkhole under the sea, depth 203 m. Popular location for world championships of free diving.
  • Blue Hole – Dahab, Egypt. A round sinkhole or blue hole, 130 m deep. Includes an extraordinary archway leading out to the Red Sea at 60 m, renowned for freediving and scuba attempts, the latter often fatal. Also see Bell’s to Blue Hole drift dive.
  • Great Blue Hole – Belize. Spectacular, round sinkhole, 124 m deep. Unusual features are tilted stalactites in great depth, which mark the former orientation of limestone layers when this sinkhole was above sea level.
  • Kingsley Lake – Florida, USA. 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) in area, 90 ft (27 m) deep and almost perfectly round.
  • Gypsum Sinkhole – Utah, USA. Nearly 50 ft (15 m) in diameter and approximately 200 ft (61 m) deep[citation needed]
  • Harwood HoleAbel Tasman National Park, New Zealand, 183 m deep
  • Bahmah Sinkhole (Bimmah sinkhole) – Wadi Shab and Wadi Tiwi, Oman, approximately 30 m deep[18]
  • Boesmansgat – South African freshwater sinkhole, 280 m deep[citation needed]
  • Lake Kashiba – Zambia. About 3.5 hectares (8.6 acres) in area and about 100 metres (330 ft) deep

See also


  1. ^ Lard, L., Paull, C., & Hobson, B. (1995). “Genesis of a submarine sinkhole without subaerial exposure”. Geology 23 (10): 949–951. Bibcode 1995Geo….23..949L. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0949:GOASSW>2.3.CO;2.
  2. ^ “Caves and karst – dolines and sinkholes”. British Geological Survey.
  3. ^ Martin S. Kohl Subsidence and sinkholes in East Tennessee. A field guide to holes in the ground (2001). (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-04-24.
  4. ^ Friend, Sandra (2002). Sinkholes. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 11. ISBN 1-56164-258-4. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
  5. ^ a b c d “Largest and most impressive sinkholes of the world”. Wondermondo.
  6. ^ “Naré sinkhole”. Wondermondo.
  7. ^ “Tiankengs in the karst of China”.
  8. ^ “Sotano de las Guasguas”. Promo Tur un encuentro con Querétaro.
  9. ^ “Sistema Zacatón”. by Marcus Gary.
  10. ^ a b “Sistema Zacatón”. Wondermondo.
  11. ^ “Sinkholes”. Wondermondo.
  12. ^ “Black Hole of Andros”. Wondermondo.
  13. ^ Dan Fletcher, (June 1, 2010). “Massive Sinkhole Opens in Guatemala City”. Retrieved June 01 2010.
  14. ^ Que diablos provoco este escalofriante hoy?. (2010-06-02). Retrieved on 2011-04-24.
  15. ^ “Se abre hoyo de 100 metros en Guatemala”, Associated Press, February 23, 2007
  16. ^ a b c Waltham, T. (2008). “Sinkhole hazard case histories in karst terrains”. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 41 (3): 291–300. doi:10.1144/1470-9236/07-211.
  17. ^ Halliday, W. R., 2007, Pseudokarst in the 21st century. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies. vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 103–113.
  18. ^ “Bimmah sinkhole”. Wondermondo.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sinkholes
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Swallow-hole.

Blowout (well drilling)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed.[1]



Gushers were an icon of oil exploration during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During that era, the simple drilling techniques such as cable-tool drilling and the lack of blowout preventers meant that drillers could not control high-pressure reservoirs. When these high pressure zones were breached the hydrocarbon fluids would travel up the well at a high rate, forcing out the drill string and creating a gusher. A well which began as a gusher was said to have “blown in”: for instance, the Lakeview Gusher blew in in 1910. These uncapped wells could produce large amounts of oil, often shooting 200 feet (60 m) or higher into the air.[2] A blowout primarily composed of natural gas was known as a gas gusher.

Despite being symbols of new-found wealth, gushers were dangerous and wasteful. They killed workmen involved in drilling, destroyed equipment, and coated the landscape with thousands of barrels of oil; additionally, the explosive concussion released by the well when it pierces an oil/gas reservoir has been responsible for a number of oilmen losing their hearing entirely; standing too near to the drilling rig at the moment it drills into the oil reservoir is extremely hazardous. The impact on wildlife is very hard to quantify, but can only be estimated to be mild in the most optimistic models—realistically, the ecological impact is estimated by scientists across the ideological spectrum to be severe, profound, and lasting.[3]

To complicate matters further, the free flowing oil was—and is—in danger of igniting.[4] One dramatic account of a blowout and fire reads,

“With a roar like a hundred express trains racing across the countryside, the well blew out, spewing oil in all directions. The derrick simply evaporated. Casings wilted like lettuce out of water, as heavy machinery writhed and twisted into grotesque shapes in the blazing inferno.”[5]

The development of rotary drilling techniques where the density of the drilling fluid is sufficient to overcome the downhole pressure of a newly penetrated zone meant that gushers became avoidable. If however the fluid density was not adequate or fluids were lost to the formation, then there was still a significant risk of a well blowout.

Mahar Thambawa & Cula Thambawa

February 28, 2013

In the year 40 Budddhist Era (504 B.C.) the Queen Keinnayi Devi of the Tagaung King Thadoe Maha Raja gave birth to blind twin brothers. The Tagaung king ordered the queen to get rid of them. At 59 Budddhist Era (485 B.C.) when the princes were 19 years of age, the king came to know about the existence of the twins. He ordered the queen to kill them again. The queen dared not keep them any longer and had a strong raft built and had long lasting food stored on board and drifted the twin princes down the Ayeyarwaddy.

The brothers ate the food their queen mother sent along with them and went down river until they reached Sagaing when their raft got tangled with the hanging branch of the Sitt tree on the Ayeyarwaddy bank. The Sanda Mukhi orgress who lived there got on the raft and ate the food of the princes as they eat. Because the Sitt tree is overhanging, the place is called Sagaing.

The brothers noticed that their food packet was not enough although it had been adequate previously. They discussed about it and make sure of each other’s hands and caught the hand of the Sanda Mukhi ogress as she tried to eat from their meal packet the next time. The brothers drew their knives to kill her. As the ogress could not escape from their hands, she begged them not to kill her and told them that if they spare her, she would do what they wanted. The brothers asked her whether she could cure them of their blindness. The ogress informed the ogres with superpowers about her plight and they gave her eye drops as they could foresee what the princes would do for the Sasana.

In Yarzawingyi, it is said that the treatment of the blindness of the princes began at the place called SaKu and that they gained vision at the place called Ywa Linn. The place where the princes could see clearly and said that the sky is the lid and the earth is the floor is now called Moephone Myayhte.